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Managing Airports

Text of Managing Airports

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  • Managing Airports

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  • Managing Airports: An International

    Perspective Third edition

    Anne Graham

    AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

    Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier

  • Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA

    First edition 2001Second edition 2003Third edition 2008

    Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher

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    NoticeNo responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage topersons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from anyuse or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the materialherein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independentveri cation of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made

    British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataA catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

    ISBN: 978-0-7506-8613-6

    Typeset by Charon Tec Ltd., A Macmillan Company. (www.macmillansolutions.com)

    Printed and bound in Hungary

    For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at elsevierdirect.com

  • Contents

    List of Figures vii

    List of Tables ix

    Preface xiii

    Acknowledgements xv

    Abbreviations xvii

    1 Introduction 1

    2 The changing nature of airports 10 Traditional airport ownership and management 11 Moves towards commercialization 12 Why privatization? 15 The privatization timetable 23 Types of privatization 25 The airport operators and investors 51 The consequences of privatization and internationalization of the airport industry 59

    3 Airport economics and performance benchmarking 68 Industry pro t levels 69 Revenue and cost structures 71 Factors in uencing costs and revenues 76 Measuring economic performance and ef ciency 79

    4 Airport operations and service quality 96 Differentiation of service levels 97 Service quality 105 Security issues 121 Check-in processes 128 Biometric identi cation and registered passenger schemes 132

    5 The airportairline relationship 138 The structure of aeronautical charges 139 The level of aeronautical charges 146 The impact of aeronautical charges on airline operations 147 The airport regulatory environment 152

    v

  • vi

    Regulation of individual airports 154 Slot allocation 163 Ground handling issues 173

    6 The provision of commercial facilities 186 The importance of commercial facilities 187 The market for commercial facilities 188 Approaches to the provision of commercial facilities 197 The commercial contract and tender process 200 Factors driving success 202 Measuring non-aeronautical performance 207 Recent developments and future trends 211

    7 Airport competition and the role of airport marketing 229 Airport competition 230 The birth of airport marketing 239 Marketing concepts 240 Airport marketing techniques 247

    8 The economic and social impact of airports 272 The wider picture 273 Airports as generators of economic activity 274 Measuring the direct, indirect, and induced impacts 276 Airports and economic development 282 Incentives to encourage economic development 289

    9 The environmental impact of airports 294 Growing concerns for the environment 295 The main impacts 296 The role of other transport modes 309 Environmental management 314

    10 Future prospects 320

    Index 329

    Contents

  • List of Figures

    1.1 Airport passengers by world region, 2007 3 1.2 Airport cargo tonnes by world region, 2007 3 1.3 The worlds 20 largest airports by total passengers, 2006 4 1.4 The worlds 20 largest airports by cargo tonnes, 2006 5 1.5 The worlds 20 largest airports by aircraft movements, 2006 5 1.6 The worlds 20 largest airports by international terminal

    passengers, 2006 6 1.7 Airport passenger growth by main region, 20002007 7

    2.1 Ownership of Vienna airport up until 1992 19 2.2 Ownership of Vienna airport after IPO in 1992 19 2.3 Ownership of Vienna airport after secondary offering in 1995 19 2.4 Ownership of Vienna airport after changes in 2001 20 2.5 Total passengers at Vienna airport, 19932006 20 2.6 Pro tability Vienna airport group, 19932006 21 2.7 Traf c at private company French regional airports 2006 22 2.8 Ownership of Toulouse airport 2007 23 2.9 External capital funding at larger US airports in 20012005 46

    2.10 External capital funding at smaller US airports in 20012005 46 2.11 Structure of HTA 57

    3.1 Operating margin of world airlines and airports 1998/19992006/2007 71

    3.2 Total costs per 1000 ATUs for world airports 2005/2006 86 3.3 Total factor productivity (net variable factor measure)

    for world airports 2005/2006 89

    4.1 Aircraft movements at Kuala Lumpur airport 20022006 104 4.2 Airport use of biometric identi cation 130 4.3 Airport use of self-service kiosks 133

    5.1 Aeronautical charges and taxes for a regional cross-border A319 turnaround in 2007 at world airports 146

    5.2 Landing and passenger charges as a share of total costs for UK airlines, 2005/2006 148

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  • 6.1 Non-aeronautical revenue per passenger at ACI airports by world region, 2006 194

    6.2 Non-aeronautical revenue at ACI airports by revenue source, 2006 195

    6.3 Airport retail revenue per square metre 210 6.4 Non-aeronautical revenue per passenger 1998-2007 at

    UK airports 211 6.5 Retail space at BAA UK airports, 19902006 220

    7.1 Passenger traf c at Irish airports 19952007 266

    8.1 The economic impact of airports 275 8.2 Employment at European airports in 2001 277

    9.1 Estimated 2002 ground-level airport-related NO x emissions 306 9.2 Average daily split of airport-related vehicle trips on

    landside roads 312

    10.1 Average annual airport passenger forecasts by regional 20062025 325

    10.2 Forecast airport passengers by world region, 2025 325

    List of Figures

    viii

  • List of Tables

    1.1 Growth in passenger numbers at the worlds 20 largest airports 19902006 7

    2.1 Examples of airport privatization through share otations 26 2.2 Examples of airport privatization through trade sales 28 2.3 Examples of airport privatization through concession

    agreements 32 2.4 Examples of airport privatization through project nance 34 2.5 Ownership patterns at main UK airports, 2007 39 2.6 Traf c and pro tability growth at main UK airports,

    19872006 41 2.7 Privatization details of Australian airports 43 2.8 Total airport traf c at Indian airports 20022007 49 2.9 Privatization projects at Indian airports 51

    2.10 Hochtief AirPort portfolio of airports 56 2.11 Macquarie Airport portfolio of airports 58

    3.1 Pro tability for 50 major airport operators, 2006/2007 70 3.2 Airport operating revenue sources 71 3.3 Average revenue and cost structures at European airports,

    19832007 72 3.4 Revenue and cost structures at a selection of European

    airports, 2006/2007 74 3.5 Revenue and cost structures at a selection of major US

    airports, 2006/2007 75 3.6 Revenue and cost structures at a selection of other

    airports, 2006/2007 76 3.7 Performance indicators commonly used to assess

    economic performance 84 3.8 Examples of airport ef ciency studies 88

    4.1 LCC needs and requirements of airport terminals 99 4.2 Examples of LCC facilities and terminals 101 4.3 Physical details of the LCCT at Kuala Lumpur 104

    ix

  • x

    4.4 Criteria most frequently used to measure quality of service at ACI airports 108

    4.5 Overall passenger satisfaction levels: best performing airports from ACIs 2007 ASQ survey by airport size and region 110

    4.6 Key service quality indicators for airport customers at Amsterdam airport 2006 111

    4.7 Key service quality indicators for airport passengers at Amsterdam airport 2006 111

    4.8 Schedule time: AmsterdamLondon 19852007 113 4.9 Delays at major European airports on intra-European

    scheduled services, 2007 114 4.10 Service quality elements included in the regulation of

    Heathrow and Gatwick airports 115 4.11 Survey quality elements included in the regulation of

    Paris airports 117 4.12 Objective static quality indicators for the international

    terminal at Brisbane airport, 2005/2006 119 4.13 Passenger and airline quality survey r