Literacy Guidelines - Knights Templar ?· Literacy Guidelines A Writing Guide ... Sentences 12 - 15…

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  • Literacy Guidelines

    A Writing Guide for Key Stage 3

  • This booklet is designed to remind you of the basic

    rules of grammar, punctuation and spelling. It also

    offers advice about the different types of writing

    you do in school.

    Contents

    Rules and Reminders page/s

    General Rules of Writing in School 1

    How to Set Out Your Work 2

    Checking Your Writing in Class 3

    The Key Terms of Language 4 - 11

    Sentences 12 - 15

    Capital Letters 16 - 17

    Paragraphs 18 - 19

    Punctuation 20 - 21

    Writing Direct Speech 22

    Common Errors 23 - 30

    Writing Skills Used in School page/s

    Planning and Organising 31

    Explaining 32

    Describing 33 - 34

    Discussing 35

    Reflecting and Evaluating 36

    Analysing 37

    Comparing 38

    Writing Styles 39 - 50

    Spelling 51 - 55

    Reading Skills 56

    Speaking and Listening in class 57

  • Your writing in school should be formal and polite. This means that you

    must write in a style that is as accurate and correct as you can make it.

    You must always remember that in school you are mainly writing for an

    adult audience, so choose your words wisely.

    In formal writing, you should not use apostrophes to shorten words,

    such as dont, isnt, its and youre.

    Your writing should not sound like speech. Words that are commonly

    used in casual speech, such as gonna, gotten, cos, aint and innit, have no

    place in the classroom.

    Slang terms, such as cool, sick, wicked and lol, should also be avoided

    when writing in school. Occasionally, a task may require you to use

    slang for a particular audience or purpose but informal language should

    otherwise be avoided.

    Sentences should not begin with connectives (joining words) such as

    but, because, or and and.

    Of course, there will be many occasions when teachers encourage you

    to write imaginatively - do not hold back! Just remember that the

    most imaginative stories are written in a style that is formal, accurate

    and polite.

    WRITING IN SCHOOL

    1

  • In many subjects, the date must be written on the right hand side of

    the page at the start of every new piece of work.

    The title of the work must be written in the middle of the page.

    If the title is too long to fit neatly alongside the date, write it on

    the next line. Both the title and the date must be underlined.

    Some subjects may also require you to write either Classwork or

    Homework at the start of the work or in the margin.

    You may sometimes be required to set out a piece of writing using

    sub-headings. These must be written next to the margin and they

    must be underlined.

    Note: these rules do not apply in Art, where you will use a sketchbook.

    HOW TO SET OUT YOUR WORK

    Tables, maps and diagrams

    In subjects such as Science, Maths and Geography you are required to

    draw graphs, charts, tables, maps and diagrams to present information,

    data and results. There are important things to remember when

    presenting information in this way.

    Use a sharp pencil and a ruler to draw straight lines and to

    underline headings and sub-headings.

    Draw in pencil but write in tables and label maps and diagrams

    neatly using a pen.

    Use colour where appropriate - a little colour can make maps and

    diagrams clearer.

    You will need:

    eraser pencil sharpener

    pencil compass

    coloured pencils

    ruler

    pen

    protractor

    highlighter pens

    2

  • CHECKING YOUR WRITING IN CLASS

    Making corrections

    You must check your writing for mistakes before your teacher sees it.

    Make sure that each sentence makes sense and that you have used

    punctuation correctly. Add missed paragraph breaks using a double

    slash (//) and check spellings using a dictionary.

    How to use a dictionary to help your spelling

    Dictionaries are available in all subject areas for you to use at any

    time when you are doing written work.

    You should use a dictionary to check spellings that you are unsure

    of when you have finished your writing.

    Question

    How do I look up a word if I cant spell it?

    Answer

    Firstly, think about the sounds that make up the word.

    What sound does the word start with?

    Which letter or group of letters could make that sound?

    This should direct you to the correct letter section of

    the dictionary (it is in alphabetical order).

    What sound comes next in the word?

    This will help you to search through the list of words

    in that section until you find the word you need to spell.

    With a little trial and error you will find the correct word.

    If you are still struggling, ask for help.

    3

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Noun - the name of something

    Common nouns are the names given

    to general people, places or things,

    e.g. boy, student, school, book.

    Proper nouns are the names of

    specific people, places or things,

    including titles e.g. Kate, Baldock,

    Liverpool F.C., Star Wars. Proper

    nouns begin with capital letters.

    Abstract nouns are the names of

    feelings, qualities or ideas that you

    cannot see, touch or hear,

    e.g. love, bravery, dedication,

    honesty, happiness, beauty.

    (Nouns that you can see, touch or

    hear are called concrete nouns.)

    cup

    decision

    cheeseburger

    job

    Queen Elizabeth I

    person

    happiness

    Mr Happy

    courage

    London

    Pronoun - used in place of a noun

    Pronouns are used to avoid

    repetition and to make your writing

    flow smoothly.

    I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me,

    my, his, him, her, their, them, us,

    our, this, that, herself, himself

    4

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    5

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Noun phrase - a descriptive name

    A noun phrase is a group of words

    which presents a more descriptive

    version of a noun.

    Noun phrases can be made by

    adding words to nouns to develop

    their meaning or be more specific,

    e.g. the sandy beach, my favourite

    dress, a puzzling thought.

    Use noun phrases to be more

    expressive in descriptive writing.

    the skilful midfielder

    my birthday cake

    acid rain

    some of my friends

    the Year 7 disco

    old oak tree

    Modifier - changes meaning

    To modify a word means to change

    or develop its meaning, often by

    adding more specific detail.

    Nouns are often modified

    by adjectives.

    Verbs are often modified

    by adverbs.

    the happy teacher - happy (adjective) modifies teacher (noun)

    the pupil thought creatively -

    creatively (adverb) modifies thought (verb)

    she arrives tomorrow - tomorrow (adverb) modifies arrives (verb).

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    6

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Adjective - a describing word

    An adjective describes a noun

    or a pronoun.

    Adjectives describe qualities or

    characteristics such as texture,

    size and colour.

    They are used to give a more

    detailed picture of the thing being

    described.

    good, jolly, fast, bright, big,

    smart, incredible, beautiful,

    vicious, pretty, clever, pink,

    smooth, rocky, delicate, vast

    The talented artist used

    intricate brushwork.

    When heated, the

    chemicals in the

    beaker became very

    hot and turned blue.

    Verb - a doing word

    Verbs express:

    physical actions - to smile, to write

    mental actions - to think, to guess

    states of being - to be, to exist

    Verbs can be in the present tense

    or the past tense.

    jump, jumping, jumped, have, had,

    do, done, eat, excited, scared,

    smile, smiled, smiling, wrote,

    writing, dream, dreamt

    (To be = am, are, was, were, is)

    The athlete sprinted to the finish.

    She considered the problem.

    The experiment was a success.

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    7

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Adverb - used to describe

    Adverbs are used to add more

    detail to a verb or adjective

    by indicating:

    how

    where

    when

    frequency - how often / much

    They may be considered to

    describe the way in which

    something is done or the time

    in which it happens.

    Adverbial - an adverb or phrase

    An adverbial is a word or phrase

    that describes details such as

    time, place and effect.

    Adverbials are often separated

    by commas.

    They can be used to link ideas in

    long pieces of writing, such as

    essays and science experiments.

    place

    In the distance,...

    From the outside,...

    time

    We waited as long as we could.

    Moments later,...

    The bus leaves in five minutes.

    effect

    Amazingly,...

    As a result,...

    Interestingly,...

    how

    quickly, well, really, happily, quite

    The goalkeeper played very well.

    where

    here, there, nearby, everywhere

    He looked up and ran back.

    when

    later, now, early, yesterday, soon

    She answered immediately.

    frequency

    usually, often, sometimes, rarely

    They never forget their P.E. kit.

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    8

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Preposition - how nouns fit in

    A preposition is used with a noun to

    show how the noun relates to

    something else in the sentence.

    Prepositions show direction and

    location - where nouns are in

    relation to other things,

    and time - when things happen.

    Prepositions are also used

    with pronouns:

    She laughed at him.

    It is a box for biscuits.

    - for shows the relationship between biscuits and box

    We met after the party.

    - after shows the relationship between party and met

    Prepositions: above, about, across, against,

    along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside,

    between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, since, to,

    toward, through, under, until, up, upon, with, within

    Determiner - introduces a noun

    A determiner identifies a noun as a

    specific thing or a general thing.

    Some examples of determiners are:

    articles (e.g. the, a or an)

    demonstratives (e.g. this, those)

    possessives (e.g. my, your)

    quantifiers (e.g. some, every).

    the final design

    a good result

    that day

    these reasons

    their parents

    my best performance

    some people

    every word

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    9

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Modal verbs - you must learn this

    Modal verbs are used to show that

    something is thought to be certain,

    probable or possible.

    They also express

    ability and obligation.

    The main modal verbs are:

    will, would, can, could, may, might,

    shall, should, must and ought.

    They might not think so but

    they will love it!

    I would like some dessert, please.

    They could see the sea.

    You may feel a bit silly.

    Year 7 can do well in their exams.

    You must do your homework.

    Active voice / Passive voice

    In the active voice, the

    subject of a sentence is the

    person or thing that performs

    the action of the verb.

    In the passive voice the action

    happens to the subject

    of the sentence.

    This style is sometimes used in

    Science and Technology.

    It can sound more formal, focusing

    on the process and not the person.

    Active voice sentences

    The boy kicked the ball.

    The school arranged a trip.

    The pupils passed their exams.

    Passive voice sentences

    The ball was kicked by the boy.

    A trip was arranged by the school.

    The exams were passed by pupils.

    Chemicals were mixed together.

    The plastic is heated then fed

    into a mould.

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    10

    Language Term and Function Examples

    Cohesion - flow

    Your writing will sound

    sophisticated if it flows together

    and has cohesion.

    This is when the writing has a

    logical structure and makes sense

    without being slowed by repetition.

    Cohesive devices are words and

    phrases that are used to create

    the effect of cohesion.

    Examples of cohesive devices:

    pronouns which refer back to

    earlier nouns, e.g. they

    adverbials and adverbs, which

    explain when, where or how

    things are done. These lead

    the reader through a long

    description or explanation

    connectives, which help to

    develop full explanations and give

    structure to the writing

    A text has cohesion if it is clear

    how its parts fit together to

    present an overall meaning.

    Cohesive devices help to do this.

    In the example below, there are

    repeated references to the same

    thing, and the links between

    different parts, such as time,

    place and cause, are clear.

    A visit has been arranged for Year 6, to the Mountain Peaks

    Field Study Centre, leaving

    school at 9.30am. This is an

    overnight visit. The centre has

    beautiful grounds and a nature

    trail. During the afternoon, the

    children will follow the trail.

    They are advised to wear boots

    as it can get muddy.

    After breakfast on the

    second day, the children will

    visit a national park, where they

    will have the opportunity to

    take photographs. The children

    are expected to arrive back at

    school at 5.30pm.

  • THE KEY TERMS OF LANGUAGE

    Here are some examples of these words in sentences.

    proper noun verb noun

    Katie loves animals.

    pronoun connective pronoun verb adjective noun

    She and I felt great happiness.

    pronoun adverb verb preposition noun adverb

    I always walk to school enthusiastically.

    noun phrase modal verb verb proper noun noun preposition

    Year 7 pupils should support Liverpool F. C. pride. with

    article noun verb preposition article adjective noun

    A squirrel scurried across the wet grass.

    article adjective noun verb preposition article noun

    An interesting thing happened on the bus.

    11

    adverbial pronoun modal verb verb quantifier noun

    After lunch, we will have another lesson.

    pronoun verb preposition verb adverbial

    We intend to start in half an hour.

    pronoun modal verb verb noun phrase adverbial

    You may wear summer uniform next week.

  • 12

    Make your writing interesting and lively by using a variety of

    sentences. Use short sentences to present points and ideas in a

    more punchy, direct way. Longer sentences should be used to

    explain or describe things in more detail.

    Different types of sentence:

    1. Simple sentence

    A simple sentence contains a subject (the person or thing

    involved in the action) and a verb (action word). Many simple

    sentences also contain an object (the person or thing receiving

    the action).

    A simple sentence expresses a complete thought.

    The cat sat on the mat.

    2. Complex sentence

    A complex sentence contains more detail.

    i. Add extra information between two commas:

    The cat, which was feeling tired, sat on the mat.

    ii. Add detail at the beginning or end, using a comma:

    Feeling tired, the cat sat on the mat.

    The cat sat on the mat, feeling tired.

    SENTENCES

  • iii. Add detail starting with a subordinating connective:

    The cat sat on the mat because he was tired.

    The extra detail added in a complex sentence is called a

    s...

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