Legislative Drafting Manual

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LEGISLATIVE DRAFTING MANUALA Practitioners Guide to Drafting Laws in Kosovo

LEGISLATIVE DRAFTING MANUALA Practitioners Guide to Drafting Laws in Kosovo

Disclaimer: This document is a product of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Kosovo Justice Support Program, implemented under contract by the National Center for State Courts. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the USAID or the United States Government.

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Table of ContentsIntroduction Objective .................................................................................................................................................1 Scope .........................................................................................................................................................2 Glossary of Terms ..........................................................................................................3 List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................7 Chapter 1 Lawmaking Process in Kosovo 1.1 General Overview .........................................................................................................................8 1.2 Initiating a Law .................................................................................................................................9 1.3 Law Drafting Process within the Government ........................................................................9 1.4 Process within the Assembly.....................................................................................................13 1.4.1 First Reading ...................................................................................................................14 1.4.2 Committee Process ......................................................................................................14 1.4.2.1 Committees of the Assembly......................................................................14 1.4.2.2 Committee Assignments ..............................................................................15 1.4.2.3 Committee Review ........................................................................................16 1.4.3 Second Reading..............................................................................................................16 1.4.4 Third Reading .................................................................................................................17 1.4.5 Final Approval ................................................................................................................17 Chapter 2 Drafting Legislation 2.1 Basic Principles..............................................................................................................................21 2.2 The Structure of Legislation ......................................................................................................21 2.2.1 The Introductory Provisions of Draft Legislation .................................................22 2.2.1.1 Titles..................................................................................................................22 2.2.1.2 Enacting Clause ...............................................................................................23 2.2.1.3 Purpose Statement.........................................................................................23 2.3 The Body of the Law ...................................................................................................................25 2.3.1 Definitions.......................................................................................................................25 2.3.2 Substantive and Regulatory Provisions.....................................................................27 2.4 Final Provisions .............................................................................................................................28 2.4.1 Implementing Provisions..............................................................................................28 2.4.2 Transition Provisions....................................................................................................29 2.4.3 Effective Date Provisions.............................................................................................31 2.5 Special Final Provisions ...............................................................................................................31 2.5.1 Repeal Provisions ..........................................................................................................32 2.5.2 Savings Provisions..........................................................................................................32 2.5.3 Restrictive Provisions...................................................................................................32 2.6 Signing and Promulgation............................................................................................................33 Chapter 3 Order and Language 3.1 General Overview........................................................................................................................35 3.2 Structure and Order of Laws....................................................................................................36 3.2.1 Books ...............................................................................................................................36 3.2.2 Parts..................................................................................................................................36 3.2.3 Chapters & Subchapters ..............................................................................................36 3.2.4 Articles, Paragraphs and Subparagraphs ..................................................................37 ii

3.3 Language and Grammar ..............................................................................................................39 3.3.1 Language ..........................................................................................................................39 3.3.2 Grammar and Style .......................................................................................................39 3.3.2.1 Active Language ..............................................................................................40 3.3.2.2 Use of Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives.........................................................40 3.4 Special Drafting Problems ..........................................................................................................41 3.4.1 Wordiness.......................................................................................................................41 3.4.2 Use of Negative Phrasing ............................................................................................41 3.4.3 Internal Consistency.....................................................................................................42 3.4.4 Gender Neutrality.........................................................................................................42 Chapter 4 Hierarchy of Legal Norms 4.1 Hierarchy of Legal Norms......................................................................................................... 44 4.2 The Constitution and the CSP................................................................................................. 45 4.3 The Constitution and International Laws & Treaties ......................................................... 46 4.4 Laws Adopted by the Assembly .............................................................................................. 49 4.5 Secondary Legislation adopted by the Executive Branch .................................................. 49 4.6 Recommended approach for resolving conflicts between different sources of law ... 50 Chapter 5 Research and Special Provisions 5.1 Research Methodology ..............................................................................................................52 5.1.1 Identify key provisions that always must be analyzed (constitution etc.)........52 5.1.2 Key research resources...............................................................................................52 5.2 Special Drafting Challenges........................................................................................................52 5.2.1 Penalties...........................................................................................................................52 5.2.2 Budget & Tax measures...............................................................................................54 5.2.3 Creating New Agencies and Institutions .................................................................55 5.2.4 Transferring Functions from One Institution to Another...................................56 5.2.5 Amending Existing Laws .............................................................................................57 Chapter 6 Ethics and the Legislative Drafter 6.1 Why Ethics are Important to the Drafter.............................................................................61 6.2 What do we mean by Ethics? ...................................................................................................61 6.3 Basic Ethics for the Drafter ......................................................................................................61 6.4 How to Apply These Ethical Considerations .......................................................................62 Appendix I Drafters Check Lists .........................................................................................................................66 Elements of a Draft Law .............................................................................................................67

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