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Biodiesel 101 and Biodiesel 101 and Troubleshooting Filter Troubleshooting Filter Plugging Issues Plugging Issues Presented by Hoon Ge Presented by Hoon Ge Sponsored by the Minnesota Soybean Growers Association

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  • Biodiesel 101 andTroubleshooting Filter Plugging Issues

    Presented by Hoon GeSponsored by the Minnesota Soybean Growers Association

  • TopicsHistory of DieselBiodiesel 101Biodiesel StandardsMaterials CompatibilityEmissionsOEMSupply and DemandBiodiesel Market Outlook

    ULSD & BiodieselBQ-9000Cold Flow Properties2007/2010 EnginesFilter Plugging IssuesBiodiesel HandlingUseful Resources

  • History of DieselVegetable Oil for FuelHigh Sulfur DieselLow Sulfur DieselBiodieselULSD1900s1920199319982006

  • Machinery Exhibit 1900 Worlds FairRudolph Diesel demonstrated his compression ignition engine, which at the request of the French Government, ran on peanut oil. www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/1900fair.html - Jeffrey Howe

  • History of Diesel Diesel Engines ran on Vegetable oils until the 1920's

    1920s petroleum diesel fuel became easier to produce due to advances in the distillation process, and became the main fuel for diesel engines

  • Diesel From Crude

  • Crude Oil - PetroleumA complex assortment of materials consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbons and other compounds containing variable amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and organometallics and whose physical properties may vary widely in volatility, specific gravity, and viscosity.

  • Demand For Crude1 barrel (bbl) = 42 gallons (U.S.) Globally about 85,000,000 bbl/dayOver 17,000,000 bbl of crude oil processed every day in the US (714,000,000 gal/day)800,000,000 gal/day total product demand360,000,000 gal/day gasoline140,000,000 gal/day distillate68,000,000 gal/day jet fuel150 U.S. refineries with capacities ranging from 15 mbbl/day (600,000 gallons/day) to over 500 mbbl/day (21,000,000 gallons/day and operate at 90+% capacity

  • Five Basic Refinery ProcessesSeparationAtmospheric and vacuum distillationExtractions (Solvent dewaxing) ConversionCatalytic, thermal and hydrocrackingCoking UpgradingReforming, alkylation, isomerization Finishing or treatingHydrotreating and desulfurizationBlending

  • Diesel HDS UnitThe HDS Unit uses catalysts to remove substances like sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics. When diesel comes out of the HSD unit, it is finished diesel fuel/heating oil. http://oilandgas.veoliawater.com/en/expertise/our_understanding/your_business/process_schematic/refinery_process_diagram/

  • High Sulfur Dieselpre-1993

  • High Sulfur DieselBefore 1993 sulfur content of diesel was unregulated

    Sulfur in diesel fuel could be as high as 5000ppm

  • The Good:Sulfur is a natural lubricant and Anti-Microbial

  • The Bad:High sulfur fuel = High sulfur emission = ACID RAIN

  • Low Sulfur DieselPost-1993

  • Low Sulfur Diesel1993 when the EPA mandated the lowering of sulfur in diesel fuels to a 500ppm

    This was done to reduce these harmful emissions

    When sulfur was reduced the fuel lost:Lubricity Microbial protection

  • Biodiesel 101

  • History Of BiodieselEnergy crunch of the 1970s stimulated biofuels research but federal research money disappeared in the 1980s.

    First literature use of the term biodiesel is found in a Chinese paper published in 1988. The next paper using that term appeared in 1991.

  • Biodiesel DefinedBiodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751.

    Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.

  • Making BiodieselTransesterification (Catalyst)100 pounds + 10 pounds = 10 pounds + 100 poundsTriglyceride Alcohol Glycerin Mono-Alkyl Esters

    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________Soy oil Methanol Biodiesel

    - Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel! - Other biomass products arent Biodiesel - Must meet ASTM D 6751

  • Biodiesel Raw MaterialsOil or FatAlcoholSoybeanMethanol (common)CornEthanolCanolaCottonseedCatalystSunflowerSodium hydroxideBeef tallowPotassium hydroxidePork lardUsed cooking oils

  • The Biodiesel ReactionVegetable OilorAnimal Fat (100 lbs.)+Methanol orEthanol(10 lbs.) Biodiesel(100 lbs.)+Glycerin(10 lbs.)In the presence of a catalystCombiningYields

  • Biodiesel AttributesHigh Cetane (avg. over 50)Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm)High Lubricity, even in blends as low at 1-2%High Energy Balance (3.5 to 1)Low Agriculture Inputs: Soybeans78% Life Cycle CO2 ReductionRenewable, SustainableDomestically Produced Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines

  • Biodiesel ASTM D6751Property ASTM Method Limits Units

    Calcium & Magnesium, combined EN 14538 5 maximumppm (ug/g)Flash Point (closed cup) D 93 93 minimum Degrees CAlcohol Control (One of the following must be met)Methanol Content EN14110 0.2 maximum % volumeFlash Point D93 130 minimum Degrees CWater & SedimentD 2709 0.05 maximum % vol.Kinematic Viscosity, 40 CD 445 1.9 - 6.0 mm2/sec.Sulfated Ash D 874 0.02 maximum% massSulfurS 15 Grade D 54530.0015 max. (15) % mass (ppm)S 500 Grade D 54530.05 max. (500) % mass (ppm)Copper Strip CorrosionD 130 No. 3 maximumCetane D 613 47 minimumCloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees CCarbon Residue 100% sample D 4530* 0.05 maximum% massAcid Number D 664 0.50 maximummg KOH/gFree Glycerin D 6584 0.020 maximum% massTotal Glycerin D 6584 0.240 maximum% massPhosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum% massDistillation, T90 AETD 1160 360 maximumDegrees CSodium/Potassium, combined EN 145385 maximum ppmOxidation Stability EN 14112 3 minimum hoursCold Soak FiltrationAnnex to 6751360 maximumsecondsFor use in temps below -12CAnnex to 6751200 maximumseconds

  • New ASTM Standards passed June 19, 2008Inclusion of B5 into the D975 specification for #2 diesel fuel Inclusion of B5 into the D396 specification for heating oilPassage of a blended fuel spec for B6 to B20Addition to D6751 of a cold soak filtration test to eliminate cold filter plugging potential

    Just published October 2008

  • B6-B20 ASTM D7467 SpecificationProperty ASTM Method Limits Units

    Acid Number D 664 0.30 maximummg KOH/gViscosity, 104FD 445 1.9 - 4.1 mm2/sec.Flash Point D 93 125 minimum Degrees FCloud Point D 2500 Report Degrees F

    Sulfur S 15 Grade D 54530.0015 maximum (15) % mass (ppm) S 500 Grade D 54530.05 maximum (500) % mass (ppm)Physical Distillation, T90D 86650 maximumDegrees FRamsbottom Carbon ResidueD 524 0.35 maximum% mass10% residueCetane NumberD 613 40 minimum

    One of the following must be metCetane IndexD 976-8040 minimumAromacityD 1319-0335 maximum% volumeAshD 4820.01 maximum% massWater & SedimentD 27090.05 maximum % vol.Copper Strip CorrosionD 130 No. 3 maximumPhosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum% massOxidation Stability EN 14112 6 minimum hoursBiodiesel ContentD 73716-20%% volumeLubricity, HFRR @ 60C D 6079520 maximummicron

  • Materials CompatibilityB100 may adversely affect some elastomers such as natural or nitrile rubbers over time.Most elastomers used after 1993 are compatible with B100 (Viton/Teflon).Blends (B20) effect is less, or non-existent.Normal monitoring of hoses and gaskets for leaks is sufficient with B20.Consult with your parts supplier or mechanical engineering partners.

  • Materials CompatibilityBiodiesel and biodiesel blends will form high sediment levels when in contact with the following metals:-Brass, Bronze, Copper, Lead, Tin and Zinc

    Biodiesel is compatible with:-Stainless Steel, Aluminum

  • Emissions

  • Biodiesel CO2 Cycle

  • Reduction in Emissions

  • Supply and Demand

  • Biodiesel Demand700 million450 million250 million75 million25 million20 million15 million5 million2 million500,000Biodiesel Tax IncentiveGallons

  • If Every Trucker Used B2The industry would utilize 761 million gallons of B100 annually

  • U.S. Biodiesel Market Outlook

  • Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007 Renewable requirement for diesel must met by biodiesel.

    500 million gallons used in 20091 billion gallons used in 2012

  • Demand For Diesel In The US(In Millions Of Gallons)

  • Potential Demand For Biodiesel In The USDemand should not be measured by total demand but by the fraction that represents a realistic blend.

    The maximum potential rate is a B20 blend. B2 and B5 are very realistic.

    Even at displacement rates of 2-5% potential demand far exceeds current and 10-yr production rates.

  • Growth In Diesel Automobile MarketAccording to the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, there are currently more than 4.8 million diesel cars, pick-ups and SUVs registered in the US.J.D Power and Associates predict diesel sales to approximately triple in the next 10 years, accounting for more than 10% of US vehicles by 2015.As of January 2008, 12 auto manufacturers had announced or introduced at least 13 diesel models to the US market. The following brands have diesel models:Acura, Audi, BMW, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, Ford, General Motors, GMC, Honda, Hyundai, Jeep, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo

  • Increasing Biodiesel UseThe National Biodiesel Board has set a goal of replacing 5% of the nations on-road diesel with biodiesel by 2015.

    That amount is roughly equal to the amount of diesel currently produced from of the crude imported from the Persian Gulf.

  • MinnesotaCurrently has a mandate of B5Effective May 1, 2009May 1, 2012 Mandate increases to B10May 1, 2015 Mandate increases to B205% of Feedstock must come from biological resources rather than agricultural (algae, waste oils, tallow)

    *B10 and B20 mandates are effective from April to October to address cold weather issues. B5 during the rest of the year.

  • B5 Usage in Minnesota

    Prevents 139 tons of particulate matterEliminate 330,000 tons of lifecycle greenhouse gases

    That is Equal to Taking 55,000 Cars of the Road

  • Biodiesel Production Capacity

  • Production Locations (9/29/08)176 Plants

  • Production Capacity by State (8/11/08)

  • Blending ULSD and Biodiesel

  • Why Blend Biodiesel into ULSD?Compatible with the compression ignition platform and with diesel fuel itselfGreatly enhances lubricity of ULSDCompatible with 2007 diesel engine catalystsAids with ULSD conductivity issuesReduces harmful emissions Power and performance virtually unchangedSeamless & transparent with existing petroleum infrastructure, (liquid not gaseous)Promotes national energy securityRenewable, non-toxic, green blend stock option

  • ULSD & LubricitySulfur compounds are natural lubricants in diesel.ULSD regulations are causing major concerns with diesel engine performance.ASTM lubricity requirement effective Jan 1, 2005 for diesel fuels.ASTM D 6079-High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) -Wear Scar Maximum = 520 micrometers

  • Biodiesel Adds Significant Lubricity to ULSDULSDPremium DieselBio 2.0%Bio 5.0%Bio 11.0%HFRR Average Scar

  • Properties of ULSD & Biodiesel Blends

  • Cold Flow Properties

  • Cloud & CFPPCloud Point The temperature at which the first wax crystals form and are visible to the naked eye.

    CFPP The temperature under a standard set of test conditions (D6371) at which the filter plugs.

  • CFPP Testing of ULSD Bio Blends

  • CFPP Testing of No 1 ULSD with No 2 ULSD

  • CFPP Testing of B5 with No 1 ULSD

  • Manufacturers Policies on Biodiesel

  • Biodiesel Position with OEMsOriginal Equipment Manufacturers:B100 Must Meet ASTM D 6751

    Most OEM HQs have B20 experience:Wont void warrantyProblems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplierWant to see additional experience in the field

    Higher blends OKd based on experience of OEM and their technology

  • Manufacturers Approving B100Case IH nearly half of all modelsFairbanks MorseNew Holland

  • Manufacturers Approving B20Arctic CatBuhlerCase IH 90% of all modelsCumminsCaterpillar on several modelsJohn DeereToro

  • Manufacturers Approving B5FordCaterpillarGeneral MotorsIsuzuMackVolkswagen

    Detroit DieselChryslerInternationalKubotaMercedes BenzVolvo

  • BQ-9000

  • BQ-9000 Accreditation or CertificationAccreditation or Certification given by the National Biodiesel Accreditation Commission under NBB.BQ-9000 accredits companies, not fuel.There is no such thing as BQ-9000 Biodiesel. BQ-9000 does, however, help ensure the biodiesel being produced and sold will meet D6751

  • Quality ControlIn 2006, 41% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification.

    In 2007, 90% of B100 samples tested met ASTM D6751 specification.

    In 2007, 100% of BQ-9000 certified fuel met ASTM D6751 specifications.

    Currently, 75% of U.S. biodiesel production is BQ-9000 Certified.

  • BQ-9000 Information Through the NBB www.bq-9000.org www.biodiesel.org www.nbb.org

    Find information on the requirements for the program and a list of accredited producers and marketers on the NBB website.

  • 2007/2010 Engines

  • 2007 Model Year EnginesEPA regulations require reduced sulfur in diesel fuel for 2007 model year engines

    80% of highway diesel fuel must be ULSD (< 15ppm sulfur) beginning June 1, 2006

    Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters can eliminate 99% of solid particles(soot & metals) and eliminate >90% of semi-volatile hydrocarbons.

    Source: EPA

  • Diesel Particle Filters (DPF)Diesel particle filters (DPF) are found in all 2007 model year diesel vehicles. What possible advantages or disadvantages may result from using biodiesel blends in these engines? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has conducting a study in order to define these effects on DPFs.

  • ULSD and Particulate FilterNEVER Put anything but ULSD into a Diesel Vehicle fitted with a Particulate Filter (2007+)!!!!The Sulfur Will poison the catalyst in filterFilter Cost: $8,000

  • Exhaust Gas RecirculationEGR is a common technology to reduce NOx emissions. Recently cooled EGR has been used to achieve further NOx reductions. EGR alone cannot meet 2010 emission requirements.

  • EGR system cycles a portion of the engines exhaust gases back into the engines cylinders. Mixing recirculated exhaust with the engines intake air lowers peak combustion temperatures, which, in turn, limits the generation ofnitrogen oxides.

  • Exhaust Gas RecirculationCooled EGR AdvantagesDoes not require additional onboard hardwareDoes not require the use of an additional fluidNo loss of payloadNo impact on service intervalsNo driver intervention necessary for complianceCooled EGR Trade-OffsIncreases heat rejection, creating need for greater cooling capacityDecreases power density, fuel efficiencyPotential engine durability and oil degradation issuesLess combustion efficiency produces increased particulate matter, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide

  • NOx ReductionsFor 2010, the focus Shifts back to NOx. The regulations set maximum NOx emissionlevels at 0.2 gram/brake horsepower hour

  • 2010 EnginesChoice Between Two Competing Technologies

    Selective CatalyticReduction

    NOx AbsorptionSystem

  • Selective Catalytic ReductionThe appeal of the SCR system is relative simplicity. Nothing else gets added to the vehicle other than a small tank of urea a liquid compound composed of 34% ammonia and 66% water along with extra wiring and sensors to manage the injection flow of urea into the trucks exhaust stream to convert harmful NOx emissions into water vapor.

  • SCR removes NOx by injecting or dosing a non-toxic diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) composed of water and urea into the exhaust before it enters a catalyst. A chemical reaction in the catalyst breaks down the NOx into nitrogen and water vapor.

  • NOx AbsorptionNOx absorbers are the major alternative to SCR systems. They work by absorbing NOx from the exhaust and converting it to non-polluting nitrogen during a regeneration cycle. Absorber technology offers considerable NOx reduction capabilities but performance issues related to durability, operating range and decreased fuel economy have so far limited their real world viability.

  • Filter Plugging Issues

  • Breakdown of Filter Plugging SourcesFilter Plugging Issues Addressed by the Minnesota Diesel Hotline

    Microbial Only36%18%Water21%34%High Water & Microbial21% 8%Oxidation 7% 8%Paraffin falling out of ULSD 4%20%Too much Additive 4% 2%No problem found 3% 8%Biodiesel Contaminants 0% 2%Sept 2007 to Feb 2008Sept 2008 toFeb 2009

  • Microbial GrowthWhat Are Microbes?Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel.They live at the fuel/water interface.The hydrocarbons in the fuel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.

  • Water ConcentrationsBiodiesel Can Hold More Water than ULSDB100 reaches saturation at approximately 1200ppmULSD reaches saturation at approximately 200-300ppmA B2 blend has the same saturation as ULSDThe higher the biodiesel blend, the higher the saturated pointAs temperatures decrease, there is lower solubility which means water will drop out of solution

  • High Water Concentration

  • Icing of the filter

    When there is excess free water in fuel, it can form ice on the filter and cause filter plugging in cold temps. A filter which has been plugged but is clean and new at room temperature indicates that icing is the likely cause.

    Since the temperatures of engines are warm, any moisture picked up within the engine can be brought back to the fuel lines. This moisture can freeze overnight in low ambient temperatures. Free water

  • Paraffin Wax

  • Paraffin Wax High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed.When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank.When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid. Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.

  • Oxidation

  • Oxidation Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up. Because many newer engines run at higher temperatures, there may be a black asphaltene type material collecting on the filter. This phenomenon has been seen all around the country, often in newer engines.

  • EnginesHot Fuel ReturnHotHotCoking FuelNew Technology delivers the unused fuel from the engine block back to the fuel tank much faster.

    This hot fuel will cause degradation and oxidation of the fuel, which in turn can plug filters.

  • Glycerin

  • Monoglyceride Build-upThis filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material.Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if the glycerin levels are too high in the biodiesel used in the blend.Glycerin does not turn back into a liquid until heated to temperatures of 150F or more.

  • Sediment/Rust build-up

  • Sediment/Rust build-up Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing.

    Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel.

  • Troubleshooting ChecklistMicrobial Growth Exposure to air and waterIcing of Filter Excess water in tankOxidation Hot fuel return to fuel tankMonoglyceride Build Up Off specification of Total & Free GlycerinParaffin Wax Temperature at or below cloud point

  • Steps to Maintaining FuelStore Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark EnvironmentKeep Tank Topped off to eliminate head spaceMonitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaksStorage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months.Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination

  • Useful InformationResources

  • NBB Resources: www.biodiesel.orgTechnical LibraryBiodiesel Bulletin Informational ResourcesTechnical Resources Educational Videos AvailableOn-line Database & Spec Sheets

  • MN Diesel HotlineEstablished to:

    Provide triage for fuel problems not adequately addressed by distributors/producers Diagnose/analyze/assist with problems from:customersfleetsfuel distributors Provide assistance through chemical analysisThrough the use of third party Lab Help provide assistance to users to ensure the image/integrity of Biodiesel is maintained

  • Contact InformationThe MN Diesel Hotline is:For general guidance issuesFuel related problems


    Email: [email protected]

  • Questions?

    *The French Government wanted energy independence for its African Colonies.

    The French Government at the time thought of testing the applicability to power production of the Arachide, or earth-nut, which grows in considerable quantities in their African colonies, and which can be easily cultivated there, because in this way the colonies could be supplied with power and industry from their own resources, without being compelled to buy and import coal or liquid fuel. Rudolph Diesel

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    *_____________US is 20% of world processing of crude___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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