Medieval Art through American Art

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Understanding art

Understanding artExam 3 ReviewEarly Medieval and Romanesque ArtChapter 10Hinged ClaspEarly Medieval Art in the British IslesAnglo-Saxon metalworkSutton-Hoo Burial500s-700s AD

Metal working was the pride of Anglo-Saxon art. A hoard of treasures was found at the Sutton-Hoo burial site. Graves unidentified occupant was buried in a 90-foot-long ship. The vessel had armor and weapons and luxury goods for the afterlife. ManGospel of Matthew, Book of DurrowEarly Medieval Art in the British IslesHiberno-Saxon manuscript500s-700s ADBorders were very important. The human figure is very unrealistic and armless. His robe has a checkerboard pattern. Monks made books in workshops called scriptoria. Each section began with a symbol page, a page or ornamentation and a page of elaborated text. Feet point one direction but face faces forward.

Chi Rho PageEarly Medieval Art in the British IslesGospel of Matthew, Book of KellsHiberno-Saxon manuscript500s-700s ADNothing particularly Christian about it. Created by a monk, isolated, wealthy. Contains Greek letters chi, rho and iota that cluster together to resemble brooches. Human and animal forms are hidden within the depiction.Christ may be the red-headed youth. Cats at the bottom eat mice, symbolizing the triumph of good over evil.

St. Gall Monastery PlanUnder the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (modern day France). First emperor since Roman Empire; forcibly Christianized people in the East and Muslims in Spain.Carolingian Art: renewal of learning, art and culture via the Catholic church800s ADLivestock, kitchens, physician, garden, brewery, school, workshop and dormitory. Plus a church and sanctuary.Basic layout of a medieval monastery. Cloister: central courtyard linked to all of the monks most important buildings.

Lindau Gospel Book CoverCrucifixion with Angels and Mourning FiguresCarolingian Art800s ADMetalwork figures hammered from the backVery expensive, polished stones are raised to enhance luster. Made before the printing press.Contains symbols of the sun and moon and a calm Classical Jesus who appears to be merely standing in front of the cross.

Seven-Headed DragonMorgan Beatus manuscript colored bands, Apocalypse, no realism, woman clothed in sun, ornamental style, nightmarish quality, bold eyes Spanish Medieval Art mix of Muslim and ChristianMozarabic style Muslim style incorporated into Christian art700s-900s AD

Gero CrucifixOttonian ArtUnder the Holy Roman Empire of Otto I, II, and III from Saxony (modern day Germany). The Carolingian Empire had been divided into 3 parts.900s-1000s ADPainted woodCologne CathedralVery realistic, relatable, life-size, human suffering, sagging arms, thin legs, meant to inspire awe, empathy and pity.

Bronze Doors of St. Michael Ottonian ArtUnder the Holy Roman Empire of Otto I, II, and III from Saxony (modern day Germany)Hildesheim, Germany900s-1000s ADMost ambitious and complex casting project since antiquity, scenes from Creation to the murder of Abel by Cain, Hebrew Bible on one side, New Testament on the other, opposition of good and evil, damnation and salvation.

Christ Washing the Feet of His DisciplesOttonian ArtUnder the Holy Roman Empire of Otto I, II, and III from Saxony (modern day Germany)900s-1000s ADPage in the Gospels of Otto III Manuscript large, dramatic hands and eyes, lavish gold background, Byzantine style, slender men, narrative power and expressiveness, village in background, controlled and balance architectural canopy.Jesus is largest; final meal together, Peter is hesitant but other disciple is eager.

St. James of CompostelaRomanesque Art axial direction, cross shape, nave and transept meet (called the crossing, marked by a tower), larger to accommodate more people on pilgrimages, more chapels, added an ambulatory1000s-1100s ADPlan and reconstructionSpain

Interior Nave View of St. James of CompostelaRomanesque Art1000s-1100s ADSpainGroin vaults draw eye upward, barrel and half-barrel vaults, octagonal lantern tower for light, compound pillars at the corners.Buttresses allowed cathedrals to be larger and taller

Portal Entrance to Church of St. Pierre, MoissacRomanesque Art1000s-1100s ADChrist in MajestyFranceTympanum arched half circle, Second Coming, Christ is static but surrounding people writhe with excitement, great deal of ornamentation. Second Coming of Christ

Last JudgmentCathedral of St. Lazare Detail of tympanum carving Christ in manderla, flanked by angels, judges naked humans, the damned suffer and the saved reach Heaven, architectural depiction, archesRomanesque Art1000s-1100s ADAutun, France

Flight Into EgyptCapital from a column inside St. LazareRomanesque Art1000s-1100s ADAutun, FranceCircles on bottom may be wheels from a play for kids, historiated capital, charming and doll-like figures, escaping paranoid King Herod

Christ in MajestyRomanesque Art1000s-1100s ADLarge apse paintingSt. Climent, SpainFresco watercolor on wet plaster for wall or ceilingJesus squatted, grand hand gesture, bold colors, surrounded by border, book in hand, alpha and omega symbols

Gothic ArtChapter 11St. Denis, Interior View of Choir and Ground PlanGothic Art1100s-1300s ADFranceRadiating chapels, ambulatory, rib vaulting, groin vaults, choir

Chartres Cathedral, Reconstruction and Ground PlanGothic Art1100s-1300s ADChartres, FranceFlying buttresses, triforium (middle floor), colonettes, archivolts, jambs, rose windows

Chartres Cathedral, Exterior Faade Gothic Art1100s-1300s ADTympanum

Chartres Cathedral, Faade detailGothic Art1100s-1300s AD

Chartres Cathedral, Detail of Jamb FiguresGothic Art1100s-1300s AD

Chartres Cathedral, Interior Nave ViewGothic Art1100s-1300s ADRibbed groin vaults

Chartres Cathedral, Good Samaritan Stained Glass WindowGothic Art1100s-1300s ADAllegory on sin and salvation, on nave aisle, parable from Jesus, man helps other man that was beaten and robbed, next to Creation story

Chartres Cathedral, Rose Window and LancetsGothic Art1100s-1300s ADWillowy figures

Notre-Dame Cathedral, Side ViewGothic Art1100s-1300s ADParis

Reims Cathedral, Faade ViewGothic Art1100s-1300s ADFrance

Reims Cathedral, Jamb FiguresAnnunciation and Visitation1100s-1300s ADGothic ArtFrance

Sainte-Chapelle, Nave with Stained GlassGothic Art1100s-1300s ADParis

Early Renaissance ArtChapter 12Virgin in Majesty Altarpiece, Raising of LazarusLate Medieval Art in Italy1300s ADDetailed naturalism, still gold background

Virgin and Child EnthronedLate Medieval Art in Italy1300s ADCimbabueBoth Byzantine and Renaissanceelements

Virgin and Child EnthronedLate Medieval Art in Italy1300s ADGiottoShows an increase in naturalism from Cimabuesversion

Arena Chapel Frescoes Detail of LamentationLate Medieval Art in ItalyNaturalism, emerging narrative approach to art1300s ADGiotto

Good and Bad Government FrescoesVernacular and allegorical scenes, one of the earliest landscapes since ancient Rome, rival lines of Popes, artists become individuals, formed guilds, bustling people large compared to buildings, shifting viewpoints, Late Medieval Art in Italy1300s ADLorenzetti

Florence Cathedral DomeBrunelleschi studied ancient Roman PantheonEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s ADPointed arch, supported by internal ribs

Church of San Lorenzo in Florence, NaveBrunelleschi new visual clarity, mathematical proportion system, Classically inspired, molding, coffers, semicircular dome, Corinthian columnsEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s AD

Medici Palace in Florence, Exterior and Courtyard Michelozzo rusticated stone blocks, Classically inspired, massive in scale, arcade and frieze in courtyardEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s AD

DavidEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s ADDonatello first free-standing nude figure since antiquity, David slew Goliath, jaunty hat and boots, young features accentuate the heroism and triumph

Equestrian Figure of GattamelataEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s ADDonatello reminiscent of MarcusAurelius, first life-sizeequestrian figure since antiquity, warriorgrown old and tired

Bronze Doors of Paradise, Florence BaptisteryGhiberti scenes from Hebrew bible, begins with Creation, murder of Abel by Cain, Ghibertis portraitEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s AD

Trinity FrescoEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s ADMasaccio one point perspective creates illusion of depth, looming figure of God, even illumination, dove of the Holy Spirit, kneeling in prayer

Tribute MoneyEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s ADMasaccio atmospheric perspective, Tax collector asks Peter if Jesus paid temple tax, bold color, arm diagonals, tension

Battle of San RomanoUccello mathematical perspective and spatial illusionism, for a Medici, fallen soldier, fruit symbolismEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s AD

Birth of VenusBotticelli interest in classical subjects of the Renaissance, heavenly and earthly, physical and intellectual, for Medici family member, modest Venus, born of sea foam, blown by wind GodEarly Renaissance Art in Italy1400s AD

February Calendar PageEarly Renaissance Art in Northern Europe1400s ADLimbourg brothersNew vernacular trends in art, snow scene, low class people not in a hovel like usual, uncouth man, comfortable farm with fire, cutaway view of house, high placement of horizontal line

Merode Altarpiece of AnnunciationEarly Renaissance Art in Northern EuropeAnonymous triptych, vivid colors, Virgin Mary out of time, private chapel, village scene outside, unfocused eyes suggest meditation scene, carpenter Joseph, flowers and water pot, mousetraps1400s AD

Ghent AltarpieceEarly Renaissance Art in Northern EuropeVan Eyck Adam and Eve, for family chap