Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification Chapter Seven Advanced Installation.

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  • ObjectivesDescribe the types and structure of SCSI devicesIdentify default IRQs, I/O addresses, and DMAsExplain how Plug-and-Play can be used to assign configuration to peripheral devicesInstall Linux using a text interfaceOutline the steps used to install Linux from source files on a hard disk or network serverSummarize the precautions necessary when installing Linux on different architecturesTroubleshoot the installation process

  • SCSI Hard Disk Drive ConfigurationTerminatorDevice used to terminate an electrical conduction medium to absorb the transmitted signal and prevent signal bounceSCSI IDUniquely identifies and prioritizes devices attached to a SCSI controllerAlso called target ID

  • SCSI Hard Disk Drive ConfigurationFigure 7-1: Connecting SCSI devices

  • SCSI Hard Disk Drive ConfigurationTable 7-1: Common SCSI standards

  • SCSI Hard Disk Drive ConfigurationFigure 7-2: A 50-pin Centronics SCSI connectorFigure 7-3: A 50-pin LPT SCSI connector

  • SCSI Hard Disk Drive ConfigurationFigure 7-4: A 68-pin LPT SCSI connector

  • Mainboard Flow Control:IRQs, DMAs, and I/O AddressesThe processor of a computer executes processes in physical memory for devicesIts time and capacity must be shared among all devices in the computer, which can be accommodated in one of two ways:PollingInterruptionInterrupt Requests (IRQs)Used by the processor to prioritize simultaneous requests for service from peripheral devices

  • Mainboard Flow Control:IRQs, DMAs, and I/O AddressesFigure 7-5: IRQ priorities

  • Mainboard Flow Control:IRQs, DMAs, and I/O AddressesTable 7-2: Default IRQ assignments

  • Mainboard Flow Control:IRQs, DMAs, and I/O AddressesTable 7-3: Default I/O assignments

  • Mainboard Flow Control:IRQs, DMAs, and I/O AddressesTable 7-3 (continued): Default I/O assignments

  • Mainboard Flow Control:IRQs, DMAs, and I/O AddressesTable 7-4: Default DMA assignments

  • Plug-and-PlayPlug-and-Play (PnP)Process allowing devices automatically to be assigned required IRQ, I/O address, and DMA information by the system BIOSComplimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)Memory store on the mainboard used to store configuration information for use during the boot process

  • RAID ConfigurationFault toleranceThe measure of downtime a device exhibits in the event of a failureRedundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)The process of combining the storage space of several hard disk drives into one larger logical storage unit

  • RAID ConfigurationSpanningType of RAID level 0 that allows SPARC processor architecture computersDisk stripingType of RAID 0, which is used to write separate information to hard disks to speed up access timeDisk mirroringAlso known as RAID 1, it consists of two identical hard disks, which are written to in parallel with the same information to ensure fault tolerance

  • RAID ConfigurationDisk Striping with ParityRAID level 5Most common configuration used todayUsed to write separate information to hard disks to speed up access timeAlso contains parity information to ensure fault-tolerance

  • RAID ConfigurationFigure 7-6: Organization of data on RAID level 5

  • Advanced Installation MethodsInstalling Linux graphically using a CD-ROM containing the correct installation files is the most common and easiest method for installing LinuxThere are other methods for installing Linux that do not use a graphical interface for the installation, and may use a different source for the installation files, such as a:Network serverLocal hard disk

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationText-based installationInstallation method that presents interactive material in a command-line text-based format rather than a GUI-based interfaceGraphical installationInstallation method that presents interactive material in a GUI-based format, rather than a command-line text-based interface

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-7: Installation welcome screen

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-8: Language Selection screen during a text installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-9: Keyboard selection screen during a text installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-10: Mouse selection screen during a text installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-11: Partition configuration screen during a graphical installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-12: Partition configuration screen during a text installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-13: Boot loader configuration screen during a graphical installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-14: Choosing a boot loader during a text installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-15: Choosing a boot loader location during a text installation

  • Text-Based CD-ROM InstallationFigure 7-16: Configuring boot kernel parameters during a text installation

  • Hard Disk InstallationISO imagesLarge single files that are exact copies of the information contained on a CD-ROMFigure 7-17: Configuring boot labels during a text installation

  • Hard Disk InstallationFigure 7-18: Language Selection during a text installation

  • Hard Disk InstallationFigure 7-19: Keyboard Selection during a text installation using an installation boot floppy

  • Hard Disk InstallationFigure 7-20: Selecting a method of installation using an installation boot floppy disk

  • Network-Based InstallationsNetwork installationAn installation where the installation source files are accessed across the network from a network shareNetwork installation boot floppy contains common NIC drivers and allows you to connect to a server with the appropriate installation files via one of the following protocols:NFSFTPHTTP

  • Network Installation Using NFSNetwork File System (NFS)Distributed file system developed by Sun MicrosystemsAllows computers of differing types to access files shared on the network

  • Network Installation Using FTPFile Transfer Protocol (FTP)Most common protocol used to transfer files across the InternetMost operating systems come with an FTP client programFTP hosts files differently than NFS does

  • Network Installation Using HTTPIf NFS and FTP are not available on the network, then installation from a Web server on the network using HTTP is an alternativeHyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)Underlying protocol used to transfer information over the Internet

  • Installations from Network ClientsFigure 7-21: Choosing a network installation type during a text installation using a network installation boot floppy

  • Installations from Network ClientsFigure 7-22: Configuring network settings during a text installation using a network installation boot floppy disk

  • Installations from Network ClientsFigure 7-23: Entering NFS configuration during a text installation from a network installation boot floppy disk

  • Installations from Network ClientsFigure 7-24: Entering FTP configuration during a text installation from a network installation boot floppy disk

  • Installations from Network ClientsFigure 7-25: Entering HTTP configuration during a text installation from a network installation boot floppy disk

  • Installing Linux on Non-Intel ArchitecturesSome common roles for older hardware that can be achieved by installing Linux include but are not limited to:DHCP serversDNS serversFile and print serversE-mail servers

  • Installing Linux on Non-Intel ArchitecturesSome common roles for older hardware that can be achieved by installing Linux include but are not limited to (continued):Web serversRoutersFirewallsNews servers

  • Installing Linux on Non-Intel ArchitecturesTable 7-5: Internet installation resources for different architectures

  • Installing Linux on Non-Intel ArchitecturesSILOProgram used to boot Linux on SPARC processor architecture computersABOOTBoot loader for Alpha architecture platforms

  • Installing Linux on Non-Intel ArchitecturesTable 7-6: Common Alpha device labels

  • Installing Linux on Non-Intel ArchitecturesFigure 7-26: Language Selection screen after starting an installation of Linux on the Alpha architecture

  • Problems Starting the InstallationYou will typically start a Linux installation by booting from a CD-ROM that contains the appropriate installation files, or a floppy, which may then connect to a CD-ROM, hard disk, or network server to get the installation filesFor this to occur, you must ensure that the boot order located in the BIOS is set to look for an operating system on the floppy or CD-ROM before it looks to the hard diskBIOSes on different computers may be radically differentTo ensure that you are changing the correct setting, consult the users manual for your mainboard

  • Problems During InstallationOnce the installation program has loaded, you are prompted for the method of installationFor those who install Linux graphically, the installation program must first detect the video card and mouse in the computer and load the appropriate drivers into memoryIf after the initial welcome screen, the graphical installation screens do not appear or appear as scrambled lines across the computer screen, then the video card is likely not supported by the mode and resolution of the graphical installation

  • Problems During InstallationOverclockedRunning a processor at a higher speed than it has been rated forAlthough an overclocked CPU may lead to increased performance, it also produces more heat on the processor and may result in intermittent computer crashes

  • Problems After InstallationAlthough a Red Hat Linux installation may finish successfully, you may still have problems if the installation program did not detect the hardware in the computer properly or certain programs failed to be installedInstallation log fileLog file created at installation to record actions that occurred or failed during the installation process

  • Problems After InstallationLInux LOader (LILO)Program used to boot the Linux OSGrand Unified Bootloader (GRUB)Program used to boot the Linux OS

  • Problems After InstallationTable 7-7: Files commonly found in the /proc directory

  • Problems After InstallationTable 7-7 (continued): Files commonly found in the /proc directory

  • Problems After InstallationTable 7-7 (continued): Files commonly found in the /proc directory

  • Problems After InstallationFigure 7-27: Information displayed by Linux at boot time

  • Chapter SummaryThere are many different SCSI standards, which have been developed since 1986Each peripheral device must be configured with an IRQ and I/O address prior to use, and may optionally use a DMA channelComputers that require fault-tolerance typically employ SCSI hard disks configured using RAIDThough Linux is typically installed from CD-ROM media, it may also be installed using files located on hard disks, or NFS, FTP, and HTTP servers

  • Chapter SummaryText installations of Linux present the same choices to the user as graphical installations of LinuxInstalling Linux on non-Intel architectures requires a solid understanding of the hardware and characteristics of the architectureUnsupported video cards, overclocked CPUs, PnP support, and improper RAM settings may cause an installation to failThe /proc directory contains information regarding detected hardware on the system and is useful when verifying whether an installation was successful

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