Life of Nelson Mandela , Short Biography of Nelson Mandela , Nelson Mandela Life and Times, Short Article on Nelson Mandela Life

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Life of Nelson Mandela

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    Life and Times of Nelson MandelaDecember 6, 2013 - Decoded, International, Miscellaneous - Tagged: life of Nelson Mandela, Nelson Mandela

    ;ife and times, short article on nelson mandela life, short biography of Nelson Mandela - no comments

    Today Nelson Mandela left this world, who was one of the worlds most revered statesmen, who led the

    struggle to replace the apartheid regime of South Africa with a multi-racial democracy.

    Jailed for 27 years, he emerged in 1990 to become the countrys first black president four years later

    and to play a leading role in the drive for peace in other spheres of conflict He fought against apartheid, a

    system where non-white citizens were segregated from whites and did not have equal rights. He served a

    good portion of his life in prison for his protests, but became a symbol for his people. Later he would

    become president of South Africa. . He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

    His charisma, self-deprecating sense of humour and lack of bitterness over his harsh treatment, as well as

    his amazing life story, partly explain his extraordinary global appeal.

    In prison, you come face to face with time. There is nothing more terrifying

    Nelson MandelaSince stepping down as president in 1999, Mr Mandela has become South Africas

    highest-profile ambassador, campaigning against HIV/Aids and helping to secure his countrys right to

    host the 2010 football World Cup.

    Mr Mandela who has had a series of health problems in recent years was also involved in peace

    negotiations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and other countries in Africa and elsewhere.

    In 2004, at the age of 85, Mr Mandela retired from public life to spend more time with his family and

    friends and engage in quiet reflection.

    Dont call me, Ill call you, he warned anyone thinking of inviting him to future engagements.

    The former president has made few public appearances since largely retiring from public life. In

    November 2010, his office released photos of a meeting he had held with members of the US and South

    African football teams. He has been treated in hospital several times in the past two years. In late January

    2011 he was admitted to a Johannesburg hospital for specialised tests with the South African

    presidency reminding a concerned nation that Mr Mandela has had previous respiratory infections.

    While in jail on Robben Island in the 1980s, the former president contracted tuberculosis. In early 2012

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  • he was treated for what the presidents office said was a long-standing abdominal complaint. But in

    recent months he has been troubled repeatedly by a lung infection.

    Raised by royalty

    He was born in 1918 into the Xhosa-speaking Thembu people in a small village in the eastern Cape of

    South Africa. In South Africa, he is often called by his clan name Madiba.

    Born Rolihlahla Dalibhunga, he was given his English name, Nelson, by a teacher at his school. His

    father, a counsellor to the Thembu royal family, died when Nelson Mandela was nine, and he was placed

    in the care of the acting regent of the Thembu people, chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo. In 1941, aged 23, he

    ran away from an arranged marriage and went to Johannesburg.

    Two years later, he enrolled for a law degree at the mainly white Witswaterand University, where he met

    people from all races and backgrounds. He was exposed to liberal, radical and Africanist thought, as

    well as racism and discrimination, which fuelled his passion for politics. The same year, he joined the

    African National Congress (ANC) and later co-founded the ANC Youth League. He married his first

    wife, Evelyn Mase, in 1944. They were divorced in 1958 after having four children. Mr Mandela

    qualified as a lawyer and in 1952 opened a law practice in Johannesburg with his partner, Oliver Tambo.

    Mandelas key dates

    1918 Born in the Eastern Cape

    1944 Joined African National Congress

    1956 Charged with high treason, but charges dropped

    1962 Arrested, convicted of sabotage, sentenced to five years in prison

    1964 Charged again, sentenced to life

    1990 Freed from prison

    1993 Wins Nobel Peace Prize

    1994 Elected first black president

    1999 Steps down as leader

    2001 Diagnosed with prostate cancer

    2004 Retires from public life

    2005 Announces his son has died of an HIV/Aids-related illness

    2007 Forms The Elders group

    2010 Appears at closing ceremony of World Cup

    Together, Mr Mandela and Mr Tambo campaigned against apartheid, the system devised by the all-

    white National Party which oppressed the black majority. In 1956, Mr Mandela was charged with high

    treason, along with 155 other activists, but the charges against him were dropped after a four-year trial.

    Resistance to apartheid grew, mainly against the new Pass Laws, which dictated where black people

    were allowed to live and work. In 1958, Mr Mandela married Winnie Madikizela, who was later to take

    an active role in the campaign to free her husband from prison.

    The ANC was outlawed in 1960 and Mr Mandela went underground. Tension with the apartheid regime

    grew, and soared to new heights in 1960 when 69 black people were shot dead by police in the

    Sharpeville massacre.

    Life sentence

    This marked the end of peaceful resistance and Mr Mandela, already national vice-president of the

    ANC, launched a campaign of economic sabotage.

    Only free men can negotiate. Prisoners cannot enter into contracts

    He was eventually arrested and charged with sabotage and attempting to violently overthrow the

    government. Speaking from the dock in the Rivonia court room, Mr Mandela used the stand to convey

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    his beliefs about democracy, freedom and equality.

    I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony

    and with equal opportunities, he said.

    It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am

    prepared to die.

    In the winter of 1964 he was sentenced to life in prison. In the space of 12 months between 1968 and

    1969, Mr Mandelas mother died and his eldest son was killed in a car crash but he was not allowed to

    attend the funerals.

    Huge crowds greeted Nelson Mandelas release. He remained in prison on Robben Island for 18 years

    before being transferred to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland in 1982. As Mr Mandela and other ANC

    leaders languished in prison or lived in exile, the youths of South Africas black townships did their best

    to fight white minority rule.

    Hundreds were killed and thousands were injured before the schoolchildrens uprising was crushed. In

    1980, the ANC led by the exiled Mr Tambo, launched an international campaign against apartheid but

    ingeniously decided to focus it on one cause and one person the demand to release Mr Mandela. This

    culminated in the 1988 concert at Wembley stadium in London when some 72,000 people and millions

    more watching on TV around the world sang Free Nelson Mandela. Popular pressure led world

    leaders to tighten the sanctions first imposed on South Africa in 1967 against the apartheid regime.

    The pressure produced results, and in 1990, President FW de Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC. Mr

    Mandela was released from prison and talks on forming a new multi-racial democracy for South Africa

    began.

    Slum townships

    In 1992 Mr Mandela separated from his wife, Winnie, on the grounds of her adultery. She had also been

    convicted on charges of kidnapping and accessory to assault. In December 1993, Mr Mandela and Mr

    de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Five months later, for the first time in South Africas

    history, all races voted in democratic elections and Mr Mandela was overwhelmingly elected president.

    Mr Mandelas greatest problem as president was the housing shortage for the poor, and slum townships

    continued to blight major cities.

    He entrusted his deputy, Thabo Mbeki, with the day-to-day business of the government, while he

    concentrated on the ceremonial duties of a leader, building a new international image of South Africa. In

    that context, he succeeded in persuading the countrys multinational corporations to remain and invest in

    South Africa. On his 80th birthday, Nelson Mandela married Graca Machel, the widow of the former

    president of Mozambique.

    He continued travelling the world, meeting leaders, attending conferences and collecting awards after

    stepping down as president. After his official retirement, his public appearances were mostly connected

    with the work of the Mandela Foundation, a charitable fund that he founded. On his 89th birthday, he

    formed The Elders, a group of leading world figures, to offer their expertise and guidance to tackle

    some of the worlds toughest problems.

    Possibly his most noteworthy intervention of recent years came early in 2005, following the death of his

    surviving son, Makgatho.

    At a time when taboos still surrounded the Aids epidemic, Mr Mandela announced that his son had died

    of Aids, and urged South Africans to talk about Aids to make it appear like a normal illness. He also

    played a key role in the decision to let South Africa host the 2010 football World Cup and appeared at

    the closing ceremony.

    The first South African banknotes featuring his face went into circulation in November 2012. July 18th is

    Nelson Mandela day. People are asked to devote 67 minutes to helping others. The 67 minutes

    represents the 67 years Mandela spent serving his country.

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