Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherer Complexity Mesolithic Development of Ceramics Neolithic

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  • Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherer Complexity Mesolithic Development of Ceramics Neolithic
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  • Hunter-Gatherer Complexity Stereotype Stereotype Hunter-gatherers move around alot and live in small groups Hunter-gatherers move around alot and live in small groups Based on living, marginal groups such as the !Kung San and the Inuit. Based on living, marginal groups such as the !Kung San and the Inuit. Much greater diversity. Much greater diversity. Conditions for more complexity Conditions for more complexity Higher-than normal pop, concentrated in relatively small areas such as river valleys, circumscribed by geography and neighbors. Higher-than normal pop, concentrated in relatively small areas such as river valleys, circumscribed by geography and neighbors. More intense, diverse, specialized food gathering. More intense, diverse, specialized food gathering. Food storage and preservation Food storage and preservation Permanent and nearly permanet settlements, often linear. Permanent and nearly permanet settlements, often linear. Highly developed food procurement and processing technologies. Highly developed food procurement and processing technologies. Divison of labor. Divison of labor. Simple social ranking. Simple social ranking. Trade. Trade. More elaborate ritual and ceremonial beliefs. More elaborate ritual and ceremonial beliefs.
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  • Mesolithic in Europe Mesolithic forest and coastal h-gs replaced tundra reindeer hunters around 13,000 b.p. Mesolithic forest and coastal h-gs replaced tundra reindeer hunters around 13,000 b.p. Not impoverished as earlier thought but rich in wildlife such as red and roe deer, many plant foods. Not impoverished as earlier thought but rich in wildlife such as red and roe deer, many plant foods. Coast, estuaries very productive. Coast, estuaries very productive. Called affluent foragers. Called affluent foragers. Distinct cultures of the Upper Paleolithic covering areas of over 38 k sq miles, but in the Holocene reduced to 6 k sq miles and many different zones and territories. Distinct cultures of the Upper Paleolithic covering areas of over 38 k sq miles, but in the Holocene reduced to 6 k sq miles and many different zones and territories. European Mesolithic ended around 8,000 B.P. with the spread of agriculture. European Mesolithic ended around 8,000 B.P. with the spread of agriculture.
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  • Discovery of a Mesolithic burial at Mezzocorona, Trento, Italy The modern town of Mezzocorona is located north of Trento, in the Adige valley, by the northern margin of the Rotaliana plain, a fertile alluvial fan at the confluence of the Noce stream and the river Adige.
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  • In the Autumn of 1995 archaeological investigations were resumed in collaboration with the Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali and the University of Trento, in order to investigate the Mesolithic residual deposits. A one square metre trial trench was thus excavated by the rockwall. Right at the end of the excavation period a mound of stones was uncovered, just under the rockwall. Digging was concentrated in the area of the foresaid mound of stones under which a burial dated to the late Sauveterrian (early Mesolithic) was brought to light. mound of stones
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  • The burial was formed by a shallow grave, oriented east-west; the eastern and western walls were slightly inclined, whereas the northern and southern ones were almost vertical. The burial was formed by a shallow grave, oriented east-west; the eastern and western walls were slightly inclined, whereas the northern and southern ones were almost vertical. Inside the grave, a skeleton, probably of a female aged over 30 years, lied in a supine position. She was oriented east-west, with her face looking south, her hands on the stomach and her feet slightly on top of one another. Both here head and feet were positioned above her pelvic girdle. No grave goods were present. Inside the grave, a skeleton, probably of a female aged over 30 years, lied in a supine position. She was oriented east-west, with her face looking south, her hands on the stomach and her feet slightly on top of one another. Both here head and feet were positioned above her pelvic girdle. No grave goods were present. A preliminary analysis of the skeleton, which was well preserved, showed that she had lost her molar teeth from some time as the roots had filled in naturally; possible bone paleo- pathologies on the lower and upper limbs were also remarked. A preliminary analysis of the skeleton, which was well preserved, showed that she had lost her molar teeth from some time as the roots had filled in naturally; possible bone paleo- pathologies on the lower and upper limbs were also remarked.
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  • NW Europe & Scandinavia Maglemose Period (9500-7700 B.P.) Maglemose Period (9500-7700 B.P.) Seasonal exploitation of rivers, lakes and terrestrial hunting. Seasonal exploitation of rivers, lakes and terrestrial hunting. Inland spring and summer settlements are represented by the Ulkestrup site in Denmark. Inland spring and summer settlements are represented by the Ulkestrup site in Denmark. People lived in large huts with bark and wood floors on a peat island near a lake. People lived in large huts with bark and wood floors on a peat island near a lake. Used canoes, one paddle was found preserved. Used canoes, one paddle was found preserved. people fished with bone and antler barbed points, trapped birds and hunted red deer, wild ox and pig. people fished with bone and antler barbed points, trapped birds and hunted red deer, wild ox and pig. In fall bands foraged for hazlenuts and other plants, elk and other game were hunted, fishing less important. In fall bands foraged for hazlenuts and other plants, elk and other game were hunted, fishing less important. Starr Carr, England Starr Carr, England
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  • Starr Carr Starr Carr in Yorkshire was a typical Mesolithic site in England. Starr Carr in Yorkshire was a typical Mesolithic site in England. Around 9,500BP about 20 individuals inhabited the site. Around 9,500BP about 20 individuals inhabited the site. They used stone axes and adzes to fell trees, and made a variety of barbed bone and antler spear points. They used stone axes and adzes to fell trees, and made a variety of barbed bone and antler spear points. Hunting was the main activity, with red deer, elk, aurochs, and roe deer being the main prey. Hunting was the main activity, with red deer, elk, aurochs, and roe deer being the main prey. Hunters used long wooden arrows tipped with small flint blades that were set in the shaft with tree resin. Hunters used long wooden arrows tipped with small flint blades that were set in the shaft with tree resin. Dogs assisted in hunting. Dogs assisted in hunting. Hazelnuts were collected in the autumn and perhaps stored. Hazelnuts were collected in the autumn and perhaps stored.
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  • Scandinavia Kongemose Period (7700-6600 B.P.) Kongemose Period (7700-6600 B.P.) Baltic sea coast sites, along bays and near lagoons, exploitation of marine and terrestrial resources. Baltic sea coast sites, along bays and near lagoons, exploitation of marine and terrestrial resources. Segebro settlement (larger than earlier ones) which is now submerged in brackish water. Segebro settlement (larger than earlier ones) which is now submerged in brackish water. occupied year round, but mainly in spring and summer. occupied year round, but mainly in spring and summer. carbon isotope analysis of human bone show that fish and sea mammals were major diet. carbon isotope analysis of human bone show that fish and sea mammals were major diet.
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  • Scandinavia Ertebolle Period (6600-5200 B.P.) Ertebolle Period (6600-5200 B.P.) Culmination of Mesolithic culture, occupying coastal settlements year round, wide range of food resources, wide variety of tools. Culmination of Mesolithic culture, occupying coastal settlements year round, wide range of food resources, wide variety of tools. Greater social complexity, such as cemetaries and more diverse technology. Greater social complexity, such as cemetaries and more diverse technology. Vedbok Bogebakken cemetary had at least 22 people of different ages buried. Vedbok Bogebakken cemetary had at least 22 people of different ages buried. extended positions. extended positions. grave goods. grave goods. some showing evidence of violent death, such as projectile points embedded in bone. some showing evidence of violent death, such as projectile points embedded in bone.
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  • Southwest Asia (Mediterranean and Middle East) Transition to more complex hunter-gatherers- Kebaran cultures (14-12,000 B.P.). Transition to more complex hunter-gatherers- Kebaran cultures (14-12,000 B.P.). Small and highly mobile hunter-gatherer bands, found in a wide variety of environments, variation in tool kits. Small and highly mobile hunter-gatherer bands, found in a wide variety of environments, variation in tool kits. 11,000 B.P. significant environmental and vegetational changes. 11,000 B.P. significant environmental and vegetational changes. more concentrated stands of wild cereal grains (emmer wheat, barley, etc.) and nuts (almonds and pistachios). more concentrated stands of wild cereal grains (emmer wheat, barley, etc.) and nuts (almonds and pistachios). harvestable over longer periods of time, less temperature sensitive. harvestable over longer periods of time, less temperature sensitive.
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  • Franchthi Cave, Greece Characterized by two new developments: Characterized by two new developments: (1

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