BaCuLit: Basic Curriculum for Teachers In-Service Training in Content Area Literacy in Secondary Schools ISIT :Implementation Strategies for Innovations in Teachers' Professional DevelopmentProf. Dr. Christine Garbe (University of Cologne)
Module 1 Block 112The BaCuLit Consortium
Team: 27 persons from 10 universities and in-service teacher training institutions from 7 European countries Consulting: 2 American experts in content area literacy Project coordination: Prof. Dr. Christine Garbe (Cologne), Dr. Karl Holle (Lueneburg)Module 1 Block 1Principles of BaCuLit Lesson PlanningModule 1 Input 3
Module 1 Block 13Why Reading Matters in all Content AreasWhat happens when we read? Self-experience: Comprehending a short narrative textThe PISA definition of reading literacyOne example: How reading matters in solving mathematical tasksAssignment for a Collaborative Task4Module 1 Block 1We will start this trainer input with a short reflection about the self-experience you just completed. Then we will move on to the PISA definition and theoretical structure of reading literacy and apply this knowledge to ONE example of the content areas: How reading matters in solving mathematical tasks. You will learn something from a Hungarian study about the different levels of reading requirements in mathematical tasks, where students struggle. In the final assignment of this unit you will be asked to apply this knowledge to your own students and share your thoughts and findings with your colleagues on ITS-Learning.
4Self-experience: Comprehending a short narrative text
Read the following lines. After each line take a break and write down what is coming to your mind.
5He plunked down 18.00 at the window.She tried to give him 9.00 , So when they got inside, but he refused to take it.she bought him a large bag of popcorn.
PARTICIPANT ACTIVITYModule 1 Block 1In this experience you were asked to write down your ideas about the plot of this story after each line. Perhaps you became aware that you as a reader were constantly constructing meaning in finding a suitable context and revising meaning, if the subsequent information did not fit to the schema built up so far. In this example, after reading the first two lines, many readers have a precise idea about the situation where the actions are performed: May be in a store, in a football stadium, a concert hall etc. Comparable precise ideas they have about the two persons: A client gives money to a cashier, and she gives him the change.But when they go on reading line 3 (but he refused to take it), most readers come into conflict with their developed scenarios. So, new questions arise: Why does he refuse to take the change? And who are the persons involved? When the readers go on reading lines 4 and 5 they realize that not two but three persons must be involved, and they change their ideas about the situation. As popcorn in our socio-cultural context is closely linked to visiting a cinema, many readers will guess that the situation is the following: The man wants to invite his female companion to cinema; so he refuses when she wants to give the money for one ticket to him. So far, 3 persons are involved: two clients and one cashier (at the cinema). Then the couple enters the cinema and approaches the bar / the desk where popcorn is being sold. This could be the scenario, but as this text contains many gaps (blank spaces) we cannot absolutely be sure that our concretization is correct. Nevertheless, this experience makes us aware that we are always constructing meaning when reading. We need not only vocabulary knowledge but also background knowledge in this case about cultural habits (eating popcorn while regarding a film in a cinema) and gender roles: e.g. he wants to be a gentleman, she wants to be an emancipated woman, etc.5What is Reading?ConclusionIn former times people considered reading to be an act of taking some content out of the text: transferring the content from one container (the text) to another one (the readers brain). This is the so called container model of reading.Today we know due to research in reader-response theory, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology and brain research: Reading is an active (re-)construction of meaning. If we want to understand a word, a sentence, a text we always need to link our background knowledge (about language, the world, action schemata etc.) to the written words in the text. Reading is thus an interactive process between the text and the reader.6Module 1 Block 1From this little experiment we can come to conclusions about the nature of reading: (here you can simply read alout the content of the slide)The conclusion of the self-experience leads directly to the PISA definition of reading literacy on the next slide.
6The PISA definition of reading literacy"Reading literacy is understanding, using, and reflecting on written texts, in order to achieve ones goals, to develop ones knowledge and potential, and to participate in society. (OECD 2002: 25)
PISA defines reading literacy as active engagement with written texts. [...] In the psychological literature about text comprehension, there is a general consensus that the reader has to construct meaning in written texts. Reading is not a passive reception of what is in the text, but it is an active (re-)construction of text meaning. The written information are connected to the knowledge of the reader. Thus, dealing with written texts can be seen as an act of generating meaning by which the previous knowledge of the reader and the text itself interact. (Artelt/ Stanat/ Schneider/ Schiefele 2001: 70f.)
7Module 1 Block 1You might first read alout the two definitions given on the slide and then give some of the background information below (according to the general information level about PISA in your country).
Background-information on PISA PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) is an international comparative study of the OECD conducted in triennial cycles (2000 2003 2006 2009 etc.) The OECD is the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development PISA measures and compares the effectiveness of the national educational systems.
PISA assesses:a) the performance of 15-year-old students in basic competences/subject domains: reading literacy, mathematical literacy and science literacy (narrow focus) and b) further skills such as learning attitude, self-concept and learning-strategies (large focus).PISA focuses on how students apply knowledge in new situations (no curriculum validity!).PISA conducts tests on the basic skills and collects context data (school, parents and students).PISA assesses and queries representative samples in all participating countries (4.500 - 10.000 students per country). In 2009 nearly 90 % of the world economy were covered by the PISA study (65 countries and regions took part).
See also Conceptual Foundations p. 2.
7Theoretical structure of reading literacy according to PISA8Reading literacyUse information primarilyfrom within the textDraw uponoutside knowledgeReflect onand evaluateform oftextReflect on and evaluatecontent oftextDevelop aninterpretationForm a broadunderstandingRetrieveinformationUnder-standing ofrelationshipsIndependentpieces of informationFocus onstructureFocus oncontentFocus on specific partswithin the textFocus onindependentparts of the text(Source: OECD 2006: 50)Module 1 Block 1What you need to understand about this slide is the fact that the PISA-model of reading is composed out of two components.using information from within the textdrawing upon outside (external) knowledge. This outside knowledge (or background knowledge) is what readers need to bring into the reading process in order to make it successful. In the PISA-model of reading these two basic components of reading literacy have been differentiated into several categories, for example to focus on independent parts of the text or on relationships within the text, to focus on the content or the structure of the text and relate it to ones own background knowledge, etc. Finally, this model comes to five components of reading literacy which you see in the baseline: retrieve information, form a broad understanding, develop an interpretation as sub-categories to Use information primarily from within the text and Reflect and evaluate content of text and reflect and evaluate form of text as components related to drawing upon outside knowledge. When those five components were tested it turned out that they were not distinctive enough, thus the PISA experts reduced them to three final subscales of reading competence: Retrieving information, Interpreting texts and reflection and evaluation which together form the overall scale of reading literacy.
Important for us to understand is that reading is at every stage an interactional process. And therefore when students struggle with reading assignments this can have different causes: Either they are not familiar with how to retrieve information from a text (i.e. with decoding or applying reading strategies) or they lack the necessary background knowledge which is requested for understanding the concepts and vocabulary of content area texts. In the next slide we will apply this general insight to one content area: the math lessons, where reading competences matter more than we assumed during a long period.
8One example: How reading matters in solving mathematical tasks9WORD READINGTEXT COMPREHENSIONPROBLEM REPRESENTATIONCOUNTINGA B C D E F G H I J K LStudents who solved the task correctlyStudents who started to solve the taskModule 1 Block 1This example demonstrates the importance of teaching reading in all content areas. It shows how many students of mathematics struggle to understand the reading and comprehension tasks before they can even begin to try to solve mathematical tasks. We can demonstrate this using the Criterion system model, which was developed in a recent dissertational study from Hungary. The author, Rita Kelemen (2010), conducted a large-scale study, which covered a cohort of 1.670 students from grades 3, 5 and 7 (9 to 13 years old). 730 of these students had learning difficulties; 940 were so-called majority students. For some analyses only the sample of majority students was used, which was also representative for Hungary. Also, smaller samples were used for three supplementary studies, the subjects of which were: realistic mathematics, thinking strategies and student beliefs about mathematics. In our presentation we focus on a small part of this study and on only a selection of its results. The outcome of all analyses of the data was processed into one model, the so-called Criterion system model, which indicates that the essential knowledge elements of solving mathematics word problems can be represented as criteria which might be described as a system. The Criterion system model was tested and justified empirically. (Kelemen 2010, 8) The author describes her approach as follows: () the Criterion system model () models the functioning of the essential cognitive prerequisites of mathematics word problem-solving ability. In the model, the skills and abilities that are needed for word problem-solving ability are called filters. Four filters were identified altogether: word reading, text comprehension, problem representation and counting skill. The characteristics of the model were justified by the empirical investigation of three of the four filters, word reading, text comprehension and counting skill. (Kelemen 2010, 10) The four ellipses of the model represent these filters. This model shows how many students get lost on their way towards understanding the mathematical task and processing it. When 12 students start to solve the task, one gets lost in word reading, three get lost in text comprehension, four get lost in problem representation, one gets lost in counting and only three arrive at the goal of solving the task correctly. The first three filters all concern reading tasks: to understand the vocabulary, to develop an understanding of the text and to transform it into a cognitive model (a problem representation), which is the basis for the concrete mathematical task. From this example we can conclude that working on reading and comprehension tasks is crucial for teachers in all subject areas (even in maths where for a long time we did expect this high impact of reading the least).
9PARTICIPANT ACTIVITY10Do you have similar experiences about the reading problems of your students in your content area (or of the participants in your teacher-training courses) as you have learned from the Hungarian study just presented?Assignment: How do the reading and comprehension problems of your students from the first encounter with the text until the successful completion of tasks become manifest in your daily classroom practice? Please describe your observations in refering to the four levels of the Hungarian study / the model shown on slide No 7.Please write down your observations and reflections on 1 2 pages and post them in the forum, which will be initiated for this assignment by your trainers. Please read the postings of your colleagues and comment on at least two of them.Module 1 Block 1In case your course participants do not have students as they no longer teach at school, they can choose among two possibilities: either they connect with one teacher at a school who is willing to cooperate with them: In this case the trainer can conduct a short interview with the teacher about those four questions; or the trainer thinks of the participants of his courses (i.e. teachers) and tries to identifiy with which reading comprehension requirements (using those four levels) they might struggle when being given complex content-specific texts. Or the trainer might even conduct a short experiment in giving teachers a highly demanding text from a discipline they are not familiar with and work with the participants about this question. 10
6. Outcomes: The BaCuLit Curriculum(6 Modules )11(1) BaCuLit Principles of Lesson Planning (2) Text Structure & Text Diversity(6) BaCuLit Practice of Lesson Planning(5) FormativeAssessment(4) ReadingStrategies(3) Vocabulary InstructionSupporting teachers selfconcept as teachers for content area literacyModule 1 Block 1This slide shows the structure of the BaCuLit curriculum in form of a cycle.
Note: You may only show this slide shortly here at the beginning of the course for a general orientation. Inform the participants that later (slide 15 ff.) you will give more detailed information on the curriculum.
(see also Conceptual Foundations, p. 4)
11126. Outcomes: The BaCuLitLesson Planning FrameworkInteractionAssessmentTextsVocabularyReading StrategiesEngagementMetacognitionSupporting students content area learning by improving their literacy skillsModule 1 Block 1Hinweis: neue Grafik einfgen12139. Contact and Fur...