Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Third Edition Chapter 6 Advanced Installation.

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  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Third EditionChapter 6Advanced Installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*ObjectivesDescribe the types and structure of SCSI devicesExplain the different levels of RAID and types of RAID configurationsDescribe how to install Linux from source files on CDs, USB flash memory drives, hard disks, or network servers

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Objectives (continued)Install Fedora Linux using a kickstart fileTroubleshoot the installation processAccess an installed system using System Rescue

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Advanced Storage Configuration: SCSI Hard Disk ConfigurationSCSI (Small Computer System Interface): a way to connect multiple peripherals to the systemThree types of SCSI disk configurations:Parallel SCSISerial Attached SCSIiSCSI

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Parallel SCSI ConfigurationRibbon cables transmit information between hard disk and SCSI controllerTerminator: prevents signals from bouncing back and forth on a connection cableSCSI ID: uniquely identifies devices attached to a SCSI controllerTarget IDIdentifies priority

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Parallel SCSI Configuration (continued)Figure 6-1: Connecting parallel SCSI devices

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Parallel SCSI Configuration (continued)Table 6-1: Common SCSI standards

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Parallel SCSI Configuration (continued)Configuration steps:Verify all SCSI components support the same technologyEnsure that components are connected properlyMake sure system recognizes hard drives at startup Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Serial Attached SCSI ConfigurationSerial attached hard disks connected to SCSI controller via serial cables with small serial connectorsMore than 60,000 devices per controllerConfiguration steps:Connect hard disk to controller via correct serial cableEnsure that hard disk is detected by system or SCSI BIOSThe rest is performed automatically by controllerLinux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • iSCSI ConfigurationInternet SCSI (iSCSI): uses network cables to transfer data to/from remote hard disksiSCSI initiator: computer connected to remote hard diskCan be software or hardwareiSCSI target: remote hard diskContained within remote network attached deviceConfiguration settings vary by manufacturerMust specify configuration settings during the Linux installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*RAID ConfigurationFault tolerant: device exhibiting minimum downtime after failureRedundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID): Typical implementation of fault tolerant diskCan be used to speed up access to hard diskCombines several HDDs storage spaceSeven RAID configurationsHardware-, software-, or firmware-basedDifferent configuration process for each type

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*RAID Configuration (continued)Spanning: two HDDs seen as one volumeRAID level 0, not fault tolerantGood when need large amount of space in single volumeDisk striping: write a portion of the information to each of multiple HDDsRAID level 0: not fault tolerantDecreases read/write timeDisk mirroring: two identical hard disksRAID level 1: fault tolerant

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*RAID Configuration (continued)RAID level 2: no longer usedDisk striping with parity: write portions information to different HDDs and maintain parity informationRAID level 5: fault tolerantMost common RAID configurationImproves on RAID levels 3 and 4Parity bits indicate what data is whereIntermixed on the HDDs that contain the dataCan be used to re-generate data when HDD fails

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*RAID Configuration (continued)Disk striping with parity (continued): Requires three HDDs minimumIf any of the HDDs fail, the information can be recovered from the other HDDsRAID level 6: uses two sets of parity bits for added fault toleranceAllows two HDDs to fail simultaneously while remaining fault tolerant

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*RAID Configuration (continued)Figure 6-6: Organization of data on RAID level 5

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Installation MethodsInternational Standards Organization (ISO) image: large file containing exact copy of contents of a CD-ROM or DVDDVD is the most common and easiest method for installing LinuxOther methods for installing Linux Multiple CDsUSB flash memory driveISO image on local hard diskISO image through network server

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*CD InstallationRequires six CDsFirst CD contains the installation programBoot the computer using the first CD, then make appropriate choices within the installation programWill be prompted to insert remaining CDs when necessary

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • USB Flash Drive InstallationBIOS can boot the computer from a flash memory driveNeed to download Linux onto the flash memory driveOverwrites the existing filesystem on the driveFrom Windows, can use free utilities e.g., LiveUSB CreatorFrom another Linux computer, use dd commandLinux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Hard Disk InstallationMay install Linux directly from ISO images on hard diskMust have sufficient free space outside partition containing ISO imagesUse DVD, installation CD-ROM or bootable USB flash memory drive to start installationUse options in the welcome screen to perform non standard installationInstallation will be text-based

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Hard Disk Installation (continued)Figure 6-3: Selecting a nonstandard installation method

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Hard Disk Installation (continued)Figure 6-4: Selecting the installation media location

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Hard Disk Installation (continued)Figure 6-5: Specifying the location of the Fedora ISO image on the hard disk

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Network-Based InstallationsRequires installation startup DVD, CD-ROM or bootable USB flash memory driveContains NIC drivers and programs allowing connection to serverSelect language, keyboard setting, and protocolInstallation via one of following protocols:Network File System (NFS)File Transfer Protocol (FTP)Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)Must configure network settings

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Network-Based Installations (continued)Figure 6-6: Specifying the location of the Fedora ISO image on an NFS server

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Network-Based Installations (continued)Figure 6-6: Specifying the location of the Fedora ISO image on an HTTP server

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Automating Linux InstallationsDeploy several Linux servers and workstations requiring same configurationKickstart file: automated installation scriptSpecifies normal OS installation choicesks.cfgContains sections on system configuration, disk partitioning, and package selection

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Automating Linux Installations (continued)Kickstart configuration: configure a new kickstart fileUse Kickstart Configurator toolTo use ks.cfg: Place ks.cfg on CD, DVD, floppy disk, or hard disk partitionBoot from installation startup DVDAt welcome screen, modify the boot option, and specify ks.cfg file and its locationInstallation will run without prompting user

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Automating Linux Installations (continued)Figure 6-8: The Kickstart Configurator

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Troubleshooting InstallationComputers typically have different BIOS configurationsInstalling on different computers is rarely the sameProblems primarily related to hardware support or configurationTypically fixed by changing hardware configuration

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems Starting the InstallationCheck BIOS boot orderCheck that battery supporting BIOS is providing powerChoose device to boot from at system startup by pressing a special key

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems During InstallationFor graphical installation, video card and mouse must be detected Appropriate drivers must be loadedVideo card may not be supported by mode and resolution of graphical installationInstall system with basic video driverMouse does not workUse text-based installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Problems During Installation (continued) Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Figure 6-9: Starting a text mode Fedora installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Problems During Installation (continued) Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Figure 6-10: The Fedora welcome screen during a text mode installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems During Installation (continued)Installation freezesDisable Plug-and-Play support in BIOS prior to installationInstallation ends abnormally fatal signal 11 error displayedCould be problem with RAMOften fixed by turning off CPU cache memory or increasing number of wait states in the BIOSCould also be RAM or CPU voltage issue

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems During Installation (continued)Other failure causes include an AMD K6 processor, laptop power management conflicts, overclocked CPUsOverclocked: running a processor at a higher speed than it is rated forMay lead to increased performanceProduces more heat on processor May result in computer crashesInstallation may fail to place boot loader properlyEnsure that / partition starts before 1024th cylinder

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems After InstallationMay have problems if installation program did not detect computer hardware properly or certain programs were not installedInstallation log file: records actions that occur or fail during installation/root/install.log: Lists packages installed or not installed/root/install.log.syslog: Lists all system events that occurred during installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems After Installation (continued)To verify hardware settings, examine contents of /proc directory or boot-up log filesFor CPU information, view /proc/cpuinfoFor RAM information, view /proc/meminfoFor list of modules, view /proc/modulesTo view hardware detected at boot time, use dmesg command

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Problems After Installation (continued)Table 6-2: Files commonly found in the /proc directory

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Table 6-2 (continued): Files commonly found in the /proc directoryProblems After Installation (continued)

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • System RescueSystem Rescue: A small bootable Linux kernel and virtual filesystem used to fix problemsUsed to fix:The boot loaderFilesystems and partitionsThe configuration fileDrivers Can select Rescue installed system at Fedora installation welcome screenMany options regarding how to rescueLinux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • System Rescue (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Figure 6-11: Selecting System Rescue mount options

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • System Rescue (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Figure 6-12: Selecting System Rescue options

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • System Rescue (continued)Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Figure 6-13: Using the System Rescue BASH shell

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*SummaryParallel SCSI HDDs are uniquely identified by a SCSI ID and attach to a controller via a terminated cableSAS SCSI HDDs transfer information to hard disks using a serial cableiSCSI is a SAN technology used to transfer information from iSCSI initiators to iSCSI targets across a network

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Summary (continued)RAID is used in Linux servers to combine several hard disks into one for speed or fault tolerance RAID can be implemented by software, hardware, or the system BIOSDifferent levels of RAID determine how disks are combined and written toLinux can be installed using files located on CD, USB flash drive, hard disk, and NFS, FTP, and HTTP servers

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

  • Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e*Summary (continued)Use a kickstart file to simplify the installation of Linux on several computersUnsupported video cards, overclocked CPUs, PnP support, and improper RAM settings can cause an installation to failThe /proc directory contains information regarding detected hardware and is useful when verifying whether an installation was successfulYou can use the System Rescue feature to access and repair a damaged Linux installation

    Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 3e

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