# Maxims, Islamic legal maxims, fiqh, qawaid

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This book presents Islamic legal maxims in a form in which they should really be studied.

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• ISLAMIC LEGALMAXIMS

Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee

Advanced Legal Studies InstituteP.O.Box 3013, Islamabad

• Revised edition publishedby the Federal Law House,

Head Oce:Mian Plaza, Chandni Chowk,Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tel. No. (051) 4843011, 4571229

Branch: 7, Turner Road, Near High CourtLahore, Pakistan. Tel. No. 0322-4843011

First Published: 2013

2013 by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee.All rights reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, including photocopying and recording, with-out the written permission of the copyright holder.Such permission must also be obtained before anypart of this publication is stored in a retrieval systemof any nature.

ISBN

Printed in Pakistanby

Haji Hanif & SonsLahore, Pakistan.

• TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OFLEGALMAXIMS 13

Ch. 1 Introduction 151.1 The Terms Qidah and As. l in Islamic Law . 151.2 Methods in Us.l al-Fiqh Attributed to the Ju-

rists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.1 The Method of the H. anafs or the Method

of the Jurists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.2 The Method of the Majority Schools or the

Method of the Mutakallimn . . . . . . 171.2.3 Method That Combines the Two Previous

Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.2.4 The Method of Takhrj Al al-Us.l . . . 171.2.5 The Method of Us.l Through theMaqs. id 181.2.6 Method of the Ahl H. adth? . . . . . . . 18

1.3 Our Analysis of the Classication of Methods 181.3.1 General Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.3.2 Analysis Relevant for Qawid Fiqhiyyah 20

Ch. 2 Essential Terminology and the Nature ofRules in Islamic Law 232.1 The Multiple Meanings of the Term H. ukm . 242.2 Rules, Principles, Illah, H. ikmah and Rationale 27

2.2.1 The Nature of a Rule . . . . . . . . . . 272.2.2 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.2.3 The Rule and its Rationale . . . . . . . 30

2.3 Presumptions, Propositions and Legal Max-ims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

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2.3.1 Presumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.3.1.1 Legislative Presumptions . . . . 332.3.1.2 Presumptions of General Applica-

bility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.3.1.3 Presumption of Law . . . . . . 342.3.1.4 Presumption of Fact . . . . . . 34

2.3.2 Maxims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.3.3 Propositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2.4 Bb, D. awbit. , Qaw,id and Naz. ariyyah . . . . 352.4.1 The Bb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.4.2 D. awbit. , Qaw,id and Naz. ariyyah . . . . 36

Ch. 3 Understanding the Development ofQawid Fiqhiyyah as a Discipline 393.1 The Beginning at Kufa . . . . . . . . . . . . 393.2 The Separation of the Rules . . . . . . . . . 413.3 Sample Qawid Us.liyyah . . . . . . . . . . 423.4 Qawid Fiqhiyyah After al-Dabbs . . . . . 453.5 Qawid Fiqhiyyah in More Recent Times . . 47

Ch. 4 The Interpretation of Facts and the Func-tion of the Qaw,id Fiqhiyyah 494.1 Interpreting the Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494.2 The Functions That Principles Perform in Is-

lamic Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Ch. 5 Analysis ofWhat has BeenStudied so farand the Methodology Followed in ThisBook 555.1 Questioning Some Denitions . . . . . . . . 555.2 What We Cannot Study in This Subject . . . 565.3 The Overlap With Us.l al-Fiqh . . . . . . . . 585.4 The Methodology of This Book . . . . . . . 605.5 Advantages for Future Research: Legal Con-

cepts and Associated Theories . . . . . . . . 62

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II LEGAL MAXIMS AND LEGAL CON-CEPTS 65

Ch. 6 The Sharah as a Single Bb 676.1 Siysah Shariyyah: The Legal and Social Poli-

cies of the Sharah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676.1.1 The Basic Terms of This Topic . . . . . 686.1.2 The Development of the Five Principles

and Area of Operation . . . . . . . . . 706.1.3 The Content of the Policies . . . . . . . 726.1.4 Converting Policies into New Law . . . 74

6.2 The Role of Intentions . . . . . . . . . . . . 756.2.1 Intentions and the Hereafter . . . . . . 766.2.2 Intentions and the Law . . . . . . . . . 77

6.2.2.1 Acts of Worship . . . . . . . . 786.2.2.2 Marriage, Divorce and Emancipa-

tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796.2.2.3 Contracts in General . . . . . . 816.2.2.4 Criminal Law and Torts . . . . 83

6.3 Looking at the Consequences . . . . . . . . 866.4 Trivialities to be Overlooked . . . . . . . . . 906.5 Things Occurring Usually to be Assigned the

Usual Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916.6 In the Case of Substitution, the Substitution

Need Not be Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . 936.7 When a Part to be Considered the Whole . 946.8 When a Part of theWhole has a SeparateH. ukm 956.9 A Continuing Act May be Assigned the Rule

of the Initial State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Ch. 7 The Bb of Ibh. ah (Permissibility) 997.1 The Governing Principle of This Bb . . . . 997.2 Liability of Human Beings in General: The

Covenant With the Creator . . . . . . . . . . 1017.2.1 The Nature of the Covenant: The Obliga-

tions and the Demand for Performance 102

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7.2.2 Cases in Which Performance is not Re-quired and is Suspended or ExtinguishedAltogether . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057.2.2.1 The Minor . . . . . . . . . . . 1067.2.2.2 Insanity and Idiocy . . . . . . 1067.2.2.3 Sleep and Fits of Fainting . . . . 1067.2.2.4 Forgetfulness and Mistake . . . 1077.2.2.5 Menstruation and Slavery . . . 1087.2.2.6 The Liability of Non-Muslims . 108

7.2.3 How Does the Covenant Deal With theArea of Ibh. ah (Permissibility) Not Cov-ered So Far: al-h. ujaj al-aqliyyah . . . . . 109

7.3 Things That Must Always beMubh. . . . . 1107.4 Things That Must Always be Prohibited . . 1127.5 Things That May Possibly be Permitted, but

not Necessarily: Understanding the MainPrinciple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

7.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Ch. 8 Presumption of Continuity (Istis. h. b al-H. l) 1198.1 The Meaning of Istis.h. b . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

8.1.1 Types of Istis.h. b and Their Legal Validity 1208.2 Doubt and Certainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1228.3 Istis.hb al-h. l (Presumption of Continuity) is

a Defensive Presumption and Does not Estab-lish a Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

8.4 Miscellaneous Presumptions . . . . . . . . . 128

Ch. 9 The Bb of Ibdt: Acts of Worship 131Ch. 10 The Bb of Contracts 137

10.1 The Principle of Rib and Related Presump-tions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

10.2 The Principle of Contractual Liability . . . 14010.2.1 The Link With the Principle of Rib . . 14110.2.2 Passage of Title in Sales and What can be

Lawfully Sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

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10.2.3 Principle of Liability and Business Organi-zation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

10.3 Principle for the Sold Commodity: Owner-ship and Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14510.3.1 Things not Owned . . . . . . . . . . . 14510.3.2 Things not in Possession: Selling Food Be-

fore Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14710.3.3 The Exemption in the Case of Salam . . 148

10.4 The Principle of Prohibition of Gharar: TheMisunderstood Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 149

10.5 Suspended (Mawqf ) Contracts and Ratica-tion: The Unauthorized Agent . . . . . . . . 15010.5.1 Building the Rules of Ratication . . . 15210.5.2 Applying the Rules of Suspended Con-

tracts and Ratication . . . . . . . . . . 15710.6 Fasd, Conditions and Stipulations . . . . . 159

Ch. 11 Liability in General 16511.1 Developing a Theory of Liability . . . . . . 16511.2 General Rule for Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . 16611.3 The Destruction of Property and its Compen-

sation (D. amn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Ch. 12 The Bb of Shubhah 17312.1 The Operation of Shubhah in Crimes . . . . 17312.2 Expanding the Operation of Shubhah to Fam-

ily Law and Other Cases . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Ch. 13 Legal Necessity, Hardhip, Need, Prohi-bitions and Permissions 17913.1 Duress Aecting Human Life and Limbs . 17913.2 Necessity as General Need . . . . . . . . . . 18313.3 Cases of Hardship: Exemptions (Rukhas. ) . . 18513.4 Prohibitions and Permissions . . . . . . . . 188

Ch. 14 dah and Urf 19114.1 The Dierent Meanings of dah . . . . . . . 191

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14.1.1 dah as a Physical or Scientic Fact Situa-tion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

14.1.2 dah as Commercial or Other Prac-ticeWhether Good or Bad . . . . . . 197

14.2 Maxims Dealing With Urf (Usage; Custom-ary Practice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19814.2.1 Types of Urf : Division into usage and

practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19814.2.2 Legal Maxims About Urf . . . . . . . 200

Ch. 15 Drs, Jurisdiction and Non-Muslims 20715.1 The Concept of the Dr . . . . . . . . . . . . 20715.2 The Dr al-Islm and its Non-Muslim Resi-

dents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Ch. 16 Legal Rights 21716.1 Rights That Cannot be Transferred or Relin-

quished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22116.1.1 Pure Rights of Allah . . . . . . . . . . 22116.1.2 Where the Right of Allah and the Right of

the Individual are Both Involved, but theRight of Allah is Predominant . . . . . 222

16.1.3 Pure Rights of the Individual . . . . . . 22216.2 Rights That Can be Transferred or Relin-

quished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22316.2.1 Where the Right of Allah and the Right of

the Individual are Both Involved, but theRight of Individual is Predominant . . 223

16.2.2 Pure Rights of the Individual . . . . . . 22316.2.2.1 Rights Linked to the Ayn (Chattel) 22416.2.2.2 Rights Linked to the Dayn (De-

ferred Claim) . . . . . . . . . 22516.2.2.3 Pure Rights (H. uqq Mujarradah) 225

16.3 Delegating Rights Not Possessed . . . . . . 22816.4 Relinquished Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Ch. 17 Evidence and Declarations 231

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17.1 General Presumption of Veracity for All Mus-lims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

17.2 Relevant Facts and Inferences to be Drawn . 23317.3 The Prima Facie Position and the Burden of

Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Ch. 18 Ijtihd and Fatws 23918.1 The Integrity of ijtihd . . . . . . . . . . . . 23918.2 There is no IjtihdWhen the Text is Absolutely

Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

Appendices 243A Us.l al-Karkh With Translation 245

A.1 Introduction: Imm al-Karkh . . . . . . . . 245A.2 Preliminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246A.3 The First Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246A.4 The Second Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247A.5 The Third Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248A.6 The Fourth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249A.7 The Fifth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249A.8 The Sixth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251A.9 The Seventh Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251A.10The Eighth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252A.11The Ninth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253A.12The Tenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254A.13The Eleventh Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 254A.14The Twelfth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255A.15The Thirteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 256A.16The Fourteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 256A.17The Fifteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 257A.18The Sixteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 258A.19The Seventeenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 259A.20The Eighteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 259A.21The Nineteenth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 260A.22The Twentieth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 261A.23The Twentyrst Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 262A.24The Twentysecond Principle . . . . . . . . . 263

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A.25The Twentythird Principle . . . . . . . . . . 263A.26The Twentyfourth Principle . . . . . . . . . 264A.27The Twentyfth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 265A.28The Twentysixth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 266A.29The Twentyseventh Principle . . . . . . . . 267A.30The Twentyeighth Principle . . . . . . . . . 267A.31The Twentyninth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 269A.32The Thirtieth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 271A.33The Thirtyrst Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 272A.34The Thirtysecond Principle . . . . . . . . . 273A.35The Thirtythird Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 274A.36The Thirtyfourth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 275A.37The Thirtyth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . 276A.38The Thirtysixth Principle . . . . . . . . . . . 277A.39The Thirtyseventh Principle . . . . . . . . . 277A.40The Thirtyeighth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 278A.41The Thirtyninth Principle . . . . . . . . . . 280

B Excerpts From al-Dabbss Tass al-Naz. ar 281B.1 Ab Zayd Ubayd Allh ibn Umar s al-

Dabbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281B.2 The Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282B.3 Disagreement Between Ab H. anfah and the

Two Disciples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286B.4 Disagreement of AbH. anfah andAb Ysuf

With Muhammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292B.5 Disagreement of Ab H. anfah and Muham-

mad With Ab Ysuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293B.6 Disagreement Between Ab Ysuf and

Muh. ammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294B.7 Disagreement of Our Three JuristsWith Zufar 296B.8 Disagreement Between Our Three Jurists and

Mlik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298B.9 Disagreement Between Us and Ibn Ab Layl 298B.10 Disagreement Between Us and al-Sh . . 299B.11 Miscellaneous Principles That Have Aected

Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

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C Articles 2 to 100 fromMajallat al-Ah. km al-Adliyyah 303

D Maxims From al-Ashbh wa-al-Naz. ir byIbn Nujaym 311D.1 The First Six Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . 311D.2 The Next Nineteen Principles . . . . . . . . 312

E List of LegalMaximsDiscussed in This Book 315Bibliography 331Glossary 333

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Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee Advanced Legal Studies Institute

• PREFACE

The relationship between the disciplines of us.l al-qh and qawidqhiyyah is like the relationship between the two arms of the hu-man body; they cooperatewith each other to yield the rules of qh.This vital relationship has been kept concealed by separating thetwo disciplines and by severing the bond between them. Workingwith one hand is possible, but it reduces and considerably ham-pers the eciency of the system.

Unfortunately, the discipline of qawid qhiyyah has beenburied under a mass of misleading detail in modern writings.Many books, and even an encyclopaedia or two, have been writ-ten. These eorts are to be appreciated, but without r...