Monkey see monkey do!.  Observational learning occurs when someone uses observation of another person's actions and their consequences to guide their

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Monkey see monkey do! Slide 2 Observational learning occurs when someone uses observation of another person's actions and their consequences to guide their future actions Because the person being observed is referred to as a model, observational learning is often called modelling (or social learning). This is not to say that every time we watch someone do something we learn how to do it some people are perceived as more significant or important than others and thus their behaviour is more likely to be imitated. Slide 3 Observational learning is a more active process than either classical or operant conditioning It is not entirely different from conditioning. It can be a lot more efficient than trial and error learning or waiting until reinforcement or punishment is given. Slide 4 E.g. Language phrases/sayings we tend to pick up specific phrases from people we admire or respect. awesome, sick, cool have their own unique, non-literal meanings to subcultures of adolescents over the years. Status and image of movie stars, cartoon characters (e.g. Homer/Bart) provide the motivation for adolescent to observe and retain the behaviour to reproduce it when the opportunity arises. Slide 5 Sometimes, the model is not as important in motivating the learner and the motivation simply arises from a need to know. e.g. Watching someone burn a DVD and then doing it yourself will provide its own reinforcement of satisfaction and added convenience. Slide 6 Normal Operant Conditioning the learner is directly reinforced or punished Vicarious reinforcement viewing a model being reinforced can strengthen behaviour in an observer Vicarious punishment viewing a model being punished can weaken a behaviour in an observer Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Will children model violent behaviour? Does TV violence effect children? Does it matter who they observe? Are boys more violent than girls? Slide 10 All experiments involved children witnessing adult models be in the room with a bobo doll Some models were aggressive some calm and some ignored the doll altogether Children were then given the opportunity to play in a room with the doll Aggressive acts by the child towards the doll were recorded Slide 11 3 conditions Experimental Aggressive model in room with child Non aggressive model in room with child Control No model in room Slide 12 Aggressive model condition - sub groups 6 boys with male model 6 boys with female model 6 girls with male model Non aggressive model condition sub groups 6 boys with male model 6 boys with female model 6 girls with male model Control condition 24 children each with no model in the room Slide 13 Children who saw aggressive model performed more aggressive acts Boys were more aggressive over all Boys imitated aggression more from male models Girls imitated physical aggression more from male models rather than female Girls imitated verbal aggression from female models rather than male Children already had sex role expectation about male and female aggression thats not the way for a lady to behave, that man is a strong fighter. These expectations influenced how much they imitated male Vs female aggression. Behaviour learned through observation may not be demonstrated unless opportunity presented Slide 14 4 conditions Experimental Live Human aggressive model Human aggressive models on film Aggressive cartoon character Control No model shown Slide 15 Exposure to aggressive models increases the probability that children will behave aggressively This is true both for real life models and film- portrayed models Sex differences were again found Slide 16 4 conditions Experimental Aggressive model Rewarded with praise and a food treat Aggressive model Punished with verbal telling off and a spanking Control Non aggressive model Received no consequence No model shown Slide 17 Model reinforced More copied aggressive behaviour No significant difference between other conditions Boys were more aggressive than boys generally Children in experimental conditions were later asked which of the two models they would like to be The models success in gaining reward was a key factor in choosing who they wanted to be like Slide 18 Slide 19 According to Bandura, four elements account for observational learning and are essential for it to occur. ATTENTION RETENTION REPRODUCTION MOTIVATION-REINFORCEMENT Slide 20 The learner plays an active role in the learning process. They must: Pay attention in order to observe the modeled behaviour Attention may be influenced by numerous factors e.g. observers perceptual capabilities observers motivation and interest level situation in which the behaviour is observed the kinds of distracters present models characteristics (such as attractiveness) Slide 21 Attention is influenced by factors such as: Perceived importance of the behaviour (e.g. Keyboarding skills to obtain a job) Distinctiveness of the behaviour (e.g. Uniqueness, different, unusual) Behaviours effect on us (e.g. Satisfaction, convenience, security) Slide 22 Bandura (1977) considered we are more likely to imitate models with the following characteristics: +ve perception of model (liked, high status) Perceived similar traits between model and observer (age, sex) Model is familiar to observer and is known through previous observation Models behaviour is visible and stands out clearly against other competing models Model demonstrates behaviour that observer perceives they are able to imitate Slide 23 Generally, the greater similarity between model and learner, the more attractive or successful the model, the more likely we are to follow their example. (e.g. Use of celebrities in advertising) Slide 24 Mentally retain what has been observed Responses learned by modeling are often not needed until some time after they have been acquired Therefore, memory plays an active role in observational learning. The more meaningful we can make the mental representation, the more accurately we are able to replicate the behaviour when necessary. Slide 25 Linking a visual image with a verbal description of the models actions is an effective strategy to assist the memory processes. Slide 26 Be capable of Reproducing the behaviour We must have the ability to put into practice what was observed. Our ability to reproduce the modelled response may be restricted by physical ' limitations Paraplegics cannot learn to walk by observing others Slide 27 We must also have the potential to be competent enough to develop the necessary skills to imitate the behaviour. e.g. Imitating a professional footballers kicking style may be reproduced but not with the same level of skill due to the footballers attributes that cannot be learned such as reflexes, agility, balance and pose,superior motor co-ordination. Slide 28 Be motivated or have some reinforcement available to perform the behaviour Unless the behavioural response provides a reward for you or is useful, it is unlikely that you will want to learn it. Bandura identified additional types of reinforcement that influence motivation in addition to the standard types described by Skinner. Slide 29 1. External Reinforcement comparable to learning by consequences. When offered money or praise as a reinforcer then motivation will be influenced in a positive way. 2. Vicarious Reinforcement Observing the modelled behaviour being reinforced for other people. Young child observing older sibling who works hard at school rewarded with getting into tertiary course of their choice may model the same studious behaviour after vicariously experiencing the reinforcement. Slide 30 3. Self-reinforcement when we are reinforced by meeting certain standards of performance we set for ourselves. +ve sense of pride and achievement at getting good VCE results that you believe you are capable of achieving. -ve avoiding a bored future in a mindless job may act as a self-reinforcement for achieving academic success. Slide 31 Behaviour acquired by observational learning may need to be maintained by operant conditioning principles of reinforcement. Slide 32 Slide 33 The Ah Ha! Experience Insight learning is a type of learning involving a period of mental manipulation of information associated with a problem, prior to the realisation of a solution to the problem. (Finally see the solution to a problem after mental manipulation) The learning is said to have occurred when the relationships relevant to the solution are grasped. Learning appears to occur in a flash Slide 34 The solution is usually performed without error Initial studies on insight learning conducted by German psychologist, Wolfgang Kohler. Kohler used chimpanzees in his experiments on learning and problem-solving as they were available where he was working at the University of Berlins primate colony in the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa. Slide 35 Kohler (1925) believed that learning, especially in primates and people, involved cognitive processes and not just stimulus- response relationships. Kohlers experiments presented several problems to chimpanzees, each with different solutions. Slide 36 THE STICK PROBLEM Food placed out of reach outside cage of chimp Two sticks within reach on floor of cage (hollow bamboo rods) Each too short to reach banana or other fruit Placed together to form a double stick long enough the sticks can be used to get the food Slide 37 First tried to reach between cage bars in futile attempt to get banana Flew into temper tantrum Calmed down, tried other solutions including each stick independently and one of the boxes. 1 hour later Sultan squatted indifferently on the box as if he had given up Plays carelessly with sticks and while doing this holds one rod in either hand so they lie in a straight line and pushes thinner one a little way into opening of thicker one Jumps up, runs towards bars and