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Malmo Lecture 9 2

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Student response to this Lecture (by Manana Kock Kobaidze) at The film and text together should mark a new quantum leap in language learning. Tiny Take webcam software should be warmly applauded.The link to my filmed response is within.

Text of Malmo Lecture 9 2

Georgian Lecture 9 (2) by Manana Kock Kobaidze


TEXT: see also (Mananas original PDF document, though what follows may in places be clearer for being a bit reorganized for to reconsider is to re-position; on the long journey of perceiving an ancient, hidden tongue.

1.The v-set and m-set markers in direct verbs is me m-xat'av-s He is painting me

We have already learned that v-set markers indicate a subject person (an acting person) in the verbs expressing an action or a state; e.g.:

me v-xat'av mas - I am painting him chven v-dga-var-t - We are standing

The m-set markers indicate object persons in verbs expressing an action or a state; e.g.:

me m-xat'av-s is - He is painting me is me mc'ers - He is writing to meis me mxedavs - He sees me

is melap'arak'aba - He is talking to me

The m-set and v-set markers exchange their functions in verbs expressing emotions or possession. An experiencer or possessor subject is marked by the dative case and m-set markers.

Direct verb, an acting subject

Inversive verb,an experiencer subject

Levani ashenebs saxls

Levan is building a house

Levans uq'vars Tina

Levan loves Tina

me vasheneb saxlsI am building a house

me miq'vars Tina I love Tina



The v-set and m-set markers in inversive verbs me is m-axsov-s I remember him

In verbs expressing emotions or possession the v-set markers usually indicate logical, semantic objects (the one to whom the emotions are directed):

me v-uq'var-var mas [I am loved to him] He loves me

The m-set markers indicate the experiencer or possessor subject: me m-iq'var-s Levani [To me is loved Levan]

I love him

Tina-s u-q'var-s is [To Tina is loved Levan] Tina loves him

The one who is in love (Tina) is marked like an object (the dative case and the m-set markers), but it still has semantics of a subject.

The one who is loved (Levan) is marked like a subject. It is in the nominative case and it is marked with the suffix -s on the verb (uq'var-s Levani), but is still has the semantics of an object.

This phenomenon is called inversion and it often occurs in verb class IV. It is attested even verb class II. It can seldom occur even in verb classes I and III.

In direct verbs, the prefix v- marks the subject:

I build it for him/her), whereas in inversive verbs the prefix v-marks the semantic object - He loves me).

An experiencer subject is marked by the m-set markers:me m-ik'virs I am surprised about itme m-ixaria I am glad about it me m-t'k'iva I have a pain me m-axsovs I remember it me m-c'q'ins I am annoyed about it

shen g-ik'virs You are surprised about it __ shen g-ixaria You are glad about it shen g-t'k'iva You have a pain __ shen g-axsovs You remember shen g-c'q'ins You are annoyed about it.

mas u-k'virs He is surprised about it mas u-xaria He is glad about it mas s-t'k'iva He has a pain mas axsovs He remembers it mas s-c'q'ins He is annoyed about it.


In a direct verb:theobjects and their m-set markers are marked in yellow, while the subjects and their v-set markers are marked in blue (see page 5) First, here are the endings:

The m-set markers indicate an object in direct verbs








gv- t


- s (h)

- s (h)

NB again: In a direct verb: the objects and theirm-setmarkers are marked in yellow, while the subjects and theirv-setmarkers are marked in blue:cf above :

Here are the m-set markers in some inversive verbs, notably me minda, I want

On page 7 are all three charts side by side, or at least one above the other.Meanwhile, here is Borjomime minda shen ginda mas unda chven gvinda tkven gindat mat undat

Here are the remainder of the sentences in the Lecture: