Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification Chapter Ten The X Window System.

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<ul><li><p>ObjectivesExplain the purpose of the major Linux GUI components: X Windows, windows manager, and desktop environmentList common windows managers and desktop environments used in LinuxGather the hardware information necessary to configure X WindowsConfigure X Windows settings using various Linux utilities</p></li><li><p>Linux GUI ComponentsFigure 10-1: Components of the Linux GUI</p></li><li><p>X WindowsX WindowsThe component of the Linux GUI that displays graphics to windows on the terminal screenX clientsComponent of X Windows that requests graphics to be drawn from the X server and displays them on the terminal screen</p></li><li><p>X WindowsX serverThe component of X Windows that draws graphics to windows on the terminal screenXFree86The Open source licensed version of X Windows version 11Originally intended for the Intelx86 platform</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsWindow managerThe GUI component that is responsible for determining the appearance of the windows drawn on the screen by X WindowsDesktop environmentSoftware that works with a window manager to provide a standard GUI environment that uses standard programs and development tools</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsKDE is the traditional desktop environment used on Linux systemsK Windows Manager (kwm)The window manager that works under the KDE Desktop EnvironmentQt toolkitSoftware toolkit used with the KDE Desktop environment</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsGNOME Desktop EnvironmentDefault desktop environment in Red Hat LinuxTypically uses the Sawfish Window Manager and the GTK+ toolkit for the C programming languageThe GTK+ toolkit was originally developed for the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP)</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsFigure 10-2: The KDE Desktop Environment</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsFigure 10-3: The GNOME Desktop Environment</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsTable 10-1: Common windows managers</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsFigure 10-4: The Enlightenment Window Manager</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsFigure 10-5: The Feeble Virtual Window Manager</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsFigure 10-6: The Tab Window Manager</p></li><li><p>Windows Managers and Desktop EnvironmentsFigure 10-7: The Window Maker Window Manager</p></li><li><p>Starting and Stopping X WindowsFigure 10-8: The GNOME Display Manager</p></li><li><p>Starting and Stopping X WindowsGDM ConfiguratorGraphical tool used to configure the appearance and behavior of the GNOME Display Manager/etc/X11/gdm/gdm.confThe file that contains the configuration of the GNOME Desktop Manager</p></li><li><p>Starting and Stopping X WindowsX Display Manager (xdm)Present a graphical login screen to usersKDE Display Manager (kdm)Graphical login screen for users that resembles the KDE desktop</p></li><li><p>Starting and Stopping X WindowsstartxCommand used to start X Windows and the associated window manager and desktop environmentDesktop Switching ToolGraphical tool that allows Red Hat Linux users to set the default desktop environment or window manager</p></li><li><p>Starting and Stopping X WindowsFigure 10-9: The Desktop Switching Tool</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsX Windows is the component of the GUI that interfaces with the video hardware in the computerIn order for X Windows to perform its function, it needs information regarding the keyboard, mouse, monitor, and video adapter cardFor the video adapter card, X Windows requires:The video adapter card modelThe amount of RAM on the video adapter cardThe chipset on the video adapter card</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsRAM Digital Analog Converter (RAMDAC) chipUsed to convert the digital video images used by the computer to the analog format needed for the monitorClockchipComputer chip that coordinates the flow of information on a peripheral component such as a video adapter card</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsX Windows also requires the following information about the computer monitor that is attached to the video card:The maximum resolution supportedThe horizontal sync (hsync) rangeThe vertical sync (vsync) range</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsSuperProbeProgram used to determine the computers video adapter card properties/etc/X11/XF86ConfigConfiguration file used by X Windows</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsMouseconfigCommand used to configure a mouse for use by X WindowsXconfiguratorA program that is used to configure video adapter card and monitor information for use by X Windows</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-10: Mouse configuration using mouseconfig</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-11: Updating the XF86Config file using mouseconfig</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-12: Starting the Xconfigurator utility</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-13: Detecting the video adapter card model using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-14: Choosing the monitor model using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-15: Choosing custom monitor settings using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-16: Choosing the hsync range using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-17: Choosing the vsync range using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-18: Probing for video adapter card information using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-19: Manually selecting the video adapter card memory using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-20: Manually choosing a clockchip setting using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-21: Probing for clockships and RAMDACs using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-22: Choosing resolutions and color depths using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-23: Starting X Windows to test configuration using Xconfigurator</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-24: Completing the Xconfigurator utility</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsXf86configText-based X Windows configuration program that ships with X WindowsIt allows the configuration of keyboard, mouse, video adapter card, and monitor information for use by X Windows/dev/mousesymbolic link to the device file used for the mouse configured at installation</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsAlthough most monitors today support a wide range of hsync and vsync values, choosing too high a value for either may damage the monitorXvidtuneProgram used to fine-tune the vsync and hsync video card settings for use in X Windows</p></li><li><p>Configuring X WindowsFigure 10-25: The xvidtune utility</p></li><li><p>Chapter SummaryThe Linux GUI has several interchangeable componentsX Windows is the core component of the Linux GUI that draws graphics to the terminal screen and uses a text configuration fileWindow managers modify the look and feel of X WindowsDesktop environments include a window manager as well as a set of standard programs and development libraries</p></li><li><p>Chapter SummaryYou may start the Linux GUI from runlevel 3 by typing startx at a command prompt, or from runlevel 3 or 5 by using gdmConfiguring X Windows requires a thorough knowledge of the video hardware used by the computerThe Xconfigurator, mouseconfig, xf86config, and xvidtune utilities may be used to configure the hardware settings of X Windows for such things as the mouse, keyboard, and video adapter card</p></li></ul>

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