Marwadi - A Maharashtrian Variety of Rajasthani

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Text of Marwadi - A Maharashtrian Variety of Rajasthani

The sociolinguistic study of




Terana Dam, Aurad Shahajani.

The sociolinguistic study of




For the partial fulfillment of the course Masters of Arts


Submitted by: Rohan Saraf BakshiMA (Eng), CIEFL, Lucknow.

Supervisor: Prof. R NDirector, CIEFL, Lucknow.



To my late father... Whose presence still I can feel...


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am extremely grateful to Prof. R N Bakshi, who not only sanctioned my topic but provided me all necessary guidance and help. Without his invaluable guidance, I would not have been able to complete this project. I am very thankful to him to welcome my ideas regarding the data collection and the project and for giving me his precious time. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Vipin Kumar, to provide me necessary guidelines about project-writing. I would like to thank Dr. N V Krishna Mohan who always had discussed with me about my project work. It was a matter of prestige for me to spend time with such persons for the past two years. I would like to express special thanks to my senior friend from Vijay Wada, Mr. Sriniwasa Kumar, who always guided me through net chatting. He has been a constant help to me. I would like to mention about the support provided my mother constantly through this project work. She helped me for a better understanding of Marwadi language.


My acknowledgements can not be completed without mention of a person, my cousin Karan Sharma, who took great efforts for the data collection.


INTRODUCTION...6-14 Purpose behind the study About AURAD SHAHAJANI Linguistic case of Aurad Marwadi community in Aurad


DATA COLLECTION15-21 The making of the questionnaire The Modus Operandi Statistics DERIVED FACTS..........22-31 Language use and Language choice of the Marwadi users in Aurad Languages used in different situations Languages used for different purposes Language preferences of a Marwadi user in Aurad TRANSFORMATION OF MARWARI INTO MARWADI ....................................................31-37 Code-switching and Code-borrowing Syntactical changes Phonemic changes








Purpose behind the studyThere is a very famous saying in Marathi, about languages. It says, language changes every fifty miles. It somehow derives a limit for the language domain roughly. The same language can have some changes out of the range of fifty miles as stated in this saying. But careful observation says that language does not vary by place to place but person to person.

I belong to a family which has a bilingual situation in itself. My father was Marathi and my mother is Rajasthani by birth. I have grown up learning

both languages simultaneously. Also I was brought up in a place people were different linguistic background mix with each other and form a unique multilingual situation. I was happened to face four different languages since my childhood, three of which I can speak fluently. My interest was raised in this topic when I noticed some changes in the original variety of Marwari,


because of Marathi. My interest about the history of this community was also found its place. Being a fluent speaker both languages, I could contrast both of them in a well manner. So, I decided to dig out the fact about the changes occurred in Marwari because the constant touch of a totally alien language, Marathi. During my studies at CIEFL, Lucknow campus, I came across Sociolinguistics, which helped me to be familiar with the basic concepts. It certainly helped me in focusing about the topic.

Another purpose behind this study is to talk about a community which migrates from its homeland to some stranger places for its survival. Marwari community is unique in itself. This community migrated to Maharashtra and gave a new variety of Marwari. Like this they have migrated to all parts of the world, so uncountable number of varieties of Marwari is possible. This thing is not possible with a language like Marathi. Yet Marathi has its own number of varieties but limited one. Because Marathi community is not migrant. So this study is a small effort to reach to the history of this community through their language. As Noam Chomsky said once, I want reach to peoples minds through their languages. This study tries to follow Mr. Chomskys path.



Aurad Shahajani, shortly known as Aurad only, is a small town in Maharashtra. It has population of 20000-22000. Aurad has a history of more than 450 years which officially is not available. Aurad is located in the southern part of Maharashtra. It is situated on the border of Maharashtra and Karnataka. A river, named TERNA flows on the west side of Aurad. As mentioned above Aurad is situated on the border, it has a commercial importance. It is 200 km away from Hyderabad, so people from different place and different background have their business interests in Aurad. It gives Aurad a status of a multicultural and multilingual town. People of different religions and communities live in Aurad. The four communities are prominent in Aurad, i.e. Marathi, Marwari, Lingayat (followers of Lord Basweshwara) and Muslim. Initial three communities come under Hindu religion. Apart from Hindu and Muslim, some minor number of people of Jain and Buddhist communities lives there. So this is the multicultural social background of Aurad.


Linguistic case of Aurad

As mentioned in previous section, Aurad has a multicultural and multilingual background. There is a case of Quadra-lingual1 society which contains four languages as follows, Marathi, Marwadi, Kannada and a mixed variety of Hindi and Urdu. Marathi is the official language of the town. It is used in all kinds of official affairs. It is a medium of education, too. Marathi is the dominant language there. Because Marathi has the largest number of speakers in Aurad. The second most spoken language is Kannada, which is a language of Lingayata community. This community has its roots in Karnataka. It was formed by Lord Basweshwara in 1700 AD. Aurad has a business relationship with several other places in Karnataka. That is why many Kannada speakers are based in Aurad. The third language is the Marwadi, which is a language of a migrant community, Marwadi. They migrated to Aurad around 200 years ago. The fourth language is variety of Hindi and Urdu, mostly spoken by Muslim community of Aurad. This1

A linguistic domain with four different languages.


variety of Hindi has a Hyderabadi accent. It occurred because of the business relationship of Aurad with Hyderabad. So with these four major languages, Aurad becomes an example of a multilingual town, where four totally different languages exist. These four languages influence each other without any doubt. Being the most dominant language, Marathi has a greater influence comparing to other languages. Other languages have borrowed some lexical terms from Marathi. It will be very interesting to see an Auradian2 speaking in a language that is made by mixing of codes of two or more languages. Kannada and Hindi have taken place a change in them considerably, but highly influenced language by Marathi is Marwadi. Marwadi is actually a variety of a Rajasthani language, i.e. Marwari. Marwadi has taken such a form that no Marwari speaker could easily understand what a Marwadi speaker means. Marwadi has accepted many words, phrases and idioms. That makes it a different variety of Marwari. It has taken such expressions which could take place in the context of Maharashtra only. Aurad has four languages in its domain but the language for writing and reading is Marathi only. As mentioned above Marathi is a medium of education and Marathi language is a compulsory subject till Higher Secondary Level. Although some English medium and Urdu medium2

A citizen of Aurad Shahajani.


schools are being run in the town, but they are very minor in number. Marathi and Hindi speaker know how to write and read in their mother tongues, but in case of Kannada very few people know their own script. Marwadis do not know at all how to read or write in their language. In fact they do not have any script. I hope this will give a general idea of the linguistic case of Aurad Shahajani.


Marwadi community in Aurad

Nobody knows exactly when Marwadis migrated to Aurad Shahajani. There is no official proof for that. I consulted many old members of the community, aged 92+yrs; they told me that they belong to third or fourth generation of their family. We can imagine that Marwadis must have migrated to Aurad around 200-250 years ago. They were wondering in search of food and water. Most of the Marwadi families are rooted to Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Some others are from Udaipur, Bundelkhand and Jaisalmer3. This community came to Aurad and to many other places of Maharashtra. They became a part of these places. Because of the difficult geographical conditions of their home region, they were forced to leave their places. George Ludi discusses the types of migration, i.e. Internal migration and External migration. He says, A considerable number of German-speaking people have moved into other language regions and vice versa in order to study, to find a better employment, for personal reasons (marriage!), or to learn the3

names of the districts in Rajasthan, India


language. When referring to these people who have crossed a linguistic border in the country or w