Making It Happen: The Constitution in Practice

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Making It Happen: The Constitution in Practice. US History. The Unwritten Constitution. Precedents under the first 3 Presidents defined how the Constitution was put into practice. John Adams. Jefferson. Washington. 1789-1797 (2 terms). 1797-1801 (1 term). 1801-1809 (2 terms). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Making It Happen: The Constitution in PracticeUS History</p></li><li><p>The Unwritten ConstitutionPrecedents under the first 3 Presidents defined how the Constitution was put into practice.1789-1797 (2 terms)1797-1801 (1 term)1801-1809 (2 terms)</p></li><li><p>InstitutionsCabinetDepartment of State (foreign affairs)Secretary Thomas JeffersonDepartment of Treasury (finances)Secretary Alexander HamiltonDepartment of War (military)Secretary Henry KnoxDepartment of Justice (govt prosecutor)Attorney General Edmund Randolph</p></li><li><p>Setting up Court SystemJudiciary Act of 1789Congress established:District CourtsCourts of Appeal6 Supreme Court Justices (how many now?)Washington chose John Jay to be Chief Justice.</p></li><li><p>Financing the GovernmentTariff of 1789Reason: Congress needed to find ways to raise money in order to operate.What it was: tax on all imports from other countries.Shippers paid tonnage (tax on HOW MUCH ships carried).Southerners HATED it. Needed goods became expensive.</p></li><li><p>Financing the GovernmentHamiltons Financial PlanSupported 1789 TariffGovt needs ability to borrow moneyHamilton wanted govt to pay back debts from Revolutionary War:40 mil to private citizens12 mil to foreign countriesWhy? People need confidence in govts ability to pay back loans. </p></li><li><p>Financing the GovernmentOpposition to Hamiltons PlanCritics pointed out that many private citizens sold their bonds to speculatorsEx., I bought bond at $5. Govt said theyd pay me $10.BUT I panicked because I didnt think govt would pay. So I sold my bond to speculator for $1. Now Hamilton says govt WILL pay full $10.Southerners said most bond buyers were Northerners, but taxes would affect South most. </p></li><li><p>Financing the GovernmentBank of USHamilton wanted it to manage debts and interest payments.Central bank could make loans and issue paper money. Opposition:Southerners: Northerners will own most of the stock.Madison: NOT an enumerated power in Constitution; Hamilton: its IMPLIED.Washington went along with it.</p></li><li><p>Financing the GovernmentWhiskey Rebellion1791 Hamilton proposed tax on whiskey making.Farmers hated it, because whiskey was also a barter item (paper money was hard to find in some places).</p><p>In W. Pennsylvania, farmers rebelled.Hamilton: US govt has to show it has authority to collect taxes.Washington sent in the troops to crush rebellion.Rebels backed down.</p></li><li><p>Rise of Political PartiesDebate over Hamiltons financial plans split Congress into two parties:Federalists (led by Hamilton) favored:Rule by wealthy, educated people.Strong federal govtEmphasis on manufactured goodsLoose interpretation of ConstitutionAlliance with BritainNational BankProtective tariffs.</p></li><li><p>Rise of Political Parties</p><p>Democratic-Republicans (led by Jefferson) favored:Rule by the people (the little guy).Strong state govts.Emphasis on agriculture.Strict interpretation of Constitution.Alliance with France.State Banks, not one national bank.Free trade with NO tariffs.</p></li><li><p>Foreign PolicyAmerican Response to French RevolutionFederalists were againstDemocratic Republicans were for</p><p>Tricky situation: Treaty of 1778 required US to help France defend colonies in Caribbean.BUT that meant war with GB! Washington declared US NEUTRAL.</p></li><li><p>Foreign PolicyJays TreatyWashington declared neutrality, but GB seized American ships carrying goods to France.Washington sent John Jay to GB for a solution.TREATYUS let GB seize goods bound for France.In return, US got most-favored nation status when trading with GB.</p><p>Some hoopla about pro-Brit stance, but treaty passed Senate.</p></li><li><p>Foreign PolicyPinckneys TreatySpain joined France in war against Britain.Spain was afraid US and GB would take its land in North America.TREATY:US may navigate Mississippi River and to deposit goods at port of New Orleans.</p><p>Thomas Pinckney</p></li><li><p>Goodbye, WashingtonFarewell AddressAt end of second term, Washington retired.He wrote a goodbye-letter to the American people:Watch out for sectionalism: splits between Northerners and SouthernersBe careful of political parties.Dont get involved with European affairs--STAY neutral.Trade with ALL countries.</p></li><li><p>Hello, Adams!Election of 1796Adams (Federalist) beat out Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)One-termerAccused of being a closet royalistBig issue during his administration: how to deal with Revolutionary France (the Directory!)Post-Louis XVIGroup of 5 (Cinque-ttes)</p></li><li><p>Alien &amp; Sedition ActsPassed by Congress in 1798Adams didnt ask for it, but he liked it.Alien Acts:Made it hard for foreigners to become US citizens; President had power to deport foreigners if they posed threat to US security.Sedition Act:It is illegal to criticize the president or government.</p></li><li><p>Alien &amp; Sedition ActsAdams never used Alien Acts, but he did indict 17 people on Sedition Act.10 of the 17 were convicted.</p></li><li><p>Read Congressional BlunderWhat do you think of 1st set of quotations?Do the quotations explain how the acts could be passed?Do you agree or disagree with them?</p><p>Do you agree with the the sentiments in the second set of quotations.What part of the Constitution did the Sedition Act violate?</p></li></ul>