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Lecture three Volumetric Analysis
: Types of Titrimetric Methods
Complexometric titrations
A standard solution: is a reagent of exactly known concentration that is used in a titrimetric analysis
Titration: is a process in which a standard reagent is added to a solution of an analyte until the reaction between the analyte and reagent is judged to be complete.
Back-titration : is a process in which the excess of a standard solution used to consume an analyte is determined by titration with a second standard solution. Back-titrations are often required when the rate of reaction between the analyte and reagent is slow or when the standard solution lacks stability.
End point: is the point in a titration when a physical change occurs that is associated with the condition of chemical equivalence. In volumetric methods, the titration error Et is given by Et = Vep - Veq where (Vep) is the actual volume of reagent required to reach the end point and (Veq) is the theoretical volume to reach the equivalence point.
Indicators: are organic materials (almost weak acid or weak base) are often added to the analyte solution to produce an observable physical change (the end point) at or near the equivalence point.
Ph.ph Indicator for acid base titration
A secondary standard: is a compound whose purity has been established by chemical analysis and that serves as the reference material for a titrimetric method of analysis.
A primary standard: is an ultrapure compound that serves as the reference material for a titrimetric method of analysis.
Titer or Chemical Factor:
A + T _______ Product Titer of A = Molarity of T(mmole / ml) x mole ratio(mmole A / mmole T) x M.WT (A)
Example: Generate the hypothetical titration curve and calculate the pH for the titration 0.1M from HCl with 25ml (0.1M) Ammonia?
a) Before addition HCl (V=0 ml)
Kb = 1.75 x 10 -5
b) Before the equivalent point ( V = 10ml from HCl)
After addition 10ml from HCl , ammonium chloride NH4Cl will formed and excess from ammonia. Which is buffer solution and in this case we can calculate pOH and then pH as.
= [NH4Cl] salt
= Residual of Ammonia
c) At the equivalent point: Which is mean addition equal volume (25m) from HCl to 25ml(0.1M) Ammonia to form salt of weak base only NH4Cl and we can calculate the pH to the salt of weak base as.
d) Post equivalent point: This case mean addition from HCl, like addition 26ml. We can calculate the pH from the excess of HCl as.
Weak acid versus Weak base: In this type of titration the change in the pH at the equivalent point is very small, no suitable simple indicator is used to determine the eq.point.
NH4OH + HOAC NH4OAC + H2O Example: Titration 0.1M NH4OH with 50ml(0.1M) CH3COOH. a) Before the addition of NH4OH.
b) After addition 10ml NH4OH. Buffer solution from HOAC/ OAC- will formed.
c) At the equivalent point, addition 50ml from NH4OH, and Ammonium acetate will formed, salt of both weak acid and weak base.
d) Post equivalent point , after addition 60ml from ammonia. That is mean another buffer solution will form that produce all HOAC were convert to Ammonium acetate , and the excess of ammonia.
1
1-
2-
3-
Ka2= Ka1=
4-
(A) Point (B) point
(C) point= first eq.point (D) point
(E) point= second eq.point
(A) point: before any addition(at 0.0ml volume from HCl) In this case we have only sodium carbonate and the pH is determined from the hydrolysis of Bronsted base as:
1 a
pOH= 2.34 pH = 14 pOH = 11.7
(B) point: After addition 25ml HCl: In this case a part from carbonate is converted to and buffer region is established.
= (50-25) x0.1 / VT(75ml)= 2.5mmole / 75ml
= 25 x0.1 / Vt(75ml) = 2.5mmole/75ml = 4.69 x10-11 pH= 10.32 (C) point: first eq.point( addition 50ml HCl): In this case all were converted to and we calculate the pH for mono-protanted salt from Ka1 and Ka2 as. = (50-50) x0.1/ Vt(100ml) = 0.0mmole/100ml = 50x0.1 / Vt(100ml) = 5mmole / 100ml
pH= 8.3
(D) point: After first eq.point (addition 75ml HCl):
= 50x0.1 /Vt(125ml) = 5mmole / 125ml will formed = (50 25 ) x0.1 M / 125ml = 2.5mmole / 125ml residual concentration = 25 x0.1 / Vt(125ml) = 2.5 mmole / 125ml will formed from
a
pH = 6.37
(E) point: second eq.point( addition 100ml HCl): At the second equivalence point (E) the pH is determined by the extent of
dissociation of carbonic acid, the principal species present, and [H+] is calculated from Equation.
Ka1=
= 50 x 0.1 / Vt(150ml)= 0.0333
1.177 pH= 3.92
Important notes: 1-
2-
3- 4-
5-
1-
For example of diprotic acids are H2A, H3PO4, And
2-
3-
4- Two indicators must be used to detect the equivalent points in the titration od diprotic acid H2A with sodium hydroxide NaOH.
5-
1 eq.point
2 eq.point
Example:
Solution
(Addition 0.0ml from NaOH)
(After addition 50ml from NaOH), in this case the solution contains both HA- and H2A which is buffer solution: [HA-] = 50 x0.1 / Vt(150ml)= 0.033Molar [H2A] = (100 50) x0.1 / Vt(150ml) = 0.033M [HA-] = [ H2A] pH = pKa1 + log HA- / H2A pH = pKa1= 2.82
In this case all H2A was converted to HA-, which is mono-protic salt and we can calculate the pH from the above law or .
(After addition 100ml from NaOH)
After addition 150ml from NaOH), in this case 100ml from NaOH will convert all H2A to HA-, and the other 50ml will convert an equal amount from HA- to A-2. Which is buffer solution contains A-2 / HA- and we can calculate the pH as: [HA-] formed = 100ml x 0.1 / Vt( 250ml) = 0.04M [HA-] remaining or residual = (100 50) x0.1 / Vt(250ml) = 0.02M [A-2] formed = 50 x0.1 / Vt(250ml) = 0.02M [HA-] = [A-2] pH = pKa2 + log [A-2] / [HA-] = 5.70
After addition : 0.0ml , 5ml, 24.9ml, 25ml(first eq.point), 25.01ml , 25.5ml , 49.9ml and 50ml(second eq.point) from NaOH.
So when: 1-
2- If and [HA-] / Ka1 1
3- If and [HA-] /
Ka2 [HA- ] Kw Kw is not negligible Ka1 >> 1 1 is negligible
Volumetric apparatus
Lecture threeVolumetric AnalysisSlide Number 2Slide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Slide Number 7Slide Number 8Slide Number 9Slide Number 10Slide Number 11Slide Number 12Slide Number 13Slide Number 14Slide Number 15Slide Number 16Slide Number 17Slide Number 18Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23Slide Number 24Slide Number 25Slide Number 26Slide Number 27Slide Number 28Slide Number 29Slide Number 30Slide Number 31Slide Number 32Slide Number 33Slide Number 34Slide Number 35Slide Number 36Slide Number 37Slide Number 38Slide Number 39Slide Number 40Slide Number 41Slide Number 42Slide Number 43Slide Number 44Slide Number 45Slide Number 46Slide Number 47Slide Number 48Slide Number 49Slide Number 50Slide Number 51Slide Number 52Volumetric apparatus