Modern Physics Synch Rot Ron

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PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

SYNCHROTRON

Jackquero V. Datinguinoo BS Biology 4101 Modern Physics Free Powerpoint Templates Batangas State University

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What is Synchrotron? a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator in which the magnetic field (to turn the particles so they circulate) and the electric field (to accelerate the particles) are carefully synchronized with the travelling particle beam. originally conceived by Sir Marcus Oliphant. the honor of being the first to publish the idea went to Vladimir Veksler and the first electron synchrotron was constructed by Edwin McMillan. Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 2

What is Synchrotron? a synchrotron is an accelerator of electrons. the electrons are maintained in a circular ring by magnetic field and produce X-Rays tangentially to their trajectory. these X-Rays are used by several beamlines located around the storage ring to analyse samples for many domains of interest: (see slide 4 )Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3

See Slide 17 18, 19 and 20 for explanation

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How does it work ? electrons emitted by an electron gun are first accelerated in a linear accelerator (linac) and then transmitted to a circular accelerator (booster synchrotron) where they are accelerated to reach a high energy level.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5

How does it work ? these high-energy electrons are then injected into a circular storage ring where they circulate in a vacuum environment, at a constant energy, electrons are accelerated and deviated in the storage ring by different magnetic components:Free Powerpoint Templates

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bending magnets: they allow to deviate the electrons by several degrees. This deviation results in an tangential emission of X-Rays by the electrons. undulators: they force the electrons to follow an undulating trajectory. The X-Rays emitted by this undulation will contribute to generate a much more intense beam of light than that generated by the bending magnets.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7

focusing magnets: they allow to keep the electron beam small and well-defined. More small and well-defined the electron beam will be, more bright the X-Rays. These magnets are placed in the straight sections of the storage ring. The X-Rays emitted by the electrons are directed towards the beamlines situated tangentially to the storage ring in the experimental hall. Each beamline is designed for use with a specific technique or for a specific type of Free research. Powerpoint Templates Page 8

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STEPS Electron production electrons are generated in the same way as television tube. Subsequently they are preaccelerated by electric fields in a Linear Accelerator. Acceleration in a Booster Ring the electrons are further accelerated with the aid of powerful magnetic and electric fields ( 20, 000x > MF of the earth) until they reach velocities greater thanFree Powerpoint Templates 99.999% of the speed of light.

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Magnets in storage ring Bending magnets essentially dipoles that bend electron trajectory. Quadrupoles focus the electron beam onto a nominal orbit. Sextupoles reduce the energy dispersion (chromaticity) of the electrons of the ring. Correctors small dipoles that correct the electron trajectory in real time.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11

Magnets in storage ring Pulse magnets (Septums, Kickers and Bumpers) are used to transfer electrons between accelerators. They produce strong MF in a short period of time. They are built from highly specialized materials.

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STEPS Storage - the electrons are then injected into a Storage Ring where they are maintained in a circular orbit by a strong MF. Velocity is kept is constant by compensating for the energy lost as light emission by EF from a radio-frequency source. Beam-lines Synchrotron Light is propagated through a beam-line placed tangentially to the ring.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13

Two types of beam-lines for light production Insertion Devices synchrotron light is generated when the electrons are accelerated into a sinusoidal trajectory by a periodic magnetic structure. The light thus obtained is very intense and collimated. Bending magnets accelerate electrons centripetally. The light generated is white (polychromatic), albeit less collimated and intense than that from Insertion Free Powerpoint Templates Page 14 Devices.

STEPS Light Condition in an optical hutch one selects certain wavelengths. These photons are transported and focused into the sample (i.e bent X-ray mirrors). Detection - in an experimental hutch the sample is positioned and a detector system collects the experimental data. Data Reduction and Analysis in the control hutch the experimental set-up and data collection is under computer control. Data are extracted , reduced , processed and Free Powerpoint Templates prepared for analysis and/or storage. Page 15

The interior of the Australian Synchrotron facility. Dominating the image is the storage ring, showing the optical diagnostic beamline at front right. In the middle of the storage ring is the booster synchrotron and linac.

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Large

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Modern industrial-scale synchrotrons can be very large (here, Soleil near Free Powerpoint Templates Paris)

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ENDThank You!!References: http://www.cells.es/AboutUs/WhatIs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SynchrotronFree Powerpoint Templates Page 18

Domains of interest In Chemistry X-ray analysis of chemical elements allows divesification of methods and improvement of production processes for adhesive and lubricants, anticorrosion coatings, surface electrochemical preparations, hydropobic coatings and many others.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19

Domains of interest In Material Science by means of non-destructive image formation one can establish the three dimensional structure of non-crystalline materials, where their behaviour depends on the presence nano-crystalline phases or chemical impurities (doping) that can not be studied by traditional means, and which are nevertheless extremely important in the materials performance. Templates Free Powerpoint

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Domains of interest In Life Science used to study the structural and functional changes undergone by for example DNA, proteins and macromolecules in solution as well as structural and functional studies of hormones, enzymes and viruses. In muscle contraction wherein muscle molecule undergo subtle and rapid conformational changes that only Synchrotron Light is capable of Free Powerpoint Templates detecting. Page 21

Domains of interest In Macromolecular Crystallography as a result of the completion of human genome project it is now possible to crystallize many biological macromolecules intimately involved in a given biological target. Synchrotron Light has solved the atomic structure of many biological macromolecules and will continue to do so until all the protein structure have been identified (i.e ribosome).Free Powerpoint synchrotron How does Templates

work?

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