Macromolecules 2

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Table 2-1 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Figure 2-16 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Organic Moleculescarbon basedOrganic molecules are found in living things. The chemistry of carbon accounts for the chemistry of organic molecules. Macromolecules (Polymers)

Organic Moleculesmonomer

polymer

Macromolecules (polymers) and monomers.Polymer carbohydrate protein nucleic acid Monomer monosaccharides amino acid nucleotide

Figure 2-17 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Dehydration Synthesis or Condensation Reactions vs HydrolysisDehydration (condensation) builds. Hydrolysis breaks down.covalent bonds Condensation A OH + H B Hydrolysis If the reaction is carried out multiple times you create a polymer! A B + HOH or H2O

+ H2O molecules

Figure 2-29 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Table 2-3 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Figure 2-30 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Figure 2-31 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Figure 2-32 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

CarbohydratesGenerally, C:H:O in a 1:2:1 ratio (CH2O)n Functions quick energy and short-term energy storage. EX glycogen, starch Structure. EX. Cellulose Polymer=polysaccharides EX. Starch Monomers= monosaccharides EX. glucose

NOMENCLATUREBased

on number of carbons 3C==triose 4C==tetrose 5C==pentose, etc

Structure of Glucose

Disaccharides

Polymerization of Carbohydrates

Figure 2-19 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

Figure 2-20 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)

POLYSACCHARIDESSTARCH

GLYCOGEN

CELLULOSE

LIPIDS NON-POLAR FUNCTIONS

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Energy storage: Fats and oils. Waterproofing: Waxes and oils Insulation: Fat layers (blubber) Cushioning: Fat layers (soles of your feet) Regulating metabolism: Steroids Component of cell membranes: Phospholipids

Lipid structure (Triglyceride)Glycerol backbone Fatty acid tails Fats vs oils

X3

Triglyceride formationH H-COH H

H-COH

H-COH H GLYCEROL

O HHHHH HO-C-C-C-C-C-C-H HHHHH O HHHHH HO-C-C-C-C-C-C-H HHHHH O HHHHH HO-C-C-C-C-C-C-H HHHHH FATTY ACIDS

O HHHHH H-CO-C-C-C-C-C-C-H + H20 HHHHH O HHHHH H-CO -C-C-C-C-C-C-H + H20 HHHHH O HHHHH H-CO -C-C-C-C-C-C-H + H20 HHHHH H TRIGLYCERIDE + 3 H20

What type of reaction forms a triglyceride? Dehydration Synthesis

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats

Fatty Acids: cis vs. trans-linolenic acid

Trans -linolenic acid

PhospholipidsThe major structural component of cell membranes

Phospholipid Behavior

Phospholipids

Soaps and Emulsifiers

Nucleic AcidsPolymers:

DNA and RNA Monomers: nucleotides Functions Information storage and transmission ATP is energy currency of cell

Nucleotide Structure

DNA vs RNA

The Double Helix of DNAComplementary base pairing

Adenosine Triphosphate-ATPAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of cells

ProteinsWhat do they do? Structure Act as enzymes to speed reactions Serve as carriers Act as antibodies Transporters and channels

Proteins --polymers of amino acids.

Peptide Bonds

Proteins--Levels of Organization.

1

structure and environment FactorsR-groups

TERTIARY (3) STRUCTURE3D

Hydrogen bonding Hydrophobic interactions Ionic (salt) bridges Disulfide bonds

Native

vs Denatured REMEMBER: A PROTEINS FUNCTION IS A RESULT OF ITS FORM!!

Levels of Protein Structure Quaternary (4) StructureMultiple chains: interactions of more than one polypeptide chain to form the complete, functional protein. Ex. Hemoglobin and antibodies

EnzymesBiological CatalystsCatalyst?

Speeds up reactionProteins

E=Enzyme S=Substrate P=Product

The Model:

E+S

ES

E+P

Enzymes Lower Energy of Activation

Enzymes-- lower the energy barrier

Reactants

1

Products

2

Figure 5.5A

Enzyme

EA barrier

Enzyme-Substrate Complexes Every

reaction in a cell requires a specific enzyme. Enzymes are named for their substrates: Substrate Enzyme Lipid Lipase Urea Urease Maltose Maltase Ribonucleic acid Ribonuclease

Cell ChemistryEnzymesinvolved

chemical reactions. AnabolismThe building reactions. EX. Protein synthesis CatabolismThe breakdown reactions. EX. Protein digestion Metabolismsum of all reactions

in almost all

Enzyme CofactorsCofactors

---may be necessary for some enzymes to carry out their functions. Two types: Metal ions. EX copper (Cu+2) or iron (Fe+2) Coenzymes Organic molecules, must be present for other enzymes to function. EX vitamins