Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification Chapter Thirteen Compression, System Back-Up, and Software Installation.

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  • ObjectivesOutline the features of common compression utilitiesCompress and decompress files using common compression utilitiesPerform system back-ups using the tar, cpio, and dump commandsView and extract archives using the tar, cpio, and restore commands

  • ObjectivesDescribe common types of Linux softwareCompile and install software packages from source codeUse the Red Hat Package Manager to install, manage, and remove software packages

  • CompressionCompressionProcess in which files are reduced in size by a compression algorithmCompression algorithmSet of instruction used to reduce the contents of a file systematicallyCompression ratioAmount of compression that occurred during compression

  • CompressionThe three most common compression utilities available to Linux users:compressgzipbzip2

  • The compress Utilitycompress commandCommand used to compress files using a Lempel-Ziv compression algorithmzcat commandCommand used to view the contents of an archive created with compress or gzip to Standard Output

  • The compress Utilityzmore commandCommand used to view the contents of an archive created with compress or gzip to Standard Output in a page-by-page fashionuncompress commandCommand used to decompress files compressed by the compress command

  • The compress UtilityTable 13-1: Common options used with the compress utility

  • The gzip UtilityGNU zip (gzip)Command used to compress files using a Lempel-Ziv compression algorithmVaries slightly from the algorithm used by the compress utilityTypically, this algorithm yields better compression than the one used by compress

  • The gzip UtilityTable 13-2: Common options used with the gzip utility

  • The gzip UtilityTable 13-2 (continued): Common options used with the gzip utility

  • The bzip2 Utilitybzip2 commandCommand used to compress files using a Burrows-Wheeler Block Sorting Huffman Coding compression algorithmCannot be used to compress a directory full of filesThe zcat and zmore commands cannot be used to view files zipped with bzip2The compression ratio is 50-75% on average

  • The bzip2 Utilitybzcat commandCommand used to view the contents of an archive created with bzip2 to Standard Outputbunzip2 commandCommand used to decompress files compressed by the bzip2 command

  • The bzip2 UtilityTable 13-3: Common options used with the bzip2 utility

  • The bzip2 UtilityTable 13-3 (continued): Common options used with the bzip2 utility

  • System Back-UpSystem back-upProcess whereby files are copied to an archiveArchiveThe location (file or device) that contains a copy of filesIt is typically created by a back-up utility

  • System Back-UpTable 13-4: Common tape device files

  • System Back-Upmagnetic tape (mt) commandCommand used to control tape devicesThe most common back-up utilities:tarcpiodump/restore

  • The tar UtilityTape archive utilityOne of the oldest and most common back-up utilitiesCan create an archive in a file on a filesystem or directly on a deviceAccepts options to determine the location of the archive and the action to perform on the archive

  • The tar UtilityTable 13-5: Common options used with the tar utility

  • The tar UtilityTable 13-5 (continued): Common options used with the tar utility

  • The tar UtilityTable 13-5 (continued): Common options used with the tar utility

  • The tar UtilityTarballsA gzip-compressed tar archiveBacking up files to a compressed archive on a filesystem is useful when transferring data across a network but is ill-suited to backing up large amounts of data for system recovery

  • The cpio UtilityCopy in/out (cpio)Common back-up utilityIncludes options similar to the tar utility, but has some added features including the ability to back up device files and long filenamesUses absolute pathnames by default when archiving

  • The cpio UtilityTable 13-6: Common options used with the cpio utility

  • The cpio UtilityTable 13-6 (continued): Common options used with the cpio utility

  • The dump/restore Utilitydump/restoreCan be used to back up files and directories to a device or to a file on the filesystemCan only work with files on ext2 and ext3 filesystems/etc/dumpdatesFile used to store information about incremental and full back-ups for use by the dump/restore utility

  • The dump/restore UtilityFull back-upAn archive of an entire filesystemIncremental back-upArchive of a filesystem that contains only files that were modified since the last archive was created

  • The dump/restore UtilityFigure 13-1: A sample back-up strategy

  • The dump/restore UtilityTable 13-7: Common options used with the dump/restore utility

  • The dump/restore Utilityrestore commandCommand used to extract archives created with the dump commandTable 13-7 (continued): Common options used with the dump/restore utility

  • Software InstallationPackage managerSystem that defines a standard package format and can be used to install, query, and remove packagesRed Hat Package Manager (RPM)The most commonly used package manager for Linux

  • Compiling Source Code into ProgramsThe procedure for compiling source code into binary programs is standardized today among most Open source Software developersGNU C Compiler (gcc)Command used to compile source code into binary programs

  • Compiling Source Code into ProgramsFigure 13-2: The LTRIS program

  • Installing Programs Using RPMPackages in the RPM format have filenames that indicate the hardware architecture the software was compiled for, and end with the .rpm extensionrpm commandCommand used to install, query, and remove RPM packages

  • Installing Programs Using RPMFigure 13-3: The bluefish program

  • Installing Programs Using RPMTable 13-8: Common options used with the rpm utility

  • Installing Programs Using RPMTable 13-8 (continued): Common options used with the rpm utility

  • Installing Programs Using RPMGNOME RPM ManagerGraphical tool that may be used to install RPM packages available with the GNOME desktop environmentKDE Package ManagerGraphical tool that may be used to install RPM packages available with the KDE desktop environment

  • Installing Programs Using RPMFigure 13-4: The GNOME RPM Manager

  • Installing Programs Using RPMFigure 13-5: The KDE Package Manager

  • Chapter SummaryThere are many compression utilities available for Linux systemsFiles may be backed up to an archive using a back-up utilityThe tar utility is the most common back-up utility used today

  • Chapter SummaryThe source code for Linux software may be obtained and compiled afterwards using the GNU C CompilerPackage managers install and manage compiled software of the same formatThe Red Hat Package Manager can be used to install software in Red Hat Package Manager format

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