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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Isabela City Schools Division BEGANG NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL Lesson Plan in English I (K to 12) Grade VII-Gemelina RHEINJOHN A. SAMPANG Demonstration Teacher I. Objectives: 1. Associate with titles and idioms to better understand the given text. 2. Present points of view and opinions concerning the message of a selection in a creative oral means. 3. Formulate assumptions and predictions about the contents of the narrative texts. II. Subject-Matter: Theme: Building Relationships Language Focus: Idioms Reading: Narrative Texts Primary Selection: The Baby in the Bottle by Benjamin Bautista Tasks/Activities: Bottled up Get Bottled? What’s in the Title? Resources: 1. Materials a. Bottle realia b. Pictures of different kinds of bottles fulfilling different purposes 2. Equipment e. LCD Projector (digital pictures will be used)

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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Isabela City Schools Division BEGANG NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Lesson Plan in English I (K to 12) Grade VII-GemelinaRHEINJOHN A. SAMPANG Demonstration Teacher

I.

Objectives: 1. Associate with titles and idioms to better understand the given text. 2. Present points of view and opinions concerning the message of a selection in a creative oral means. 3. Formulate assumptions and predictions about the contents of the narrative texts.

II.

Subject-Matter: Theme: Building Relationships Language Focus: Idioms Reading: Narrative Texts Primary Selection: The Baby in the Bottle by Benjamin Bautista Tasks/Activities: Bottled up Get Bottled? Whats in the Title? Resources: 1. Materials a. Bottle realia b. Pictures of different kinds of bottles fulfilling different purposes 2. Equipment e. LCD Projector (digital pictures will be used) Learning Activities: A. Checking of Attendance a) Check attendance by rows. B. Introduction Task 1: BOTTLED-UP (10 minutes) a) Show the bottle realia to the class. Invite the class to describe the features and uses of a bottle. b) Ask the following questions to elicit response from the learners 1) What comes into your mind when you see a bottle? 2) Why are bottles important to people?

III.

c) Supplement the discussion by using pictures of different kinds of bottles shown in LCD projector thru PowerPoint photo slides. Slides no 2 and 3) d) Explain that idioms and other phrases are based on a bottle. Give the meaning of idioms. Segue to the activity. e) Have students accomplish the task. IDIOMan expression with a meaning that cannot be guessed from the meanings of the individual words e.g His mother passed away (died) this morning. On your task notebook, determine the meaning of the following idioms that use the word bottle, Use the chart to fill-in your answer.Idioms 1. Bottled-up emotions 2. Bottle something up 3. Hit the bottle 4. Cork high and bottle deep 5. The genie if out of the bottle A. B. C. D. E. Meaning To restrain powerful emotion, control and refrain from showingTo put some sort of liquid in the bottle

To drink too much alcohol. Very drunk Something has become known

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

She bottled her homemade chili sauce up and put the bottles in the box. She bottled up her emotions throughout the tournament. He lost his job and hit the bottle By the time the party was over, he was cork high and bottle deep. Efforts to ban smoking cannot succeed-the genie is out of the bottle.

Task 2: GET BOTTLED? (15 minutes) a) Divide the class into 5 groups. Distribute the small envelopes with cutouts of different shapes and colors as codes for grouping.Group 1Apple Green Group 2Square Brown Group 3Circle Pink Group 4 Heart Orange Group 5Triangle Lavender

b) Have each group perform the task. c) Facilitate a quick presentation of outputs by groups. d) Use the group participation assessment rubric below to assess each group output.

Think of several things that can be put in the bottle. Write your answer on a strip of paper. Roll it and put inside the bottle.

Group Participation Assessment RubricGroup Number:______________________________ Rating:_____________________________

PERFORMANCE LEVELApprentice Rarely contributed to the groups project; often needed to be begged to focus and produce; frequently off task; distracted group. Rarely completed his or her share; almost always needed to be prodded.

Basic Contributed good effort to the groups project. Was helpful and cooperative in completing his or her share.

Learned Contributed great effort to the groups project. Completed his or her share with great effort. Did a good job of organizing group efforts and keeping people on track.

Exemplary Contributed exceptional effort to the groups project. Went above and beyond the call of duty to further groups work. Did a fantastic job in organizing group efforts and keeping people on track.

C. Presentation Task 3: WHATS IN A TITLE? (10 minutes) a) Ask students to summarize insight gained from the first two activities by asking this follow-up question; 1) What clear understanding did you learn from our accomplished tasks? b) Present the reading text through a picture of a baby inside the bottle flashed on LCD screen. Then, the title of the reading text . c) Invite students to make guesses what the story is about based on what they learn from the discussion. d) Process selected answer to the students. Focus on how associations are made.

Task 3: WHATS IN A TITLE? Several ideas are implied by a title. Among other things, a title gives you an idea about what a text is all about. Below is a title of a feature text. Make associations with it. Give three guesses about what the text could be based on what the title The Baby in the Bottle presents. Copy the word map flashed on the LCD screen.

The Baby in the Bottle

D. READING OF THE TEXT (the reading text was given to students for home reading.) a) Teacher presents and unlocks the following words before reading of the text 1. cubiclecompartment, booth, stall 2. clumsyawkward 3. Shriveled upwithered up b) Ask students to keep their dictionaries handy in case they have to look up for the difficult word from the selection. c) Remind them that they could also rely on the context clues. E. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LESSON a. Divide the class into five groups (retain their previous groupings) and have them do Task 1: Giving Assumptions and Predictions b. Assign the same preparation time for all groups (10 minutes). Invite student to choose members who can act as facilitators and secretaries. c. Use worksheet for output and Rubrics on the dynamics of presentation. Determine the sequence of the presentations. d. Have the students accomplish the task. Go around and check the progress of every group. Give guidance as needed. e. Have each group present their outputs. f. Ask questions that will require the students to support their answers or explain the process that they did to accomplish their task. Invite students to ask questions and react to the presentation. IV. Assessment Task 1: Giving Assumptions and Predictions Clarify the meaning of the words, prediction (statement about future: a statement of what somebody thinks will happen in the future) assumption (something that is believed to be true without proof Make no assumptions before looking at the evidence.) Reread the text. Ask the following questions a. Predictionstatement about future: a statement of what somebody thinks will happenin the future.

b. Assumptionsomething

that is believed to be true without proof Make no assumptions before looking at the evidence.

1. What assumptions and predictions can be made about the couple? Give at least three of each. 2. What lines in the text help in making the assumptions and predictions you have? Write your answers in table presented on the blackboard. Copy the table on a sheet of paper.

Giving Assumptions and Predictions

WORKSHEETGroup Number:______________________________ Rating:_____________________________

ASSUMPTIONS1.

SUPPORTING LINES1.

PREDICTIONS

SUPPORTING LINES

2.

2.

3.

3.

V.

Enrichment Home work Task for Day 3 and 4 lessons PREDICTING POPULATION TRENDS (Home Work) a. Give the instructions for the task. b. Provide a handout that features basic search protocols. The following is a text that you can modify to suit this purpose.

References

The Text The Baby In the Bottle Benjamin Bautista THETRUTH was, Mr.Libre felt sorry for his wife. He was very careful to hide it f room her, of course, but day by day, through theyears, as he saw her watching the shriveled half -black baby in the bottle, he felt more and more sorry for her. She would touch the bottle gently, once in a while, and run her hands fondly over the cold glass; inside, the stiff sk inless bodyof afour-inch boynow dead forfive years, would bobup anddown inthe green alcohol.Andthen sometimes, slowly, toherself ,she would smile. Mr.Libre's wif ewas aplai.nwomanwithhighcheekbones and a sad mouth, who wasonly twenty-nine yearsoldbutwhose eyes werenolongeryoung.Mr. Libre himself was thirtythree butgraying hairand somethick corded veins on hishandsmade himlook older.He was a small man and thin,and long hours of bending over receiptshad givenhim a stooped posture and made him appear even smaller andthinner. Very often, whenever he could, Mr.Libre wouldtry to talk to hiswifeto get her tostart talk ing too, but it became harderand harder f orthem to find thingsto talk about.The talk always turned tothepast and how differentit might have been ifthey'd had children.Mr.Libre didn't want to talk about those things but hiswife did, and gradually, the pausesstretchedlongerandmade them bothuneasy.But he was always patient withher; evenif he wastired or irritable henever showedit in any way.Bynow hehad learned to put upwithagood manythings. He was married when he was twenty-two and just out of high school.He had been alonein the city [or[ourmonthswhen hemether.Sheunderstoodhis dialect and they got along well together.Atf irsthe wanted togo onto college but when hethoughtit over again,he felt that itwasn't fair.Thatwouldbe askingtoo much from his wife. They moved into a rented room which the owner saidwas theground noorof a two-story building, butitwas just a roomactually,with thick cardboardwalls to

divideitintosmaller rooms.Theyplanned to move out after a fewyears because they thoughtthe roomwouldbe toosmallf orthe childrentocome,andthey hopedtohave many children.But f ive years passed beforethey had their first child, and when itwas onlyf our months in the womb,it was prematurely born. It was a boybutit didn'teven look lik e ababyIt hadeyes andears and arms and its sk inlessbody hadbeen formed,butitwas

onlyfourinches long and looked coldandrawasthough it was just apiece of peeled flesh that neverhad lif e atall.Mr. Libreleft it to the nursesbuthis wife ask edto k eep it and take it home withher;he didn't know why,until the doctortoldhim thathis wife knewthat she couldneverhave anymore children. Afterthat neither of them talked about it much and they slippedback tothe routineof everydayliving. Still hetook it on himself to trytomak e it easierfor her throughthe days. One af ternoon in the last busyweek of January, Mr. Librewas looking over some old filesinthe Recorderscubiclewhen all of a sudden heremembered that onthat daythebaby in the bottle was f ive years and seven months old.He thought nomore about itbutk ept it intheback of his mind to tell hiswif ethat night;she wantedto hear him talk about thebaby He wentoncheckingtheold files but when he was almost f inished,his eyes hurtagain andhehad togo back to his desk . Mr. Libre was aclerk in the freightdepartmentof an import-exportcorporation and all dayhe had tositbehind a high desk and sortoutreceipts and record them. lt was not ahardjob butitkept himconstantlybusybecause there were so many receipts and he was so very careful about his work, he seldom found time to leave hisdesk from eight-thirty tofiveo'clock everyday Hehad beenwiththe firm fornine years nowand he knew his work well butstill didnot find it easy. It demandedso much concentration from him and there were dayswhen it all seemed tobepainfullyhard but it onlymade himtry even harder.Manytimeshe would have to focus his eyes onthe pink ,yellow and blue receiptsand mak ean explicit act of the willtofollowthe itemson them. Usually he wouldhave to strainhiseyes excessivelysothatoften the muscles behindhis eyesockets tightened and he wouldf eel a smarting throb in hiseyes. He would stop work at once and close hiseyes as tightlyas he could. Then he would f orce asmile untilhis jawhurt because, althoughthat didn't ease the pain any,it always held back the tears.Tears always embarrassed him.Theymadehim f eel sohelpless. He did notrest his eyes long because there weremanylatereceipts that he had to go through andhe went back to work on them. Butaf ter af ewminutes he grewrestless with the papers and he wantedto go over to the window and geta breathof air. Butthewindow was acrossthe room andthe assistantmanagerwas talkingtoa typistonlytwoor three feetawayHetried tosit stillonhis highchair. He shut hiseyes and took a deepbreath and continued to line up the figureson the record sheet but hisfingersshook and the pencil point broke under his hand, He

grew annoyedwith himself forbeingupsetover alittlething like that.He was sure hiswif e was not having aneasy day either. Concentrationalways came hardto Mr.Librebecause sometimes in the middle of the dayhewould findit impossibleto k eephis thoughts off the manyunrelated littlethings that came into hismind.He would catch himself thinking of hiswife eating lunch alone everydayor thecardboardwalls of their roomthatseemedto close in onthem orperhaps thedeadbabysubmerged in itsbottle of green alcohol. He thought of his wif ea lot but manytimes hethought of the baby, too. During the first f ew monthsand on to the end of thatfirstyear,the bottle had seemed toosmallfor the babyIt looked as though it needed a glass jar with a lid insteadof that bottlewitha wide mouth;it f loated limply on thesurface and slumped againsttheglass sides. Butafter a whilethealcohol seeped through it and hardened it,and itsank stiffly tothe bottom.Then littlebylittle it blackened and shriveled up and it wouldneither f loat norsink but bobbed up and downin its green worldof alcohol and glass.And then the bottledidn't seem too smallf orthe baby any morebecause now thebaby's shrunkenbody was completely confined, The bottle f ully containedit. Mr. Libre noticedtoothat hiswif ehad changed.In the beginning she was no different atall,althoughattimesshedidfallintobrooding. Then slowly for no apparent reasonshegrew quiet andkept toherself, andthatwas when the baby in the bottle took a strange hold onher.He triedtounderstand her and be patient with her.She did notwant to be the way shewas,he told himself ,to live in a small crampedworldof her own,tolook at thebaby, make up daydreams aboutitall day, to wantto touch it,holditinher hands. She could not help any of it, he knew, andhedid notstopher, and day by dayhe got used to her being that way. But still he feltsorryf or her. The blinds on thewest window had beenloweredand he knew itwas getting late, Heshook himself f romhis thoughts and workedf aster becausehe wanted to finish thelastbatch of receiptsf or the day.It would hardly makeanydifference because

Baby in the Bottle (Reader's-Response)

Nowadays, abortion seems to be an easy thing. Teenagers who got pregnant accidentally will have abortion as their first choice to end their problem. The thing inside their stomach already has a life, even if it has only been days. There are women who wanted to have kids but they cannot have; abortion is not the best solution for this problem, there are still couples who need them and will love them. After the hard and exhausting work, most of the time, peoples next destination is their home. Home is a place where you feel that you belong, you are at ease and you have a peace of mind. Baby in the Bottle, tells the life of a couple who can never have a child. Mr. Libre was a clerk in the freight department of an import-export corporation. His tasks are sorting and recording receipts, which made him to stay on his desk for nine hours. After his work, he will go home directly, but that does not ease what he has been feeling. At his home, the place is quite and feels like no one is living. He and his wife did not have any proper and long conversation after their first and last child was born prematurely and died. His wife wanted to take the baby home and keep it with her, and so they placed it inside a bottle filled with alcohol. He can feel the pain his wife has been suffering, just seeing her looking at the baby in daze and holding it made him to feel sorry for her. When the baby died, Mr. Libre did not shed any tears, hes been holding them because it made him feel so helpless and he wanted to be strong for his wife. But it came to a time when he can no longer hold it and the tears fell from his eyes. Theme Importance of a child in a family A complete family is consisted of a mother, a father and kids. The children are the one who strengthen the relationship of the couple. They are the ones who make the home filled with laughter and smiles. The talk always returned to the past and how different it might have been if theyd had children. p (183). This sentence proves the importance of children in maintaining the happiness in a home. Mr. Libre and his wife seems like stranger to each other. The effect of the death of the baby made his wife to completely change, her eyes are not as bright as it should be, her face does not show any expression and when she smiled at him, an expression he had seen for the first time, it made him scared of the possibility that she does not recognize his husband. His wife sat on a cot staring at the baby bottle. She sat in the half dark a few feet away from the table where the bottle was. From where he stood he could see sharply the hollows of her eyes and her thin bloodless lips. Her face was totally without expression. Her hands were on her lap and she sat unmoving but when he came in and she saw him she turned slowly to him and

her face broke out in a clumsy uncertain smile. It was slow half-silly smile that twisted the corners of her mouth upwards and nothing else; her eyes remained sad and empty. He had never seen her that way. He was afraid she did not recognize him. p (187). Their relationship has affected Mr. Libres work, sometimes he could not concentrate on the things he should do and in front of him. His thought about his work got mixed with the thoughts about his wife and the baby, what his wife is doing and the condition of the baby. Concentration always came hard to Mr. Libre because sometimes in the middle of the day he would find it impossible to keep his thoughts off the many unrelated things that came into his mind. He would catch himself thinking of his wife eating lunch alone every day or the cardboard wall of their room that seemed to close in on them or perhaps the dead baby submerged in its bottle of green alcohol. He thought of his wife a lot but many times he thought of the baby too. p (185). The author did not use any other means to show the theme to the reader. Even the title Baby in the Bottle literally means that the baby is inside a bottle. It is clearly stated in the story the importance of the baby in a family and its effects once it vanished. Tone Depressed Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a persons thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. It may include feelings of sadness, anxiety, emptiness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, irritability, or restlessness. Depressed people may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience difficulty concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions, and may contemplate or attempt suicide. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depression_%28mood%29#cite_noteSalmans1995-0 The story gives off the feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, emptiness and sadness, all in all, being depressed. The author wrote the story in a way that sentences can show the feelings of the characters. Mr. Libre has been keeping his feelings to himself, he does not cry because for him it means his helpless, but both he and his wife has been suffering depression. The truth was, Mr. Libre felt sorry for his wife. He was very careful to hide it from her of course, but day by the day, through the years, he saw her watching the shriveled half-black baby in the bottle, he felt more and more sorry for her. She would touch the bottle gently once in a while, and run her hands fondly over the cold glass, inside, the stiff skinless body a four-inch boy now dead for five years, would bob up and down in the green alcohol. And then sometimes, slowly, to herself, she would smile. p (183).

Here, the author used day by day and through the years to describe how long Mr. Libre has been suppressing how he felt for his wife. This paragraph also shows how Mrs. Libre felt, how she wanted to touch the baby, how she longed to hold it, and how she forced to smile, slowly to herself. Do you like the story? Why or Why Not? Both the sides of my mother and father had siblings that werent a ble to see the world, like what happened to the baby of Mr. and Mrs. Libre. But the result of what happened after was not like the same because their parents still have children. And last February 4, 2006, our family experienced the same case. The baby was also a boy and about four-inches, we placed him inside a bottle filled with alcohol. My father changes the alcohol every time it changes its color from clear to white. At that time when I learned about what happened and saw my parents and my sisters crying, I felt sad but I did not cry. But then when Im alone, I felt like crying and then I let the tears fall from by eyes. I like the story since it shows how fortunate we are, our family did not became like theirs. My parents did not stop and change the way they were before the accident, we still go on with our lives but it does not mean we will forget our little baby brother. When Im alone, I know our baby angel is with me, watching us, so the sadness I felt seemed to be lessened. Everything happens for a reason, what happened to us is a challenged and we become stronger because of that. The partner given to you is not just for display, the two of you have to cooperate with each other, help each other to overcome the challenges you re facing. You dont have to take it all to yourself, see and it will be better for the two of you. Point out the parallelisms in the story and discus their function/s. Mr. Libres wife was a plain woman with high cheekbones and a sad mouth, who was only twenty-nine years old but whose eyes were no longer young. p (183) Mr. Libre himself was thirty-three but graying hair and some thick corded veins on his hands made him look older. p (183) It was a boy but it didnt even look like a baby. p (184) These sentences describe how each characters appearance is far from what they supposed to look like. They moved into a rented room which the owner said was the ground floor of a two story building but it was just a room actually, with thick cardboard walls to divide it into smaller rooms. They planned to move out few years because they thought the room would be too small for the children to come and they hoped to have many children Mr. Libre noticed too that his

wife had changed. In the beginning she was no different at all, although at times she did fall into brooding. Then slowly for no apparent reason she grew quiet and kept to herself and that was when the baby in the bottle took a strange hold on her. He tried to understand her and be patient with her. she did not want to be the way she was, he told himself to live in a small cramped world of her own, to look at the baby, make up daydreams about it all day, want to touch it, hold it in her hands. She could not help any of it he knew and he did not stop her and day by day he got used to her being that way. But still he felt sorry for her. p (184-186) During the first few months and on to the end of that first year, the bottle had seemed too small for the baby. It looked as though it needed a glass jar with a lid instead of that bottle with a wide mouth, it floated limply on the surface and slumped against the glass sides. But after a while the alcohol seeped through it and hardened it and it sank stiffly to the bottom. Then little by little it blackened and shriveled up and it would neither float nor sink but bobbed up and down in its green world of alcohol and glass. And then the bottle didnt seem too small for the baby anymore because now the babys shrunken body was completely confined. The bottle fully contained it. p (185) These parts are parallel in a way that they both described the world Mrs. Libre and the baby is living, Mrs. Libre in their small room and the baby inside the bottle. After a while, both of them changed, overpowered by their own surrounding. Mrs. Libres life revolved around her room with her baby, then slowly she had changed, her attitude changed. Their house, which at first seems to be small, became a house enough for the two of them. On the other hand, the baby also had slowly changed, but in its appearance, his size had shrunk making the bottle enough for its size. Is Mrs. Libres inability to cope common? I understand why Mrs. Libre was not able to deal with what happened. They were looking forward to have children in their house, but the sudden death of their baby was a big shock for her, and then the news that she wont be able to bear any child, she felt so depress. Her inability to handle the incident is not common nowadays. There are couples who were not blessed with the ability to reproduce, of course they felt sad and hopeless, but after sometime they will adopt a child. The feeling of wanting to hold your own child, the child from your own blood, is different from holding just a random kid, but youll be able to help and give love to the kid that his/her parent did not care and love him/her. Think of it as the purpose of your life, its to help the others. Is the title appropriate? The Baby in the Bottle, when I read the title, I already thought that it might literally mean a baby inside a bottle. This simple title given by the author

made it easy for the readers to understand just like the way he wrote the story. The story is not the same us others who uses a lot of difficult words and literary devices that made it hard to understand by others. The author, Benjamin Bautista, is a citizen of our country, he had the idea of what happens to the ordinary when something like that happened to them. His target readers might be ordinary people, the Filipinos, the title does not have to be amusing, the storys message is more important

RUBRIC FOR ORAL PRESENTATION (TASK 2 OUTPUTS) Group Number: _____________ RATING

CATEGORY Comprehension

Time-Limit

4 Student is able to accurately answer almost all questions posed by classmates about the topic. Presentation is 4-5 minutes long.

3 Student is able to accurately answer most questions posed by classmates about the topic. Presentation is 4 minutes long.

2 Student is able to accurately answer a few questions posed by classmates about the topic. Presentation is 3 minutes long.

1 Student is unable to accurately answer questions posed by classmates about the topic. Presentation is less than 3 minutes OR more than 6 minutes. Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member. Rarely speaks in complete sentences.

Collaboration with Peers

Uses Complete Sentences

Almost always listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together. Always (99100% of time) speaks in complete sentences.

Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Does not cause \"waves\" in the group. Mostly (80-98%) speaks in complete sentences.

Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member. Sometimes (7080%) speaks in complete sentences.

Rated by:_________________

PERFORMAN CE ELEMENT Awareness of Audience

DISTINGUISHED Significantly increases audience understanding and knowledge of topic; Effectively convinces an audience to recognize the validity of a point of view.

PROFICIENT Raises audience understanding and awareness of most points; Clear point of view, but development or support is inconclusive and incomplete. Has some success defining purpose and subject; Some examples, facts, and/or statistics that support the subject; Includes some data or evidence which sup-ports conclusions or ideas;

APPRENTICE Raises audience understand-ing and knowledge of some points; Point of view may be clear, but lacks development or support.

NOVICE Fails to increase au-dience understanding of knowledge of topic; Fails to effectively convince the audience.

POSSIBLE

ACTUAL

Strength of Material, Organization

Clear purpose and subject; Pertinent examples, facts, and/or statistics Conclusions/ideas are supported by evi-dence; Major ideas summa-rized and audience left with full understanding of presenters position.

Attempts to define purpose and subject; Weak examples, facts, and/or statistics, which do not adequately support the sub-ject; Includes very thin data or evidence in support of ideas or conclusions; Major ideas may need to be summarized or

Subject and purpose are not clearly de-fined; Very weak or no support of subject through use of exam-ples, facts, and/or sta-tistics; Totally insufficient support for ideas or conclusions; Major ideas left un-clear, audience left with no new ideas.

May need to refine summary or final idea.

audience is left with vague idea to remember.

Delivery Relaxed, selfconfident and appropriately dressed for purpose or audience; Builds trust and holds attention by direct eye contact with all parts of audience; Fluctuation in volume and inflection help to maintain audience in-terest and emphasize key points. Quick recovery from minor mistakes; Appropriately dressed; Fairly consistent use of direct eye contact with audience; Satisfactory variation of volume and inflection. Some tension or indifference apparent and possible inappropriate dress for purpose or audience; Occasional but unsustained eye contact with audience; Uneven volume with little or no inflection. Nervous tension ob-vious and/or inappro-priately dressed for purpose or audience; No effort to make eye contact with audi-ence; Low volume and/or monotonous tone cause audience to disengage.