MCS 2600 In Class Notes Chapter 3 - 2600 In Class Notes.pdfآ  MCS 2600 In Class Notes Chapter 3: Dogmatism

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  • MCS 2600 In Class Notes Chapter 3: Dogmatism

    - A personality train that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs

    Ranges on continuum for inner directedness to other directedness

    - Inner directedness o Rely on own values when evaluating products

    - Other directedness o Look to others

    Need for uniqueness - An individual’s pursuit of differentness relative to others that is achieved through the

    acquisition of consumer goods in order to enhance one’s personal and social identity - Consumers who avoid conforming to expectations or standards of others

    Optimum Stimulation level - A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that

    individuals seek in their personal experiences - High OSL consumers tend to accept risk and novel products more readily than low OSL

    consumers Sensation Seeking

    - The need for varied novel and complex sensations and experience and the willingness to take social and physical risks for the sensations

    Cognitive Personality Factors - A need for cognition(NFC)

    o A persons craving for enjoyment of thinking o Individual with high NFC more likely to respond to ads rich in product

    information Cognitive Personality Factors

    - Visualizers vs Verbalizers Fixated Consumption: Refers to collectors and hobbyists tendency to accumulate items that are related to their interests and show them off to friends and other with similar interests

    o Passion for category o Willingness to invest effort o Willingness to invest time and money o Aggressively competes in auctions

    Compulsive Consumption: Addictive and out of control buying that often has damaging consequences for both the compulsive shopper and those around him or her Materialism

    - Attachment to wordily possessions - Is a train of people how feel their possessions are essential to their identity? - Traits

  • o Acquire and show off possessions o Self centered and selfish o Seek lifestyle full of possession o Do not get greater personal satisfaction from possessions

    Consumer ethnocentrism and Cosmopolitanism *** - Consumer likely hood to accept or reject foreign made products - Ethnocentric consumers feel wrong to purchase products out of economy - Cosmpolitan orientation consider the world their market place

    Brand Personality - Personality like traits associated with brands - Brand personality that is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not

    necessarily demand a price premium Product Anthropomorphism and Brand Personification

    - Product anthropomorphism o Attributing human characteristics to objects

    ▪ Tony the tiger and Mr. peanut - Brand Personification

    o Consumers perception of brands attributes for a human like character

    Product Personality Issues

    - Gender - Geographically - Color

    Self and Self Image - Consumer have a variety of enduring images of themselves

    Makeup of the self-Image - Contains traits skills habits possessions relationships and way of behavior

  • - Developed through background experience and interaction with others - Consumers select products congruent with this image

    Difference Self Image *** - Actual Self Image: How consumers see themselves - Ideal Self Image - Social Self Image: How consumers feel people see them - Ideal Social Image - Expected Self Image - Out to self: Traits an individual believes are in her duty to possess

    How are possessions being extensions of the self? - Actually by allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be very difficult or

    impossible to accomplish - Symbolically making the person feel better - Conferring status - Feelings or immortality leaving valued possessions to young family

    Altering the self-image - Consumers use self-altering products to express individualism by:

    o Creating new self o Maintaining the existing self o Extending the self

    How do consumers use self-altering products - Consumers use self-altering products to express their new selves

    Vanity - Physical Vanity: Loves self-physical appearance - Achievement vanity: Excessive concern with one’s personal achievements

    Chapter 4 Perception****

    - The process by which an individual select, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meangful and coherent picture of the world

    - Elements of perception o Sensation o Absolute threshold o Differential threshold o Subliminal Perception

    Sensation: is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli - A stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses

    Absolute threshold - The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation

    Sensory Adaption - Refers specifically to getting used to certain sensations or becoming accustomed to a

    certain level of stimulation - Sensory adaption is a problem that causes many ads to change they ads campaigns

    Differential Threshold (Just noticeable difference) **** - Minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli

  • - Weber’s law o The and between two stimuli is not an absolute amount but an amount relative

    to the intensity of the first stimulus o The stronger the initial stimulus the greater the additional intensity needed for

    the second stimulus to be perceived Difference between absolute and differential threshold**** Ambush Marketing

    - Placing ads in places where consumers do not expect to see them and cannot readily avoid them*****

    Experiential Marketing** - Allows customers to engage and interact with offering in sensory ways in order to create

    emotional bonds between consumers and marketing offerings Subliminal Perception

    - Stimuli that are too weak or too brief to be consciously seen or heard o They may be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptors

    - Is it effective o No evidence if it works or not

    Aspects of Perception - Selection

    o Organizational ▪ Into

    Selections Depends Upon: - Nature of the stimulus - Expectations - Motives

    Contrast - One of the most attention compelling attributes of a stimulus - Advertisers use color contrasts size unexpected and unrealistic images to create gain

    attention Perceptual Selections Important concepts****

    - Selective Exposure o Consumers seek out messages which: are pleasant, that can sympathize with

    - Selective Attention o Heightened awareness when stimuli meet their needs

    - Perceptual Defense o Screening out of stimuli that are threatening

    - Perceptual Blocking o Consumers avoid being bombarded by: tuning out, Netflix

    Perceptual Organization - Gestalt Psychology: is the name of the school of psychology that first developed the

    basic principles of perceptual organization Organization

    - Principles:

  • o Figure and ground (People tend to organize perceptions into figure and ground relationships)

    o Grouping (People group stimuli to form a unified impression or concept) (Helps memory and recall)

    o Closure (People have a need for closure and organize perceptions to form a complete a picture

    Stereotypes: - Physical - Descriptive - First Impressions - Halo Effect (perceive and evaluate multiple objects basted on one product)

    Product Positioning - Establishing a specific image for a brand in the consumer’s mind in relation to

    competing brands - Conveys the product in terms of how it fulfills a need - Successful positioning creates a distinctive positive brand image

    Packaging as a Positioning Element - Packaging conveys the image that the brand communicates to the buyer - Color, weight image, shape etc.

    Perceptual Mapping - An analytical technique that enables marketers to graphically plot consumer’s

    perceptions concerning product attributes of specific brands Positioning of Services

    - Image is a key factor for services - Services often want a differentiated positioning strategy to market several versions

    Perceived Price and Perceived Quality - Reference Prices- Used as a basis for comparison - Perceived Quality of Products

    o Intrinsic(rational) vs Extrinsic(emotional) cues*** Price/ Quality Relationship

    - The perception of price as an indicator of product quality Perceived Risk

    - The degree of uncertainty perceived by the consumer as to the consequences of a specific purchase decision***

    o Functional Risk o Physical Risk o Financial Risk o Psychological Risk o Time Risk

    Chapter 4 The Elements of Perception

    - Raw sensory input by itself does not produce or explain the coherent picture of the world that most adults possess

  • - Perception is the result of two different kinds of inputs that interact to form the personal pictures

    o One type of input is physical stimuli from the outside environment the other consists of people’s expectations motives

    Sensory Input - Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli. - Stimulus is any unit of input of any of the sense - Sensory receptors are the human organs that receive sensory inputs

    The Absolute Threshold - The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation is called the absolute

    threshold - Sensory adaption is getting used to certa