More Than a Line: Sudan's North-South Border

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This report, prepared by Concordis Internationalunder commission from the United States Instituteof Peace, examines drivers of conflict in the North-South border areas of Sudan and current initiativesaimed at managing them. The contents derive fromdesk and field research undertaken in mid-2010.

Text of More Than a Line: Sudan's North-South Border

Concordis International Sudan Report

September 2010


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Contents04 05 08 Acknowledgements Glossary Executive Summary 1.1 General Findings 1.2 Thematic Findings 1.3 Conflict Prone Areas Introduction 1.1 General Findings 1.2 Thematic Findings 1.3 Conflict Prone Areas South Darfur-Western Bahr al Ghazal 1.1 Snapshot Summary 1.2 Conflict Drivers 1.2.1 Border demarcation 1.2.2 Militarisation 1.2.3 SPLA-Rezeigat Clashes 1.2.4 Other Armed Groups 1.2.5 Wider Regional Instability 1.2.6 Conflict Trends 1.3 Conflict Mitigation South Darfur-Northern Bahr al Ghazal 1.1 Snapshot Summary 1.2 Conflict Drivers 1.2.1 Contested Rights Along the Grazing Area 1.2.2 Transportation of Arms 1.2.3 Militarisation 1.2.4 Referendum/Demarcation 1.2.5 Post-election Fallout 1.3 Conflict Mitigation 1.3.1 Peace conferences 50 Abyei 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.3.6 1.4 67 Snapshot Summary Conflict Drivers National Political Context Border Demarcation and the Abyei Referendum Physical Demarcation Land Militarisation Additional Factors Conflict Management



Southern Kordofan/Unity 1.1 Snapshot Summary 1.2 Conflict Drivers 1.2.1 Transhumance 1.2.2 Political Marginalisation 1.2.3 Hardening Conflict Memory 1.2.4 Land/Oil and Demarcation 1.2.5 Community Land 1.2.6 Militarisation 1.2.7 Community Conflict Management 1.3 Conflict Trends and Mitigation Southern Kordofan 1.1 Snapshot Summary 1.2 Conflict Drivers 1.2.1 National Political Context 1.2.2 Land 1.2.3 Socio-economic Underdevelopment 1.2.4 Integration of Adminstration 1.2.5 Security Integration and Militarisation 1.3 Conflict Trends and Mitigation



Concordis International Sudan Report



Contents91 Upper Nile/White Nile/Sennar/Blue Nile 1.1 Snapshot Summary 1.2 Conflict Drivers 1.2.1 Land and Land Use 1.2.2 Border Disputes 1.2.3 Citizenship 1.2.4 Taxation 1.2.5 Oil 1.2.6 Militarisation 1.3 Conflict Trends and Mitigation 1.4 Intra-Upper Nile State Dynamics 1.4.1 Snapshot 1.4.2 Conflict Drivers Potential for Fragmantation Shilluk-Dinka Conflict 1.4.3 Conflict Mitigation

111 Blue Nile State 1.1 Snapshot Summary 1.2 Conflict Drivers 1.2.1 Land Use and Ownership 1.2.2 Militarisation 1.2.3 Roseires Dam 1.2.4 Popular Consultation 1.3 Conflict Trends and Mitigation

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AcknowledgementsThis report is the result of contributions by a team of Sudanese and international consultants and Concordis International staff, including Mohamed Ali, Benedetta de Alessi, John Fenning, Khalid Hassan, Jort Hemmer, Roger Middleton, Chris Milner, Martina Santschi, and Jolien Veldwijk. Countless individuals and organisations offered informational and logistical support to make the report possible. We thank all those who generously contributed their time, organisational support, and encouragement. The research team would like to thank specifically Peter Dixon and Richard King in the Concordis UK office and Lucian Harriman and all the Concordis staff in Sudan for their insights and logistical support. Our thanks also go to Andy Blum at USIP for his continual encouragement and Sharath Srinivasan and Jason Matus for providing valuable and insightful comments to drafts of this document. Thanks also go to the National Forum on Reconciliation and Peace-building for their partnership in organising a workshop in Khartoum, which we hope stimulated debate around key issues related to the borderlands at a critical time. Lastly, we thank all those involved in the CrossBorder Relations Project, a partnership between Concordis International and the Centre for Peace and Development Studies at the University of Juba. Workshops undertaken by the project in seven locations along the North-South border help inform this report. We thank all those who participated for sharing their perceptions and concerns with patience and goodwill.

Concordis International Sudan Report



GlossaryABC Abyei Boundary Commission Abdel Aziz El-Hilu Deputy Governor of South Kordofan and former SPLA fighters leading the Nuba after the death of Kuwa Abdel Bagi Ayii Akol Dinka militia leader formerly part of SSDF, now GoSS adviser for Border Conflict Resolution AEC Assessment and Evaluation Commission, the mixed sudanese and International body established by the CPA to monitor its implementation Ahmed Haroun Governor of South Kordofan. Wanted by the ICC for alleged war crimes in Darf Anyanya I and II Rebel movement formed during the First Civil War, and succeeded by Anyanya II in late seventies, absorbed by the SPLA during the Second Civil War Balanda Fertit tribe in Raja county Baqqara Arabic nomadic tribes (from the Arabic Baqar, means cow) Border Governors Forum The recently established Forum that engage the ten Border/ Tamajuz (intermingling) States for the development of the region Bul Nuer Nuer sub-clan in Western Upper Nile CPA Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in 2005 to end the Second Civil War between the Government of Sudan and the SPLM/A. CRMA UNDP Crisis and Recovery Mapping and Analysis CSSAC Community Security and Small Arms Control Bureau DDR Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Dinka Malual Dinka group in Northern Bahr al-Ghazal Dinka Panarou Dinka group in northern Unity State Dinka Ngok Dinka group in Abyei and central Upper Nile Fellata Nomadic group originally from West Africa, also known as the Fulani Fertit Pastoralist tribes in western Sudan. Name originally given to deride those of non-Fur origin. FFMAC Fiscal and Financial Monitoring and Allocation Commission, established by the CPA Peter Gadet Bul Nuer, he fought with the SPLA and later with Machar. He is now with SAF but many of his men are in the SPLA in Upper Nile Galwak Gai Former SPLA officer who leaded the post-election attacks to SPLA in Unity State GoNU Government of National Unity GoS Government of Sudan, up to the CPA GoSS Government of Southern Sudan Greater Bahr al-Ghazal Region encompassing Warrap, Western and Northern Bahr al-Ghazal Habbaniya Baggara tribe from Darfur and Southern Kordofan

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Heglig Main oil field in Sudan, was separated by the Abyei area by PCA ruling and is now contested between Southern Kordofan and Unity States JEM Justice and Equality Movement, a rebel movement in Darfur spilling into South Kordofan Jikany Nuer Nuer clan from Nasir in Western Upper Nile Joseph Kuwa Nuba freedom fighters who guided Nuba rebellion into the SPLM/A Juba Declaration Agreement signed in 2006 uniting the SSDF with the SPLA Karesh Fertit tribe in Raja county Gordon Kong Former SSDF Commander after the SPLA Nasir split, he is now allied to SAF Lam Akol Former high-ranking SPLA, architect of the Nasir split with Machar, he was Minister in the GoNU after the CPA. He is now leader of the SPLM-DC. Lou Nuer Nuer clan from Akobo, in Northern Jonglei Riek Machar Former senior military figure in the SPLA, he organised the Nasir split and signed the Khartoum peace Agreement with GoS. He is now vice president of GoSS and first Deputy Chairman ofthe SPLM Malik Agar Governor of Blue Nile and Deputy Chairman of the SPLM Melut Basin Upper Nile oilfields with main centres in Adar and Paloich

Misseriya Arab nomadic tribe who migrate from South Kordofan and Abyei into South Sudan Muglad Basin A principal oil-producing area in Sudan comprising of South Kordofan, Abyei and Unity States Nasir Declaration 1991 split from the SPLM/A by Lam Akol and Riek Machar, forming SPLM-Nasir (later SPLM-United) NRDF National Reconstruction and Development Fund established by the CPA for the northerner war affected areas Technical National Border Committee Committee set up by the CPA to identify and demarcate the boundaries between North and South NCP National Congress Party, the governing party of Sudan NIF National Islamic Front OAGs Other Armed Groups Pagan Amum Secretary General of the SPLM and GoSS Minister of Peace and CPA implementation Paulino Matiep Former head of SSDF who became deputy Commander in Chief of SPLA with the Juba Declaration PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration that decided on Abyei area boundaries on July 2009 PDF Popular Defence Force, tribal militias supported by SAF in western Sudan and the transitional areas

Concordis International Sudan Report



RCPM Southern Kordofan Reconciliation and Peace Coexistence Mechanism Rizeigat Nomadic group in Darfur who migrate into greater Bahr al-Ghazal region SAF Sudanese Armed Forces Salva Kiir President of Southern Sudan and first Vice President of Sudan SALW Small Arms and Light Weapons Sedentary Farmers Small scale subsistence farmers South Sudan Referendum Taskforce Chaired by GoSS VP Riek Machar was set up to management the Referendum and postReferendum arrangements SPC Sudan Peace Commission SPLM/A Southern Peoples Liberation Movement/Army SPLM-DC SPLM for Democratic Change, created by Lam Akol in 2009 SPLM/A-United Movement formed at the Nasir Declaration SSDF South Sudan Democratic Forces, a coalition of SAFaligned militias led by Paulino Matiep, originated from the Nasir split SSIM/A South Sudan Independence Movement/Army of Machar after the split from Akol in 1994

SSRC South Sudan Referendum Commission Gabriel Tanginya SAF-aligned militia leader in the Civil War whose forces were integrated into SAF at the CPA The Three Areas Blue Nile, Abyei and Southern Kordofan UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNMIS United Nations Mission In Sudan, set up in March 2005 to support the CPA

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Executive summary

Executive summaryThis report, prepared by Concordis Internat


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