Malaysian Studies 1

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<p>Prehistoric Period Malaysians prehistory begins with the earliest known traces of human habitation around 40 millenniums ago, and extend through the prehistoric period to the founding of Melaka Sultanate in the 1400, the date commonly used as the starting point of the historic era.</p> <p>Prehistoric Period The earliest evidence of human occupation in Sarawak is a 38,000year-old skull from the Niah Caves whereas the earliest evidence from the Peninsula is an 11,000-year-old skeleton from Gua Gunung Runtuh in Perak. The oldest artifacts are Paleolithic stone stools from Kota Tampan, Perak, dated back to 34,000 years ago, while the earliest Borneon artifacts are stone tools from Tingkayu, Sabah produced between 28,000 and 18,000 years ago. Hunter-gatherer lifestyles changed dramatically about 5,000 years ago when they acquired the knowledge of producing polished stone tools and earth ware. Evidence of Neolithic culture can be found either on its own, or at Mesolithic sites, including the Niah caves in Sarawak, Gua Cha in Kelantan and Gua Kechil in Pahang.</p> <p>Prehistoric Period Malaysia was one of the earliest homes of Man. Stone implements found at Lenggong in Perak and the remarkable finds in the Niah Cave of Sarawak provide evidence of this. The earliest of the present day inhabitants of Malaysia are the Orang Asli of the Peninsula and people such as the Penan of Sarawak and the Rungus of Sabah. Their presence in the country probably dates back to over 5,000 years.</p> <p>Malay Sultanate of Melaka The ancient Malay Sultanate of Melaka was a sultanate whose rein of government was entirely in the hands of the rulers and the Malay officials. The Malay rulers of Melaka originated from Singapore that was after the defeat of the Malay kingdom of Singapore by the Siamese. The Malay Sultanate of Melaka lasted for little over a century, stretching from the end of the fourteenth century to the early part of the sixteenth century that is from 1394 to 1511.</p> <p>Malay Sultanate of Melaka Parameswara was a prince of Palembang. In 1330 he married a daughter of the Majapahit Emperor and became a vassal of the his father-in-law. Not long after he threw off his allegiance to the Majapahit Emperor, who at once sent warriors to drive him out of Sumatra. Parameswara fled to Tumasek, which was actually old Singapore with his family and followers.</p> <p>Malay Sultanate of Melaka When Parameswara failed to establish a kingdom at two places in Muar, that is, Biawak Busuk and Kota Buruk, he led his followers to a place known as Sening Ujung or now known as Sungei Ujong. He continued his journey from here until he came to the mouth of the Bertam River where he founded Melaka and became the first ruler around the year 1394. However, during this time, Parameswara was still a Hindu. Hence a Malay kingdom was therefore established in Melaka to continue the existence of the Malay kingdom of Singapore which had fallen.</p> <p>Malay Sultanate of Melaka After Melaka was founded, Parameswara began to develop the place and ordered his men to cultivate the lands with banana, sugar cane, yam and other crops for food. Parameswara himself carried on trade in Melaka. Within a short period of time, news about the town of Melaka begun to spread all over Malaya, Sumatra, Java and India which resulted in a large number of traders coming to trade in Melaka. Two years after Parameswara founded Melaka, the population had soared to two thousand.</p> <p>Reasons the Portuguese Came to the EastGloryPrince Henry the Navigator reconnaissance mission the 15th century Portugals Age of Discovery</p> <p>God</p> <p>GoldAsian Spices expensive, because</p> <p> spread the Christian Gospel the 11th century Crusade War mythical priest King Prester John</p> <p> high demand many middle men monopolized by the Muslim merchants</p> <p>Why Choose Malaccai Trading Centre</p> <p>i Islamic Centre</p> <p>Why Malacca fell ???Weak Ruling Government Feeling of Hostility among the Races Disloyalty Superiority of the Portuguese Army</p> <p>Weak Ruling Government Tun Putih - weak &amp; old Tun Mutahir - practised favoritism Sultan Mahmud - not efficient Sultan Ahmad Shah -too young &amp; lack experience</p> <p>Feeling of Hostility among the Races Tun Mutahir - Tamil Muslim reserved important administration position for his relatives</p> <p> caused dissatisfaction among the Malay Muslims</p> <p>Disloyalty A Chinese merchant - lent 5 huge barges to the Portuguese A Tamil merchant, Ninachatu supplied information on Malaccas defense system The Javanese hired army - ran away</p> <p>The Strength of the Portuguese army disciplined &amp; experienced advanced weapons, eg: guns &amp; cannons</p> <p> Alfonso dAlbuquerque, capable &amp; experienced</p> <p>The fall of Malacca 1509 Lopez de Sequeira was sent to Malacca Gujerat merchants incited Bendahara. Tun Mutahir captured Portuguese army Sequeira ship was burned He ran to Goa and informed Albuquerque 1 July 1511 Albuquerque reached Malacca and asked for 3 things: 1- compensation 2- free all Portuguese people</p> <p>3- asked for permission to built a fort 25 July 1511 First attacked from Portuguese Albuquerque received secret messages about Malacca defense from Ninachatu Malacca bridge was captured by Portuguese armyPortuguese failed 10 August 1511- second attacked and Portuguese successful</p> <p>The Impact of Portuguese ConquestEnded the Malacca Sultanate Inter-racial marriages - Serani Introduced Roman writing Enriched the Malay language Introduced the joget dance &amp; the song of Jingkling Nona</p> <p>No longer played a role as Islamic &amp; trading centre</p> <p>Ushered the birth of 2 new kingdoms, Johor and Perak</p> <p>SULTANS OF MALACCA PARAMESWARA- 1400-1414 SLTN MEGAT ISKANDAR SYAH- 1414-1424 SULTAN MUHAMMAD SYAH- 1424-1444 SULTAN ABU SYAHID - 1444-1445 SULTAN MUZAFFAR SYAH - 1445-1456 SULTAN MANSUR SYAH- 1456-1477 SLTN ALAUDDIN RIAYAT SYAH- 1477-1488 SULTAN MAHMUD SYAH- 1488-1511</p> <p> 1580, Philip II of Spain, closed the port of Lisbon to Dutch &amp; British sailors in the 1594 contained detail information about routes &amp; navigational conditions in eastern waters Linschotens famous book : Itenerario</p> <p>2 reasons the native states welcomed the DutchThe Dutch were rivals of the Portuguese</p> <p>Any form of rivalry among the European nations increased demand for spices</p> <p>The Relationship Between The Dutch &amp; Johor Tringular War between Johor , Acheh &amp; Portugis in Malacca The Dutch &amp; the Johor Government recognized the mutual benefits of co-operating with one anotherThe Dutch - potential -allies JOHOR Needed Johors assistance to attack the Portuguese in Malacca</p> <p>DUTCH</p> <p>The Dutch promised to be the peace mediator between Acheh &amp; Johor peace treaty 1941</p> <p>Johor assisted the Dutch by transporting vital materials, preventing the enemy from fleeing into the jungles and providing moral support</p> <p>Batavia - As the important base of VOC in the East - centre of all economic operation Malacca - As a guardpost protecting shipping through the Straits - as a supply base especially tin Signed treaties with the Sultan of Perak, Kedah, Ujung Salang &amp; Bangeri to enable them to monopolize the tin trading</p>