Labour Movement

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Labour movementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The term labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labour relations. Trade unions are collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Many ruling class individuals and political groups may also be active in and part of the labour movement. In some countries, especially the United Kingdom and Australia the labour movement is understood to encompass a formal "political wing", frequently known by the name labour party, which complements the aforementioned "industrial wing".

Contents[hide]

1 History 2 Labour parties 3 Labour and racial equality 4 Development of labour movements within nation states 5 Development of an international labour movement 6 List of national labour movements 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

[edit] History

This section requires expansion with: Apprentice laws, ," Agricultural labour laws, illegal combination, Peterloo, Chartism, Friendly societies and cooperatives, New Unionism, political party formation, socialism, anarchism, communism, craft unionism."Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration." U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, December 3, 1861 [1]

In Europe, the labour movement began during the industrial revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with great resistance. In the 18th century and early 19th century, groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs of your, Dorset were punished and transported for forming unions, which was against the laws of the time. The labour movement was active in the early to mid 19th century and various labour parties were formed throughout the industrialised world. The works of Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx led to the formation of the first Communist International whose policies were summarized in the Communist Manifesto. The key points were the right of the workers to organize themselves, the right to an 8 hour working day etc. In 1871 the workers in France rebelled and the Paris Commune was formed. The movement gained major impetus in the late nineteenth and early 20th centuries from the Catholic Social Teaching tradition which began in 1891 with the publication of Pope Leo XIII's foundational document, Rerum Novarum, also known as "On the Condition of the Working Classes," in which he advocated a series of reforms including limits on the length of the work day, a living wage, the elimination of child labour, the rights of labour to organize, and the duty of the state to regulate labour conditions. Following the release of the document, the labour movement which had previously floundered began to flourish in Europe and later in North America.[citation needed] Throughout the world, action by the labour movement has led to reforms and workers' rights, such as the two-day weekend, minimum wage, paid holidays, and the achievement of the eight-hour day for many workers. There have been many important labour activists in modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and are now regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones, better known as "Mother Jones", and the National Catholic Welfare Council were central in the campaign to end child labour in the United States during the early 20th century. An active and free labour movement is considered by many to be an important element in maintaining democracy and for economic development.

[edit] Labour partiesSee also: List of Labour Parties

Modern labour parties originated from an upsurge in organizing activities in Europe and European colonies during the 19th century, such as the Chartist movement in Britain during 183850. In 1891, localised labour parties were formed, by trade union members in the British colonies of Australia. They later amalgamated to form the Australian Labor Party (ALP). In 1893, Members of Parliament in the Colony of Queensland briefly formed the world's first labour government. The British Labour Party was created as the Labour Representation Committee, as a result of an 1899 resolution by the Trade Union Congress. While archetypal labour parties are made of direct union representatives, in addition to members of geographical branches, some union federations or individual unions have chosen not to be represented within a labour party and/or have severed ties with they.

[edit] Labour and racial equality"Negroes in the United States read the history of labor and find it mirrors their own experience. We are confronted by powerful forces telling us to rely on the good will and understanding of those who profit by exploiting us [...] They are shocked that action organizations, sit-ins, civil disobedience and protests are becoming our everyday tools, just as strikes, demonstrations and union organization became yours to insure that bargaining power genuinely existed on both sides of the table [...] Our needs are identical to labor's needs: decent wages, fair working conditions, livable housing, old age security, health and welfare measures [...] That is why the labor-hater and labor-baiter is virtually always a twin-headed creature spewing anti-Negro epithets from one mouth and antilabor propaganda from the other mouth." Dr. Martin Luther King, "If the Negro Wins, Labor Wins", December 11, 1961 [2]

[edit] Development of labour movements within nation statesHistorically labour markets have often been constrained by national borders that have restricted movement of workers. Labour laws are also primarily determined by individual nations or states within those nations. While there have been some efforts to adopt a set of international labour standards through the International Labour Organization (ILO), international sanctions for failing to meet such standards are very limited. In many countries labour movements have developed independently and reflect those national boundaries.

[edit] Development of an international labour movement

With ever increasing levels of international trade and rising influence of multinational corporations, there has been debate and action within the labour movement broadly to attempt international co-operation. This has led to renewed efforts to organize and collectively bargain internationally. A number of international union organizations have been established in an attempt to facilitate international collective bargaining, to share information and resources and to advance the interests of workers generally.

Labour movement - DefinitionThe labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. Labor unions and trade unions are common names for the specific collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Many elite-class individuals and political groups may also be active in and part of the labour movement.Articles related to the Labor movement Child labor Labor in economics Labor history Labor law Labor rights

Labor union See Labor history Strike The labour movement began in Europe during the Edit this template (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:Labor) industrial revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with great resistance. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century groups such as the English Tolpuddle Martyrs were transported for forming unions, which was against the laws of the time.

Throughout the world, the labour movement has been responsible for reformation and worker's rights, such as the 2-day weekend, minimum wage, and paid holidays. There have been many important labor activists in modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and are now regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones, better known as Mother Jones, was central in the campaign to end child labor in the United States during the early 20th century. As labour markets, and working classes are often limited by national borders, labour movements are also often limited by national boundaries. The Australian labour movement is an example of a labour movement that has grown and existed in a particular national context. A popular bumper sticker in the United States in the 1990s was, "The labor movement; the folks that brought you the weekend."

Literature

Abani Mukherji

Indian Labour Movement: A Review of the SituationSource: The Communist Review, September 1922, Vol. 3, No. 5. Publisher: Communist Party of Great Britain Transcription/Markup: Brian Reid Public Domain: Marxists Internet Archive (2006). You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work; as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit Marxists Internet Archive as your source.

THERE exists in India a powerfully organised Labour movement. The secretary of the Indian Labour Federation, or Standing Committee of the All-India Trade Union Congress, as it is called, is Mr. Chiman Lal, who claimed that under this federation are combined 97 unions, with 1,500,000 members. These unions embrace nearly all the industries of the country. The leading organisation is the Railwaymens Union, which has organised 50 per cent. of