Mankiw Economics - Chapter 23

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  • In this chapter, look for the answers to these questions:What is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? How is GDP related to a nations total income and spending? What are the components of GDP? How is GDP corrected for inflation?Does GDP measure societys well-being?*

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*Micro vs. MacroMicroeconomics: The study of how individual households and firms make decisions, interact with one another in markets.Macroeconomics: The study of the economy as a whole.We begin our study of macroeconomics with the countrys total income and expenditure.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*Income and ExpenditureGross Domestic Product (GDP) measures total income of everyone in the economy. GDP also measures total expenditure on the economys output of g&s. For the economy as a whole, income equals expenditure because every dollar a buyer spends is a dollar of income for the seller.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*The Circular-Flow Diagrama simple depiction of the macroeconomyillustrates GDP as spending, revenue, factor payments, and incomePreliminaries:Factors of production are inputs like labor, land, capital, and natural resources. Factor payments are payments to the factors of production (e.g., wages, rent).

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*The Circular-Flow DiagramHouseholds:own the factors of production, sell/rent them to firms for incomebuy and consume goods & servicesFirms:buy/hire factors of production, use them to produce goods and servicessell goods & services

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*The Circular-Flow Diagram

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*What This Diagram OmitsThe governmentcollects taxes, buys g&sThe financial systemmatches savers supply of funds with borrowers demand for loansThe foreign sectortrades g&s, financial assets, and currencies with the countrys residents

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) IsGoods are valued at their market prices, so:All goods measured in the same units (e.g., dollars in the U.S.)Things that dont have a market value are excluded, e.g., housework you do for yourself.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) IsFinal goods: intended for the end user Intermediate goods: used as components or ingredients in the production of other goods GDP only includes final goods they already embody the value of the intermediate goods used in their production.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) IsGDP includes tangible goods (like DVDs, mountain bikes, beer)and intangible services (dry cleaning, concerts, cell phone service).

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) IsGDP includes currently produced goods, not goods produced in the past.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) IsGDP measures the value of production that occurs within a countrys borders, whether done by its own citizens or by foreigners located there.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*the market value of all final goods & services produced within a country in a given period of time.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) IsUsually a year or a quarter (3 months)

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*The Components of GDPRecall: GDP is total spending. Four components:Consumption (C)Investment (I)Government Purchases (G)Net Exports (NX)These components add up to GDP (denoted Y):Y = C + I + G + NX

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • GDPIf, Income = ExpenditureAnd, Income (Y) = ExpenditureGDP base on expenditure is C + I + G + NXThen Y = C + I + G + NXMEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*Consumption (C)is total spending by households on g&s. Note on housing costs: For renters, consumption includes rent payments. For homeowners, consumption includes the imputed rental value of the house, but not the purchase price or mortgage payments.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*Investment (I)is total spending on goods that will be used in the future to produce more goods. includes spending oncapital equipment (e.g., machines, tools)structures (factories, office buildings, houses)inventories (goods produced but not yet sold)Note: Investment does not mean the purchase of financial assets like stocks and bonds.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*Government Purchases (G)is all spending on the g&s purchased by govt at the federal, state, and local levels.G excludes transfer payments, such as Social Security or unemployment insurance benefits. They are not purchases of g&s.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*Net Exports (NX)NX = exports(X) imports (M)Exports represent foreign spending on the economys g&s. Imports are the portions of C, I, and G that are spent on g&s produced abroad. Adding up all the components of GDP gives:Y = C + I + G + NX

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*U.S. GDP and Its Components, 2007

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • In each of the following cases, determine how much GDP and each of its components is affected (if at all).A.Debbie spends $200 to buy her husband dinner at the finest restaurant in Boston.B.Sarah spends $1800 on a new laptop to use in her publishing business. The laptop was built in China. C.Jane spends $1200 on a computer to use in her editing business. She got last years model on sale for a great price from a local manufacturer. D.General Motors builds $500 million worth of cars, but consumers only buy $470 million worth of them.A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1 GDP and its components

  • A.Debbie spends $200 to buy her husband dinner at the finest restaurant in Boston.Consumption and GDP rise by $200. B.Sarah spends $1800 on a new laptop to use in her publishing business. The laptop was built in China. Investment rises by $1800, net exports fall by $1800, GDP is unchanged.A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1 Answers*

  • C.Jane spends $1200 on a computer to use in her editing business. She got last years model on sale for a great price from a local manufacturer. Current GDP and investment do not change, because the computer was built last year.D.General Motors builds $500 million worth of cars, but consumers only buy $470 million of them.Consumption rises by $470 million, inventory investment rises by $30 million, and GDP rises by $500 million.A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 1 Answers*

  • Measuring GDPMEASURING A NATIONS INCOME*

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • * of 35Calculating GDPexpenditure approach A method of computing GDP that measures the total amount spent on all final goods and services during a given period.income approach A method of computing GDP that measures the incomewages, rents, interest, and profitsreceived by all factors of production in producing final goods and services. Output approach A method of computing GDP from the output of each firm or supplier according to the sectors/industry. Example agriculture, manufacturing, services

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • * of 35Calculating GDPThe Expenditure ApproachThere are four main categories of expenditure: Personal consumption expenditures (C): household spending on consumer goods

    Gross private domestic investment (I): spending by firms and households on new capital, that is, plant, equipment, inventory, and new residential structures

    Government consumption and gross investment (G)

    Net exports (EX - IM): net spending by the rest of the world, or exports (EX) minus imports (IM)GDP = C + I + G + (EX - IM)

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • * of 35Calculating GDPThe Expenditure Approach

    TABLE 21.2 Components of U.S. GDP, 2007: The Expenditure ApproachBillions Of DollarsPercentage of GDPPersonal consumption expenditures (C)9,734.270.3Durable goods1,078.27.8Nondurable goods2,833.220.5Services5,822.842.1Gross private domestic investment (l)2,125.415.4Nonresidential1,481.810.7Residential640.74.6Change in business inventories2.90.0Government consumption and gross investment (G)2,689.819.4Federal976.07.1State and local1,713.812.4Net exports (EX IM)-708.0- 5.1Exports (EX)1,643.011.9Imports (IM)2,351.017.0Gross domestic product13,841.3100.0Note: Numbers may not add exactly because of rounding. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

    MEASURING A NATIONS INCOME

  • * of 35Calculating GDPThe Income Approachnational income The total income earned by the factors of production owned by a countrys citizens.

    TABLE 21.3 National Income, 2007Billions of DollarsPercentage of National IncomeNational Income12,221.1100.0Compensation of employees7,874.264.4Proprietors income1,042.68.5Rental income65.40.