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The sociolinguistic study of
A MAHARASHTRIAN VARIETY OF MARWARI
Terana Dam, Aurad Shahajani.
The sociolinguistic study of
A MAHARASHTRIAN VARIETY OF MARWARI
For the partial fulfillment of the course Masters of Arts (English)
Submitted by: Rohan Saraf Supervisor: Prof. R N Bakshi
MA (Eng), Director,CIEFL, CIEFL,Lucknow. Lucknow.
CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH AND FOEIGN LANGUAGES
To my late father...
Whose presence still I can feel...
I am extremely grateful to Prof. R N Bakshi, who not only sanctioned my
topic but provided me all necessary guidance and help. Without his
invaluable guidance, I would not have been able to complete this project.
I am very thankful to him to welcome my ideas regarding the data collection
and the project and for giving me his precious time.
I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Vipin Kumar, to provide me
necessary guidelines about project-writing. I would like to thank Dr. N V
Krishna Mohan who always had discussed with me about my project work.
It was a matter of prestige for me to spend time with such persons for the
past two years.
I would like to express special thanks to my senior friend from Vijay Wada,
Mr. Sriniwasa Kumar, who always guided me through net chatting. He has
been a constant help to me.
I would like to mention about the support provided my mother constantly
through this project work. She helped me for a better understanding of
My acknowledgements can not be completed without mention of a person,
my cousin Karan Sharma, who took great efforts for the data collection.
Purpose behind the study About AURAD SHAHAJANI Linguistic case of Aurad Marwadi community in Aurad
II. DATA COLLECTION…………………………………15-21 The making of the questionnaire The Modus Operandi Statistics
III. DERIVED FACTS………………………………..........22-31 Language use and Language choice of the Marwadi
users in Aurad Languages used in different situations Languages used for different purposes Language preferences of a Marwadi user in Aurad
IV. TRANSFORMATION OF MARWARI INTO MARWADI....................................................31-37
Code-switching and Code-borrowing Syntactical changes Phonemic changes
Purpose behind the study
There is a very famous saying in Marathi, about languages. It says,”
language changes every fifty miles.” It somehow derives a limit for the
language domain roughly. The same language can have some changes out of
the range of fifty miles as stated in this saying. But careful observation says
that language does not vary by place to place but person to person.
I belong to a family which has a bilingual situation in itself. My father was
Marathi and my mother is Rajasthani by birth. I have grown up learning
both languages simultaneously. Also I was brought up in a place people
were different linguistic background mix with each other and form a unique
multilingual situation. I was happened to face four different languages since
my childhood, three of which I can speak fluently. My interest was raised in
this topic when I noticed some changes in the original variety of Marwari,
because of Marathi. My interest about the history of this community was
also found its place. Being a fluent speaker both languages, I could contrast
both of them in a well manner. So, I decided to dig out the fact about the
changes occurred in Marwari because the constant touch of a totally alien
language, Marathi. During my studies at CIEFL, Lucknow campus, I came
across Sociolinguistics, which helped me to be familiar with the basic
concepts. It certainly helped me in focusing about the topic.
Another purpose behind this study is to talk about a community which
migrates from its homeland to some stranger places for its survival. Marwari
community is unique in itself. This community migrated to Maharashtra and
gave a new variety of Marwari. Like this they have migrated to all parts of
the world, so uncountable number of varieties of Marwari is possible. This
thing is not possible with a language like Marathi. Yet Marathi has its own
number of varieties but limited one. Because Marathi community is not
migrant. So this study is a small effort to reach to the history of this
community through their language. As Noam Chomsky said once, “I want
reach to people’s minds through their languages.” This study tries to follow
Mr. Chomsky’s path.
About AURAD SHAHAJANI
Aurad Shahajani, shortly known as Aurad only, is a small town in
Maharashtra. It has population of 20000-22000. Aurad has a history of more
than 450 years which officially is not available. Aurad is located in the
southern part of Maharashtra. It is situated on the border of Maharashtra and
Karnataka. A river, named TERNA flows on the west side of Aurad. As
mentioned above Aurad is situated on the border, it has a commercial
importance. It is 200 km away from Hyderabad, so people from different
place and different background have their business interests in Aurad. It
gives Aurad a status of a multicultural and multilingual town. People of
different religions and communities live in Aurad. The four communities are
prominent in Aurad, i.e. Marathi, Marwari, Lingayat (followers of Lord
Basweshwara) and Muslim. Initial three communities come under Hindu
religion. Apart from Hindu and Muslim, some minor number of people of
Jain and Buddhist communities lives there. So this is the multicultural social
background of Aurad.
Linguistic case of Aurad
As mentioned in previous section, Aurad has a multicultural and
multilingual background. There is a case of Quadra-lingual1 society which
contains four languages as follows, Marathi, Marwadi, Kannada and a mixed
variety of Hindi and Urdu. Marathi is the official language of the town. It is
used in all kinds of official affairs. It is a medium of education, too. Marathi
is the dominant language there. Because Marathi has the largest number of
speakers in Aurad. The second most spoken language is Kannada, which is a
language of Lingayata community. This community has its roots in
Karnataka. It was formed by Lord Basweshwara in 1700 AD. Aurad has a
business relationship with several other places in Karnataka. That is why
many Kannada speakers are based in Aurad. The third language is the
Marwadi, which is a language of a migrant community, Marwadi. They
migrated to Aurad around 200 years ago. The fourth language is variety of
Hindi and Urdu, mostly spoken by Muslim community of Aurad. This
1 A linguistic domain with four different languages.
variety of Hindi has a Hyderabadi accent. It occurred because of the business
relationship of Aurad with Hyderabad. So with these four major languages,
Aurad becomes an example of a multilingual town, where four totally
different languages exist. These four languages influence each other without
any doubt. Being the most dominant language, Marathi has a greater
influence comparing to other languages. Other languages have borrowed
some lexical terms from Marathi. It will be very interesting to see an
Auradian2 speaking in a language that is made by mixing of codes of two or
more languages. Kannada and Hindi have taken place a change in them
considerably, but highly influenced language by Marathi is Marwadi.
Marwadi is actually a variety of a Rajasthani language, i.e. Marwari.
Marwadi has taken such a form that no Marwari speaker could easily
understand what a Marwadi speaker means. Marwadi has accepted many
words, phrases and idioms. That makes it a different variety of Marwari. It
has taken such expressions which could take place in the context of
Aurad has four languages in its domain but the language for writing and
reading is Marathi only. As mentioned above Marathi is a medium of
education and Marathi language is a compulsory subject till Higher
Secondary Level. Although some English medium and Urdu medium 2 A citizen of Aurad Shahajani.
schools are being run in the town, but they are very minor in number.
Marathi and Hindi speaker know how to write and read in their mother
tongues, but in case of Kannada very few people know their own script.
Marwadis do not know at all how to read or write in their language. In fact
they do not have any script. I hope this will give a general idea of the
linguistic case of Aurad Shahajani.
Marwadi community in Aurad
Nobody knows exactly when Marwadis migrated to Aurad Shahajani. There
is no official proof for that. I consulted many old members of the
community, aged 92+yrs; they told me that they belong to third or fourth
generation of their family. We can imagine that Marwadis must have
migrated to Aurad around 200-250 years ago. They were wondering in
search of food and water. Most of the Marwadi families are rooted to
Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Some others are from Udaipur, Bundelkhand and
Jaisalmer3. This community came to Aurad and to many other places of
Maharashtra. They became a part of these places. Because of the difficult
geographical conditions of their home region, they were forced to leave their
places. George Ludi discusses the types of migration, i.e. Internal migration
and External migration. He says,
A considerable number of German-speaking people have moved into
other language regions and vice versa in order to study, to find a better
employment, for personal reasons (marriage!), or to learn the
3 names of the districts in Rajasthan, India
language. When referring to these people who have crossed a
linguistic border in the country or who are born from parents having
done so, we will use the term Internal Migration. (1996: 105)
This was Ludi’s observation about the migrant communities of Switzerland.
Reasons behind migration might be different but ultimately the migration is
same in case of both Swiss and Marwadi migrant communities.
After becoming a part of Aurad, Marwadi community contributed a lot to the
development. Being a merchant community, they knew how to do business.
Gradually, Aurad became a central location for all types of businesses,
mainly agricultural. Marwadi community, who came to Aurad with almost
nothing, became the richest community within few decades.
Even after accepting the Maharashtrian culture, Marwadis never forgot their
rituals and customs which their ancestors used to follow in Rajasthan. They
are very proud of their origins and still worship their family gods.
Now Marwadis are inseparable part of Aurad. They started changing their
professions. Most of them are choosing education and corporate sector as a
career option. Their language keeps on changing as time passed. They are
businessman basically. So they have to interact with almost every class and
caste of society. It was a necessary for a Marwadi to be a multilingual
personality. That is why a Marwadi in Aurad can speak minimum three
languages, Marathi, Hindi and of course, Marwadi. This proves beneficial
for a businessmen community. In Marwadi family, hardly anybody could be
found who is not doing business. Education is of least important for them.
Also they are very conservative when it comes to women. No Marwadi
woman can work outside. Although the scenario is changing a bit, but
percentage of girls learning is very less than boys. That is the reason why
Marwadi women are not efficient speakers of Marathi. The reason is less
exposure to the language, which does not happen in case of Marwadi men.
Marwadi community and their language are at their peak level. The more
changes come in them; more are the chances that they will forget about their
The Making of the Questionnaire
As I have mentioned before that my purpose behind the study was to note
down the changes occurred in Marwadi because of Marathi. I had to collect
a data which will supposedly help me to come to a conclusion. I have
enclosed a model copy of the questionnaire at the end of the project. As my
topic deals with only the speakers of Marwadi, data collection was centered
on them only. I met about one hundred and six people personally for the said
purpose. The questionnaire was mainly focused on their language habits4.
The questionnaire starts with the queries about personal information of the
interviewee. It contains information like Name, Age, sex, Education and the
Medium of Education, Mother tongue and Languages known. Age and Sex
were important in order to make an analytical study about the language use
by Marwadi speakers. Among all the interviewees around Fifty-five were
male and Forty-five were female. There were people from all age group.
4 Habits of using language at different places and for different purposes.
People from the age of five to eighty-five years were taken the interview.
The point of their education was not that important because most of them
belong to business class. Majority of them have taken their education in
Marathi medium. Here one thing, I have deliberately excluded, i.e.
Occupation. This thing I have not mentioned because almost all of them are
either shop owners or businessmen. The lower age group is learning which
sooner or later joins their seniors.
The second half of the questionnaire deals with the language habits of the
interviewees. It has two sections: one which discusses about the language
choice of a Marwadi speaker at different places and other which discusses
with the language choices for different purposes. They noted down their
language choice with a preference. That means they have chosen language
for a particular context with the preference. E.g. a speaker finds himself
comfortable speaking in Hindi with his friends and sometime he uses
Marwadi as well, he gave first preference to Hindi then to Marwadi. This
shows their command and level of comfort towards a language.
Although the questionnaire has all four languages5 in options but no one has
selected Kannada as their choice for any question. It shows that any speaker
5 i.e. Marathi, Marwadi, Hindi, Kannada.
of Marwadi can speak maximum three languages, i.e. Marwadi, Marathi and
The Modus Operandi
The Modus Operandi i.e. the method of the data collection was very clear. I
approached speakers having a note pad and copies of questionnaire in my
hand. I have a good access to the Marwadi people and most of them are
familiar with me, so I did not face much difficulty in collecting the data.
Although the questionnaire has spaces to fill, I had to fill them myself
manually because they were written in English and nobody in Aurad has a
good command over English. So I had to ask them questions and to get the
data out of it. As I mentioned, my cousin, Karan helped me in collection. We
did not face any problems with adults and that also with men, but with
women and kids it was a bit difficult. Because women, being from very
conservative families, sometimes refused to answer.
Some interviewee said that they have never looked at their language in this
way. It was all new for them. Then some people started thinking about their
language use consciously. I think partially my purpose behind the study was
successful. In this process, I came to know about various aspects of Marwadi
language. E.g. if one has to show his/her disliking towards something, two
different expressions are used in two different situations. avad and bhav are
the two expressions. avad is used when one has to show his/her disliking
towards anything but the food and edible things, and bhav is used when one
has to show his/her disliking towards an edible thing.
The method which was used for the said process was based on a pure
communicative way of talking. It also helped me to note down some markers
of Marwadi language which prove influence of Marathi over Marwadi.
In the survey held for the purpose of data collection, around One Hundred
and Five persons were interviewed personally. For a better understanding,
we will be considering only hundred feedbacks here, out of which Fifty-five
are male and Forty-five are female. For the convenience, the feedbacks are
sorted out on the basis of their age and sex. I have used following
abbreviations for convenience.
A = below 18 yrs
B = 18 yrs – 25 yrs
C = 26 yrs – 40 yrs
D = 41 yrs – and above.
M = Male; F = female.
So, studying these abbreviations one could easily understand meanings of
other abbreviations like AM, DF, etc. AM is a group of males who belong to
the age group below 18 yrs.
The table of statistics of the interviewee is as given below.
A = Below 18 yrs 20 10
B = 18 – 25 yrs 16 12
C = 26 – 40 yrs 13 14
D = 41 – above 9 13
TOTAL 55 45
After the analysis of the data, few facts came in the notice. In the age group,
A in which the members are below 18 yrs, few could speak only two
languages. They are actually child language learner. They are exposed to
only two languages, i.e. Marwadi and Hindi. The age group B is of average
language capacity. But the age groups C and D are the most efficient users
of all three languages that are Marwadi, Marathi and Hindi. The statistics
regarding some uses of language do not vary, like use of language at home
and at work, language for reading, listening and writing. But for the further
issues the statistics do vary at a large level.
Language use and Language choice of Marwadis
In Aurad, Marwadis unconsciously use three different languages in their
daily routine. They can not figure out which language is used by them at
what time. The other interesting thing about Marwadi users is that they can
switch to any language in the same context. Let us imagine a situation in
which me and my mother are having a piece of conversation with each other.
My mother but obviously speaks in Marathi with me. She asks me,
‘jevayalaa kay karu’, which means what do you want to have in the lunch?
Suddenly she happens to see our sweeper and asks him, ‘ kahaan jaa rahe
ho’, which means ‘where are you going’ in Hindi. Before anybody could
answer her question, her cell phone rings and she gets a call from her mother
and says, ‘kai karan laagi’, ‘which means how do u do’ in Marwadi. So
unconsciously she switched to three different languages, talking to three
different persons in three different contexts. Many examples like these can
be found in day to day life of Aurad. If we consider speakers other than
marwadis, a case of bilingualism is found in Aurad. Each and every person
in Aurad can speak at least two languages, i.e. Marathi and Hindi. Hindi has
a status of second language in Aurad. That is why it is known to everybody
there. Marwadi people have their own priorities of languages. A Marwadi
fellow to other will always speak in Marwadi only. With people from other
communities he will use either Marathi or Hindi. This is the way language is
chosen by a Marwadi speaker. In case of child language user, when speaking
to a speaker other than Marwadi, only Hindi will be used, because at that
time the child language user may not be competent enough to speak in
Marathi. The multilingual compatibility6 of a Marwadi speaker is directly
proportional to his/her age. The order of exposure to the language since his
childhood is as follows, Marwadi-Hindi-Marathi-English. So, at first a child
Marwadi user will learn Marwadi, because it is his mother tongue. Then he
will be exposed to Hindi language, which is very close to Marwadi
language. Thirdly he will be exposed to Marathi language because of the
surroundings. At last, he will get an exposure to English language because of
the education criteria. In this way a child language learner in Aurad leads
towards a process of being a multilingual personality.
Languages used in different situations6 Capacity of a speaker t speak in more than two languages.
In the previous chapter, I have given an example of switch over of a
language to another in the daily routine of Marwadi users. In this section, we
are going to observe their language habits7. In the second part of the
questionnaire, questions regarding their language habits are given. The first
part of the section deals with the use of language at different places. The
options given are At home, At work place, with friends and In a social
For the first question, everybody has given the same answer which is, of
course, Marwadi. Marwadi people are very particular about the use of
language at their home with their family members. Wherever they will go,
this thing will remain the same.
The second question deals with the work place. For the age group C and D
(see previous section, Statistics for the details) the work place is indeed their
shop. But for the age group A and B the work place is their schools or
colleges. Child language learners did not fill this section as they do not have
to go anywhere to work. The data says that most of the Marwadi users use
Marathi and at some extent Hindi at their work place. But no doubt they
7 Tendency to use different languages at different places and for different purposes.
prefer Marathi over Hindi. The switch over from one language to another
happens very rapidly and unconsciously at this situation. This is the situation
where a Marwadi user starts getting exposure to other languages.
The third question enquires about the language used in a situation where
Marwadi users are with their friends. Unlike the previous one, this is a very
casual situation of use of a language. Here there is no formality. In this
situation, some possibilities are there. One possibility is that a user must be
engaged in conversation with a friend who is also a Marwadi. Then in this
situation, as I mentioned earlier, a Marwadi will speak in Marwadi only.
With friends from other language community, he will use Hindi not Marathi.
This is a surprising observation that in a formal situation like business or
learning/teaching a Marwadi speaker finds Hindi more casual than Marathi.
He/she uses Marathi in a formal situation because of its reach. But there is
one observation about Marwadi people that they are likely to be attached to
their community at most of the time. That is the reason why most of the
interviewees gave preference to Marwadi while speaking with friends.
The fourth and the last observation about language choice of Marwadi
people is about a situation where they are in a social gathering. Again the
similar kind of observation has been recollected here. Most of the
interviewees have chosen Marwadi as their prime choice in a social
gathering and then comes Marathi and finally Hindi. Social gatherings could
be only among Marwadi people. So in this situation they will use only
Marwadi. But in the situation where they have to socialize with the speakers
of other languages, they will use Marathi or Hindi as the situation demands.
Again this depends on the particular event they are attending. In a formal
event like National Flag Holding on the Independence Day, they will
certainly use Marathi. But in a casual social event like marriages they will be
comfortable with Hindi. These observations in the form of a table is as
At home At work With friends In social
Marwadi Marathi Marwadi Marwadi
Marwadi Hindi Hindi Hindi
Marwadi Marathi Marathi
Here first row shoes the situations and other shows the languages used in
that particular situation. The languages in a column indicate language choice
of that particular situation. Languages in a column of a situation are
mentioned in a descending order of preference.
This section of the questionnaire puts an interesting observation about the
Language-use and the Language-choice of a Marwadi speaker. That is
degree of formality in case of a Marwadi users in Aurad decreases as
follows, Marathi > Hindi > Marwadi. The reason which I tried to figure out
when consulted to all the interviewees is they find themselves more
comfortable in Hindi than Marathi. Because they need not to be conscious
while process of thinking and talking goes on. But in case of Marathi, they
have to think first and then translate it into the said language. Of course, they
think in their Mother tongue, which is Marwadi. This section can be called
as the core of this study. It helps the study to draw a conclusion which
makes a statement about marwadis.
Languages used for different purposes
The second part of the section deals with the Language-use for the different
purposes. Purposes means for the utilization of different language skills like
LSRW8. Here Marwadi speakers can have choices between Marathi and
Hindi only, except in the case of speaking. The hypothesis of the data
collected is given below.
Hindi Marwadi Marathi Marathi
Marathi Hindi Hindi Hindi
It should be clear by now how marwadis maintain their language habits. In
the given table, the languages are mentioned in the decreasing order of their
preferences. Firstly for listening purpose, only two languages are available
in Aurad, i.e. Hindi and Marathi. Among which Hindi is more popular. So
marwadis give preference to Hindi, when it comes to listening songs, news
8 Skills of languages, listening, speaking, reading and writing.
on Television or Radio. For speaking, of course, they prefer Marwadi than
other languages. This point is already discussed in previous section about
their language choices. The third skill which is about reading leaves only
two choices for marwadis, i.e. Marathi and Hindi. In the print medium,
Marathi is dominant. Also the status of Marathi in Aurad does matter in this
case. Hindi has secondary status in this matter. What is applicable to
Reading is also applicable to Writing, too. For writing purpose, like for
writing a letter I both formal and informal cases, marwadis prefer Marathi
only. As Marathi is the official language, all the formal affairs like
fulfillment of official forms, etc happen in Marathi only. Hindi again has a
secondary status like it does have in the case of reading. But unfortunately
there are no means for marwadis to read or write in their language. Even
they do not know how to read or write in Marwadi. So this is the situation of
a community which speaks in its language but can nit read or write in it.
Language preference of a Marwadi user in Aurad
It will be interesting to see a criterion of Language-choice for a Marwadi
user in Aurad. It depends on so many things. Even the age is an important
factor. E.g. a Marwadi user who is five years old can not say which language
he/she prefers for the writing or reading purposes. Also a language choice
does depend on the educational qualification of the user sometimes.
It is observed that marwadis give preference to Marwadi as much as
possible. That is how they have maintained to keep their roots safe to a
culture and place where they belong. They give almost equal preference to
both Marathi and hind in circumstances. I found some people in a confused
state while giving answers for some questions, like ‘which language do u
use with your friends?’ some said that they use all three of them. Some could
not decide to which language they should give preference among Marathi
and Hindi. This shows how the linguistic situation gets complicated in
MARWARI INTO MARWADI
Code-switching and Code-borrowing
After being exposed to other languages for a huge time span of more than
200 years, it was but obvious for a language like Marwari to have changes in
itself. When marwadis came to Aurad in order to search food and water, they
were from different places of Rajasthan, speaking different dialects of
Marwari and Rajasthani. They were from Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Mewad,
Bundelkhandi, etc places in Rajasthan. They were speaking different dialects
like Marwari, Mewari, Bundelkhandi, Jaisalmeri and many like these.
When these people from different background of languages and cultures
gathered in Aurad, their language had undergone a long process of change.
Generations by generations they forgot their original languages. They used
to speak different variety of the same language, i.e. Marwari. So, even their
languages had variations but the soul structure of the all languages was
same. So all these varieties were influenced by the most dominant language,
i.e. Marathi. Gradually the interaction between them and the other language
users increased. More the interaction, more the influence on Marwari. This
whole process through which all the varieties of Marwari underwent,
resulted in a common variety of all marwadis that was Marwadi.
This variety of Marwari has some features of Marathi, too. A constant Code-
switching and Code-borrowing still goes on in case of Marwadi and Marathi.
E.g. I am feeling cold. English
Mala thandi vajat ahe. Marathi
In Marathi, to express that one is felling cold, he/she uses the expression
thandi vajane (to feel cold). But if we look at the literal meaning of the
words in the given expressions,
Vajane to beat (or bajaana in Hindi)
Whatever the words mean literally, the expression conveys the message that
the speaker is feeling cold.
We have some different expression in Hindi,
E.g. mujhe thand lag rahi hai. Hindi
If we try translating the above Marathi expression in English literally, it
becomes something like this,
E.g. I am beaten by the cold. English
Of course, the derived expression will not be a proper one. But my point is
in the process of transformation Marwadi has borrowed so many codes
which are not relevant in the original context of their language. But such
codes are appropriate in the context of Marathi. So what happened in the
case of Marwadi, it has borrowed this expression literally from Marathi. It is
E.g. man thandi baajan lagi ha. Marwadi
Here Marwadi not only borrowed the code of using the expression feeling
cold but also it has switched the code of the word Cold. It is as follows,
In this way, Code-switching and Code-borrowing happened in the process of
transformation of Marwari into Marwadi.
One syntactical change in Marwari, we have already witnessed in the
previous section about Code-switching and Code-borrowing. That is code
switching of the word thandi from Marathi to Marwadi. It signifies Cold.
There are so many examples of syntactical changes in Marwari because of
Marathi. But interesting thing is that they borrow some word, but with
certain modifications. Again Marathi and Hindi have a great syntactical
similarity between them, so it has been very easy for Marwadi to borrow
words from Marathi. The modifications in the original words are in the form
of phonemic structure. But some words are accepted as they are.
e.g. Long English
I am giving a list of some words which are taken in Marwadi from Marathi.
It is as follows,
Kala (black) Kalo
(phonemic change in the last sound)
Kantala (boredom) Kantalo
(phonemic change in the last sound)
Aamba (mango) Aambo
(phonemic change in the last sound)
Fukatya (lazy person) Fukatyo
(phonemic change in the last sound)
I think, by now it is pretty clear how a syntactical change in Marwadi took
place because of Marathi.
Marwadi, in the process of transformation, faced not only syntactical
changes but also some phonemic changes. One can easily observe the
difference between of accents of a Rajasthani Marwadi speaker and a
Maharashtrian Marwadi speaker. Rajasthani speakers have a typical way of
pronouncing some sounds like na, kha and da. These sounds are totally
omitted from the Maharashtrian variety of Marwari. Plus, there is an
addition of a sound from Marathi to Marwadi. That is l a. Marwadi has
accepted this sound in the use. There are not so much phonemic changes
which one can easily look for.
During this sociolinguistic study of Marwadi, I happened to observe various
aspects of lives of marwadis. I feel, somehow, I have managed to reach to
their minds through their languages, as Mr. Chomsky wants.
After completing the study, I felt that, Marwadi is at the peak level of its
transition phase. Aurad is changing with an enormous speed. A fourth factor
in this process is added that is affecting all the other languages that is
English. So what will be the future of Marwadi? Might be it will be a
language which lost its original status in the flow of time.
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