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Ladakh, India

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Ladakh, India. Kabul, Afghanistan. Chaco, Paraguay. Los Angeles, USA. Credits. All photographs by Paul McCurry. Ecosystems. Subsistence agriculture. Acculturation Horticulture Patrilineal Moeity Household Spheres of exchange. Slash and burn (swidden) agriculture Clan Polygany. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Ladakh, India

  • Ladakh, India

  • Kabul, Afghanistan

  • Chaco, Paraguay

  • Los Angeles, USA

  • CreditsAll photographs by Paul McCurry

  • EcosystemsSubsistence agriculture

  • Key terms and conceptsAcculturationHorticulturePatrilinealMoeityHouseholdSpheres of exchangeSlash and burn (swidden) agricultureClanPolygany

  • Horticulturalist AdaptationYanomamoTropical Rainforest Environments

  • Among the last indigenous peoples of Amazonia to be contacted by outside world.The term applied by Chagnon: unacculturated implies they have not been incorporated into the wider Hispanic culture of Brazil or Venezuela.

  • Horticultural adaptation involves limited agricultural production at household scale.Food resources are for family or village sustenance.Supplemented by ongoing hunting and foraging.

  • Leisure time is afforded by successful harvests.

  • Irregular contact with conquistadors, explorers, and missionaries.Fiercely independent and territorial.Village life,(shabono) centered on limited farming. Male roles include that of warrior as well as farmer.Characteristically highly distrustful of strangers.

  • In addition to contact with loggers, miners and government representatives, Yanomamo also have contact with missionaries, and international support groups.

  • One arrangement of many village types.

  • Villages influenced by government, and missionaries. Non-traditional architecture.

  • HorticultureLimited scale farmingSeasonalGenerally for family or village consumption only.Semi-sedentary and seasonally sedentary, but also some examples of permanent villages in especially productive areas.

  • Marriage and kinship

    Bilateral cross cousin marriage.Village endogamy.PolyggynyPatrilineal

    Marriage from specified lineages.

  • Internal sources of conflictFeuds based on land useDiminishing meat sourcesMarriage rules and sex ratio imbalance (practice of female infanticide is a contributing cause)Evil spirits and sorceryRaids between villages often lead to open warfare.

  • External pressure for acculturation

    Advanced technologyRoads built by companies altered settlement patterns, led to begging and limited seasonal employment.Two variants of Yanomamo society began to emerge.Pharmaceutical companies seek new drugs in the rainforest among tribes.

  • Environmental problemsMining operations have poisoned the water sources.Logging has decimated the limited wild game.Lack of immunity to diseases led to 20% of population dying from epidemic.Yanomamo over hunting also depletes protein sources.

  • Strange bedfellowsThe rush to protect Yanomamo came from environmental groups, who gained greater attention than rights activists.

    New question arises, Should Yanomamo be allowed to remain a they are? Is this not just another form of neglect?

  • Protest over illegal mining.

  • Land rights issueYanomamo plight brought the political issue of indigenous rights to the public. In short, What rights do a indigenous people have relative to the dominant socio-political body?

  • AlliancesEnvironmental groups and human rights activists sought autonomy for Yanomamo.The alliance is based in part on recognizing the Yanomamo as significant players in the natural ecosystem.