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Maryland Spring Tournament 2012 - Packet 8 “Does Anybody Have a Question Set We Can Use?” Tournament Written by Issac Hersh, Jeff Amorous, the Amorous Amoros, Chris Rudes, Nofear Lipsitts, Gray Davis, Paul Marchsteiner, Brain “Brains” McPoke, Logan Anbinder, SteveJon Guthram, Pan Duma, Chris Ray TOSSUPS 1. The Hondh-Chillar massacre was part of four days of hyperviolence in and around this city in 1984 that saw congressmen like Lalit Maken personally lead angry mobs on killing sprees. Those riots followed an attack carried out in this city against the architect of Operation Blue Star, a raid on the Golden Temple at Amritsar. Edwin Lutyens led a famous urban planning effort in this final capital of the Mughal dynasty after the British Raj transferred its base of operations to this city from Calcutta. The governments of Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi were based at, for 10 points, what metropolis whose “new” version is the current capital of India? ANSWER: Delhi [accept either “New” or “Old” Delhi , “Delhi Sultanate,” etc.] 2. One of this man’s first works was the “Easy Edges” furniture series, and this man designed an art museum on the campus of the University of Minnesota. In addition to the Weisman museum of art, he designed a building originally named “Fred and Ginger,” and this architect of the Dancing House of Prague also designed a recent controversial memorial to Dwight Eisenhower. A more famous structure designed by this man is a series of differently-curved silver shells and is located in Los Angeles. For ten points, name this modern American architect of the Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Guggenheim Bilbao. ANSWER: Frank Gehry 3. In addition to being a pirate, Captain Blood practices this profession. Lvov has this profession in Chekhov's play Ivanov. Characters with this profession include Daneeka and a character trapped in the town of Oran named Rieux. A character in the The Great Gatsby with this profession buys a billboard with his eyes overlooking a valley. In Love in the Time of Cholera, Fermina's husband Urbino has this profession. Another of these characters loves both Tonya and Lara during twentieth century Russia. For 10 points, name this profession, one of whom titles a Pasternak novel and is named Zhivago. ANSWER: Doctor s [accept Dr. ] 4. The QED type of this entity approaches the classical type as Planck’s constant approaches zero. The characteristic impedance of this entity is equal to three hundred seventy seven ohms. Zero point energy describes the energy in

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Maryland Spring Tournament 2012 - Packet 8“Does Anybody Have a Question Set We Can Use?”Tournament Written by Issac Hersh, Jeff Amorous, the Amorous Amoros, Chris Rudes, Nofear Lipsitts, Gray Davis, Paul Marchsteiner, Brain “Brains” McPoke, Logan Anbinder, SteveJon Guthram, Pan Duma, Chris Ray

TOSSUPS1. The Hondh-Chillar massacre was part of four days of hyperviolence in and around this city in 1984 that saw congressmen like Lalit Maken personally lead angry mobs on killing sprees. Those riots followed an attack carried out in this city against the architect of Operation Blue Star, a raid on the Golden Temple at Amritsar. Edwin Lutyens led a famous urban planning effort in this final capital of the Mughal dynasty after the British Raj transferred its base of operations to this city from Calcutta. The governments of Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi were based at, for 10 points, what metropolis whose “new” version is the current capital of India?ANSWER: Delhi [accept either “New” or “Old” Delhi, “Delhi Sultanate,” etc.]

2. One of this man’s first works was the “Easy Edges” furniture series, and this man designed an art museum on the campus of the University of Minnesota. In addition to the Weisman museum of art, he designed a building originally named “Fred and Ginger,” and this architect of the Dancing House of Prague also designed a recent controversial memorial to Dwight Eisenhower. A more famous structure designed by this man is a series of differently-curved silver shells and is located in Los Angeles. For ten points, name this modern American architect of the Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Guggenheim Bilbao.ANSWER: Frank Gehry

3. In addition to being a pirate, Captain Blood practices this profession. Lvov has this profession in Chekhov's play Ivanov. Characters with this profession include Daneeka and a character trapped in the town of Oran named Rieux. A character in the The Great Gatsby with this profession buys a billboard with his eyes overlooking a valley. In Love in the Time of Cholera, Fermina's husband Urbino has this profession. Another of these characters loves both Tonya and Lara during twentieth century Russia. For 10 points, name this profession, one of whom titles a Pasternak novel and is named Zhivago.ANSWER: Doctors [accept Dr.]

4. The QED type of this entity approaches the classical type as Planck’s constant approaches zero. The characteristic impedance of this entity is equal to three hundred seventy seven ohms. Zero point energy describes the energy in this entity, for which the D and H fields simplify to E and B fields, respectively. Attempts to create these entities have only been successful at getting to below ten to the minus nine torr. The index of refraction is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in this entity to the speed of light in a particular medium. For 10 points, name this state which describes space, which is completely devoid of matter.ANSWER: Vacuum

5. WPP and Interpublic are two of the big four companies specializing in this process. Too much success may result in undesirable genericization. Liking and Preference are two of the six stages in the hierarchy of effects model of this process. When directed toward children this process anticipates "pester power." If the goal is non-profit, these may take the forms of PSAs, and local examples include classifieds. Techniques for this include sex appeal and celebrity endorsement, though unsolicited forms may be spam. For 10 points, name this communication that aims to persuade you to buy a product, commonly in the form of television commercials.ANSWER: Advertising [accept Ads, accept commercials before read]

6. In several games in this series, the Member Card is needed to enter secret shops where items such as secret books and goddess icons can be purchased. An automatic critical can be performed in this series if three

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flying characters are spaced to perform a triangle attack. Joshua, Zihark, and Lucia are among the characters who have a disadvantage when fighting against lances because the weapon triangle goes against the swords those myrmidons use. A mastery skill in a Gamecube game in this series combines the Sol and Luna skills and was the inspiration for the Super Smash Bros recovery move, Aether. For ten points, name this Nintendo strategy series which includes the characters Roy, Ike, and Marth.ANSWER: Fire Emblem

7. One author from this country described such characters as Beta, The Disappointed Lover and Delta, The Troubadour in his novel The Captive Mind, while another described a man’s sudden change from a thirty year old into a teenager in his novel Ferdydurke. Another author from this country wrote a trilogy of historical novels that included With Fire and Sword and Fire in the Steppe, as well as a novel that sees the Christian Ligia become the object of Marcus Vinicius’ love entitled Quo Vadis. This country’s national epic, Pan Tadeusz, was written by Adam Mickiewicz. For ten points, name this country home to Witold Gombrowicz and Henryk Sienkiewicz with capital at Warsaw.ANSWER: Poland

8. One leader of this polity signed the Treaty of Bagnolo after being embarrassed in the Salt War. Another ruler of this historical state brought in Prince Cem as a political hostage sent by his brother Bayezid II. This state was ruled by one man who switched sides to ally himself with Venice against France in the War of the League of Cambrai. In addition to being ruled by Giuliano Della Rovere, this polity was ruled by a man who married off his illegitimate daughter Lucrezia to Giovanni Sforza. That same man appointed his son Cesare as the head of this state’s army, and this state also held the territory of Romagna until 1870 when Victor Emmanuel captured this state’s capital. For 10 points, identify this historical state that was once ruled by the Borgia family, and whose other rulers included many men named Pius and Innocent.ANSWER: Papal States [Accept clear equivalents such as Holy See or Rome or Papacy. Be very lenient and prompt on the “Roman Catholic Church”]

9. One group of figures in this religion are three entities who comprise a set of twins, being male, female, and male and female, and are called the Marassa. Subgroups within this religion include the Rada and the Petro. Priests for hire in this religion are referred to as Bokor, while other male priests in this religion are referred to as houngans. One prominent figure in this religion wears a tuxedo and top hat, is married to Mama Brigitte, and is named Baron Samedi. Those two figures are Loa, who serve under the greater spirit Bondye. For 10 points, name this Haitian religion whose practitioners may stick pins in this religion’s namesake “dolls.” ANSWER: Voodoo

10. In 2012, the SDO satellite discovered and filmed enormous earth sized versions of these on the surface of the sun. These are often visible because of the low pressure predicted by Bernoulli’s principle, which causes condensation of water vapor in the air. The TORRO scale extends one scale to measure these, while the Fujita scale measures their strength by the damage done, with an F0 barely damaging trees and an F5 ripping buildings from their foundations. Creating wind speeds of up to 300 miles per hour, for ten points, name these giant rotating columns of air, often found in their namesake alley.ANSWER: Tornadoes [accept twister or cyclone]

11. Frederich Baum’s forces were defeated in a battle directly preceding this one. The future commander at the Surrender of Charleston, Benjamin Lincoln, led the center for the winning side, and Daniel Morgan’s riflemen killed one opposing commander, Simon Fraser. The left wing of the winning side was commanded by Benedict Arnold. Containing the Battles of Bemis Heights and Freedman’s Farm, the losing commander was “Gentleman” John Burgoyne. For ten points, name this Revolutionary War battle in which Horatio Gates beat up a

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bunch of Red Coats in northern New York.ANSWER: Battle of Saratoga

12. This composer purchased a starling to sing a section of his Piano Concerto No. 17, which was eventually performed by his pupil Barbara Ployer. He would mock Joseph Leutgeb in the score for his Horn Concertos, and wrote symphonies given nicknames like “Paris” and “Prague.” He would use Mannheim rockets in the fourth movement of his more famous 40th “Great” symphony which would precede his 41st and last symphony. The second movement is marked “Romanze” in a serenade he wrote, and his requiem was left unfinished at his death before being completed by Franz Sussmayr. For 10 points, name this composer of Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and the Jupiter Symphony, who also wrote operas like The Magic Flute.ANSWER: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

13. This disease can lead to a namesake type of diabetes because it can cause damage in the islets of Langerhans, which make insulin. It can be caused by several mutations but delta F508 is the most common one and leads to the lack of a protein that mediates the opening of chloride channels, causing water to be drawn from the cell. It is often diagnosed with a sweat test, and then treatment includes regular percussing the chest to dislodge mucus. For ten points, name this autosomal recessive disease that causes the buildup of mucus in the lungs.ANSWER: Cystic Fibrosis [accept CF]

14. One poem by this author asks Garcia Lorca "what were you doing down by the watermelons?" This poet coined the phrase "Hydrogen Jukebox," which became the title of a Philip Glass opera with lyrics taken from this man's poetry. One poem by this man begins "Strange now to think of you, gone" and is dedicated to Naomi. This man's best known poem asks "What sphinx of cement and aluminium bashed open their skulls and ate up their brains and imagination?" and answers "Moloch." That poem opens with "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness." For 10 points, name this American beat poet of the poem “Howl.”ANSWER: Allen Ginsberg

15. In one story, this figure encounters a ram who knocks food off his table, along with a young woman and an old man. This figure drowns nine opponents when they are commanded to drown him after being defeated by this figure at a game of hurling, and his son is birthed by the deer woman Sadbh and is named Oisin. This man kills a figure who kills his father by arming himself with magical weapons from a crane-skin bag; that enemy’s name is Goll MacMorna. This figure’s most famous characteristic is his ability to gain clairvoyance after sticking his thumb in his mouth, a result of burning it on the Salmon of Knowledge. For 10 points, identify this Irish hero of the Fenian Cycle.ANSWER: Finn McCool or Finn mac Cumhail or Deimne

16. Several months ago, this state was the site of the largest pharmaceutical drug bust in history, and that occurred in the city of Hialeah. One congressional district in this state was represented by a man who claimed there were communist members in the Democratic party, Allen West. In the most recent senatorial election in this state the winner beat Kendrick Meek and Charlie Crist in order to gain his seat. This state was the recent site where a teenager who bought Skittles and Iced Tea was shot to death by George Zimmerman, and Zimmerman was charged with second degree murder. For 10 points identify this state whose current senator is Tea Party darling Marco Rubio, and was the state where Trayvon Martin was killed.ANSWER: Florida

17. One can calculate this quantity from the Clausius Clapeyron equation given the vapor pressure and heat of vaporization. A mixture for which this property is lower than for either of the constituent parts is called a positive azeotrope. This property can be bypassed by a process analogous to supersaturation, which can lead

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to violent eruptions upon adding nucleation sites. This colligative property can be defined as the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to ambient pressure. For ten points, name this phase transition which involves changing from a liquid to a gas, and happens in water at 100 degrees Celsius.ANSWER: Boiling Point

18. This country defeated an invasion by an eastern neighbor with the aid of Cuban troops in the Ogaden War. It sent the Kagnew Brigade as part of the United Nations forces during the Korean War. The fact that the Treaty of Wuchale meant different things in different languages led to a battle in which the winning side was advised by Nikolay Leontiev. That battle saw this country’s forces defeat troops under Oreste Baratieri to win sovereignty under King Menelik II from Italy. The battle of Adowa was fought in, for ten points, what East African country, bordered by Somalia and Sudan, with capital Addis Ababa.ANSWER: Ethiopia

19. In this story, one character notes a space around Henry protected by policemen and the law, while later the body of a murder victim is washed away in a storm After Robert is nearly killed, one character's suggestion of hunting little boys is met with laughter. The boy with the mulberry-colored mark is the first to describe the beastie, which later is conflated with a dead parachutist. Near the end of this novel, Roger kills Piggy and shatters the conch shell, while Jack attempts to kill Ralph before a passing ship rescues everyone. For 10 points, name this William Golding novel about school boys trapped on an island.ANSWER: Lord of the Flies

20. This artist created three different canvases of a firing squad in blue uniforms in his Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. Another painting by this artist displays a drink with a red triangle on the label in the foreground, and in the upper left of that work, a trapeze swings above a woman with bright yellow gloves. The central character of this artist’s A Bar at the Folies Bergere is similar to another figure who stares at the viewer while a black servant brings the naked title figure a bouquet of flowers. In this artist’s most famous work, a woman bathes in the background while a naked woman joins two finely dressed men for a picnic. For ten points, name this French artist of Olympia and Luncheon on the Grass.ANSWER: Edouard Manet

BONUSES1. The character Sganarelle appears in many of this man’s works. For ten points each:[10] Name this playwright who wrote about Magdelon and Cathos’ search for love in The Affected Ladies and Arnolphe’s raising of Agnes in The School for Wives.ANSWER: Moliere [or Jean-Baptiste Poquelin][10] In this Moliere play, the title character lusts after Elmire, who hosts him as a houseguest with her husband Orgon.ANSWER: Tartuffe, or The Impostor[10] Ironically, Moliere died during a performance of this play about Argan and his obsession with good health.ANSWER: The Imaginary Invalid [or The Hypochondriac]

2. Answer some questions about a dreadful object of calculus, the integral. For 10 points each:[10] According to the fundamental theorem of calculus, this operation is the inverse of integration. This operation is equivalent to finding the slope of the tangent line on a graph.ANSWER: Differentiation [accept word forms, accept derivative][10] One definition of the definite integral as the area under a curve uses sums named for this German mathematician. This mathematician also names a zeta function of great importance to number theory.ANSWER: Bernhard Riemann

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[10] This technique can be used to compute the antiderivative of the function X times E to the X. Conceptually, this is the opposite of the product rule for differentiation.ANSWER: Integration by Parts

3. He included the so-called “Windflower” theme to represent his love Alice Stuart-Wortley in his Violin Concerto in B minor. For 10 points each:[10] Name this British composer who is best known for a series of military marches called Pomp and Circumstance, the first of which is popularly used for high school graduations.ANSWER: Edward Elgar[10] This other work by Elgar features movements like “Ysobel” and “Nimrod” and was based on a mysterious hidden theme that the composer took to his grave.ANSWER: Enigma Variations[10] This oratorio by Elgar depicts a man’s journey to Purgatory and was based on a poem by Cardinal Newman.ANSWER: The Dream of Gerontius

4. You are in the Army of the Mississippi during the Civil War. Name some things you did, for ten points each:[10] You most likely fought at this 1862 battle, where your commander, Albert Sidney Johnston, died. You managed to avoid the Hornet’s Nest, but were pushed back at its alternate title, Pittsburgh Landing.ANSWER: Battle of Shiloh[10] After scoring a pyrrhic victory at Perryville, you traveled to this city that was being sieged by Ulysses S. Grant. Your commander, John Pemberton, eventually gave in and surrendered.ANSWER: Vicksburg[10] In October 1863, the Army of the Mississippi was turned over to this man, the commander of the right wing at Chickamauga who was also known as the “Fighting Bishop.”ANSWER: Leonidas K. Polk

5. This man was apparently so convincing in his mockery of Lord Bolingbroke in A Vindication of Natural Society that he had to republish the work with a preface identifying it as satire. For 10 points each:[10] Identify this man who delivered a speech on “The Nabob of Arcot's Debts” during his long campaign to impeach Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India.ANSWER: Edmund Burke[10] Burke's most famous work is a set of 1790 “reflections” on this conflict, which was analyzed from a Marxist perspective by Francois Furet. Burke's warnings about this conflict earned a great deal of credence after it devolved into the Reign of Terror.ANSWER: the (French) Revolution [accept equivalents][10] One of the responses to Burke's Reflections was A Vindication of the Rights of Men by this thinker, the wife of William Godwin. She is better known for the similarly-titled A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.ANSWER: Mary Wollstonecraft

6. Sex in this order is generally determined through a haplodoploid system, where males have one set of chromosomes and females have two. For 10 points each:[10] Name this insect order that contains sawflies and ants, whose name refers to their membranous wings held together by hamuli. ANSWER: Hymenoptera[10] Another subgroup of hymenoptera are these insects known for performing elaborate waggle dances to communicate the path between flowers and their hive.ANSWER: Bees [accept Apoidea or Anthophila]

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[10] World bee populations have been dropping precariously as worker bees just disappear in a phenomenon known by this name. Scientists do not agree on its cause.ANSWER: Colony Collapse Disorder [prompt on "CCD"]

7. Coming two weeks after the Jewish new year celebration of Rosh Hashanah, this holiday sees people dine underneath a temporary structure. For 10 points each:[10] Name this week-long Jewish holiday of the harvest, which involves the shaking of a lulav and etrog as well as eating and/or sleeping under a roof of any organic material.ANSWER: Sukkot[10] Following Sukkot is Shemini Atzeret, a holiday commemorating the receipt of this holy text of the Jewish religion. ANSWER: Torah[10] The second day of Shemini Atzeret is Simchat Torah where the last lines of this last book of Moses which proceeds a bunch of dancing with the holy scrolls.ANSWER: Deuteronomy

8. Name some things about Middle Eastern poetry, for ten points each:[10] “A jug of wine, a loaf of bread, and thou” appears in this Omar Khayyam work that was translated by Edward Fitzgerald.ANSWER: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam[10] This 13th century Sufi poet wrote a 25,000 verse poem called the Masnavi.ANSWER: Rumi [or Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī][10] Almustafa is the title character of this collection of 26 poetic essays by Lebanese author Khalil Gibran.ANSWER: The Prophet

9. This man founded the journal “Thought and Action,” For ten points each:[10] Name this politician, the leader of a group named for the Young members of his country.ANSWER: Giuseppe Mazzini[10] Mazzini was a leader of the reunification of this country, where Garibaldi was also from.ANSWER: Italy [10] Mazzini kept up a correspondence with this pope, who was the longest serving pope and declared the doctrine of Papal Infallibility.ANSWER: Pius IX (ACCEPT: Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, prompt on Pius)

10. Answer the following about some countries that are part of the Anglophone Caribbean. For 10 points each:[10] You can still catch a game of cricket in this country with capital at Georgetown, though good luck finding games anywhere else nearby. That’s because this country is the only one in South America whose official language is English.ANSWER: Guyana[10] Nicknamed the Emerald Isle of the Caribbean, this British Overseas Territory is part of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles. A volcano destroyed this island’s original capital in 1995 forcing them to move it to Brades and seal off half the island in an “Exclusion Zone.”ANSWER: Montserrat[10] A country not nearly as far away from the coast of Britain as those in the Caribbean is this Crown Dependency of the United Kingdom with official languages English and a Gaelic tongue, Manx, and accessible via a ferry from Liverpool.ANSWER: Isle of Man

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11. Abstract painter Arthur Goldreich helped secure Liliesleaf Farm for this group's military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe, or “The Spear of the Nation.” For 10 points each:[10] Identify this anti-apartheid group, now the dominant political party in South Africa.ANSWER: African National Congress[10] This Nobel Laureate and longtime foe of P.W. Botha is the most famous leader of the ANC. He became the first black President of South Africa in 1994.ANSWER: Nelson Mandela[10] Mandela's 27 years in prison were mostly spent on this rocky island off the coast of Cape Town, the preferred site to jail South African political dissidents since the Xhosa Wars.ANSWER: Robben Island

12. A young woman appears nonplussed at the horned creature in her hands in this man's painting Young Woman with a Unicorn. For 10 points each:[10] Name this High Renaissance painter of the Triumph of Galatea and many Madonnas including the Madonna of the Goldfinch.ANSWER: Raphael [or Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino][10] This best known work by Raphael decorates the walls of the area now known as his namesake rooms in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The central figures depicted are Plato and Aristotle who walk beneath a series of arches that recede into the background.ANSWER: The School of Athens[10] One of the greatest patrons of Raphael was this pope, the successor of Julius II. Raphael painted a portrait of this man with two of his cardinals.ANSWER: Leo X

13. This type of reaction can occur when the critical mass is exceeded, starting an exponentially grown chain reaction. For ten points each:[10] The earliest nuclear bombs used this type of reaction which, unlike fusion, creates energy by breaking apart heavy nuclei like Uranium.ANSWER: Fission[10] The fast type of this particle has kinetic energy greater than one mega electron volt and is able to cause fission directly. In the atmosphere, this particle has a long half life of about fifteen minutes.ANSWER: Neutrons[10] This Italian scientist helped pioneer fission when he bombarded nuclei with slow neutrons and observed that the nuclei got heavier. He later went on to work on the Manhattan Project, and lends his name to class of particles.ANSWER: Enrico Fermi

14. One section of this essay discusses “Shakespeare’s sister” Judith. For ten points each:[10] Name this essay that chronicles a history of women’s literature and asserts that the title concept allows women the freedom to write.ANSWER: A Room of One’s Own[10] A Room of One’s Own is an essay by this author who wrote Jacob’s Room and Mrs. Dalloway.ANSWER: Virginia Woolf[10] This other Woolf novel chronicles the Ramsay family’s visit to the Isle of Skye.ANSWER: To the Lighthouse

15. It’s an election year in 2012 so answer some questions about ways people choose their representatives in government. For ten points each:[10] Our founding fathers set up this barrier between the popular vote and the presidency. Many have sought to

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abolish this system as it gives greater voting power to some states based on their population.ANSWER: the Electoral College[10] For all states except Nebraska and Maine, voting for President is based on this winner-take-all system in which all representatives in the electoral college vote for whomever got the greatest number of votes.ANSWER: First-Past-the-Post Voting [accept FPTP or FPP][10] The first-past-the-post system prevents this type of election which has a secondary election removing some losers if no one gets a majority of the votes.ANSWER: Runoff voting [accept Two-round election]

16. Lesser known members of this group included Djuna Barnes and Edna St. Vincent Millay. For ten points each:[10] Name this theater company located in its namesake Massachusetts city. It notably produced most of the plays of Eugene O’Neill.ANSWER: Provincetown Players[10] This O’Neill play focuses on the struggles with drug addiction of the Tyrone family.ANSWER: Long Day’s Journey Into Night[10] In this other play by Eugene O’Neill, Brutus escapes to a Caribbean island and sets himself up as dictator, only to be killed with a silver bullet by rebels.ANSWER: The Emperor Jones

17. You’ve found yourself in Mesoamerica nearly 500 years before Hernan Cortes, so use some knowledge to prevent being a human sacrifice. For 10 points each:[10] Use your knowledge of this text which lists both the creation myth of a certain Central American civilization as well as the exploits of the twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque to convince the natives that you are too important to die.ANSWER: Popol Vuh[10] If they even seem to vaguely understand what you are talking about, you have found this Mesoamerican civilization whose ancient calendar has been misunderstood to predict the end of the world in 2012.ANSWER: Mayan[10] Perhaps you’re in Chichen Itza, so don’t participate in a game at the Great Ballcourt or you might be sacrificed to this underworld where the Hero twins once played.ANSWER: Xibalba

18. A series correction for this equation of state is called the virial equation. For 10 points each:[10] Name this equation which states that for a certain type of matter, P V equals N R T.ANSWER: Ideal Gas Law[10] According to the ideal gas law, one mole of an ideal gas at zero degrees celsius and one atmosphere takes up this volume in liters. Two digits of precision required.ANSWER: Twenty-two Liters [accept any equivalent, accept overprecise answers][10] The Ideal Gas law is most applicable to real gases in these two limits. Name both.ANSWER: High Temperatures and Low Pressure [accept logical equivalents, accept Low Density in place of "Low Pressure" prompt if unsure]

19. This country’s first Prime Minister was assassinated shortly after he denounced the Phanariots. For 10 points each:[10] Identify this nation that successfully achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832 with the help of such men as Alexander Ypsilantis and Ioannis Kapodistrias. ANSWER: Greece [Accept First Hellenic Republic][10] Kapodistrias was perhaps assassinated more so for supporting the rule of King Otto from this German kingdom, over Greece. This state was also earlier home to the Potato War, and “Mad King” Ludwig II was a

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monarch of this state.ANSWER: Kingdom of Bavaria[10] This naval battle secured Greek independence. The Ottomans under Ibrahim Pasha were destoryed by the allied fleet led by Edward Codrington.ANSWER: Battle of Navarino

20. The 2012 Major League Baseball season is over. Name some things about it, For ten points each,[10] This former Cardinals slugger and first baseman got off to a terrible start with his new team, the Angels, with zero home runs and a .501 OPS at the time this bonus was written.ANSWER: Albert Pujols[10] On the other hand, this Dodgers outfielder, who should have won the National League MVP last year, is killing it this year with eleven home runs and 2.1 wins above replacement, according to fangraphs.com.ANSWER: Matt Kemp[10] Another player who went off to a fast start is this Cardinals third baseman that was named World Series MVP in 2011 after a walk-off homer in the 6th game and a two-run double in the 7th game.ANSWER: David Freese