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Kris Arvid Berglund

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  • How Artisan Distillation Works Kris Arvid BerglundUniversity Distinguished Professorof Forestry and Chemical EngineeringMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MI 48824 USAandProfessor of Biochemical & Chemical Process EngineeringLule University of TechnologySE-971 87 Lule SWEDEN

  • MSU/ LTU ARTISAN DISTILLING PROGRAMEstablished to promote the establishment and expansion of artisan distillersActivities include: education, service, and researchDesigned as a dedicated program for distilled spirits

  • FACILITIESMichigan Brewing Company-houses program, alternating premises licenseA150l Christian Carl still equipped with a three tray side column and a packed column is for high rectification work. (120l to be added at LTU)A 450l Christian Carl still for stripping and botanicalsAn 800l, 38-tray Christian Carl still (on line in March 2009)A 10l Christian Carl still for experimental workComprehensive analytical instrumentation: GC, HPLC, Anton Paar DMA 5000 densitometer

  • EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIESWorkshops- two dayMSU, Webberville, MIWSU, Mt. Vernon, WACornell University, Geneva, NYCoursework at MSU, CHE 491Book entitled, Artisan Distilling on CD-ROM, internet download (free) at www.artisandistilling.org

  • RESEARCH ACTVITIESDevelop quality indicators- congener monitoring and controlControl of regulated compoundsYeast screening for congenersActivated carbon finishing

  • Some definitionsThe agency that licenses at the Federal level is Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, the Department of Treasury (TTB), not the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, the Department of Homeland Security (BATF).All spirits are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations-27 CFR Part 5.21Make sure anything you wish to make is defined!

  • Recognized classes of spiritsClass 1; neutral spirits or alcohol.Class 2; whisky.Class 3; gin.Class 4; brandy.Class 5; blended applejack.Class 6; rum.Class 7; tequila.Class 8; cordials and liqueurs.Class 9; flavored brandy, flavored gin, flavored rum, flavored vodka, and flavored whisky.Class 10; imitations.Class 11; geographical designations.Class 12; products without geographical designations but distinctive of a particular place.

  • DISTILLATION- MOTIVATIONConcentrate aromas, flavors, and alcoholSeveral operational parameters possibleRemove the negative compounds

  • DISTILLATIONA process involving an equilibrium between two phases - liquid and vapor.

    For a pure compound, a sharp boiling point usually exists.

    For a mixture, however, a phase equilibrium exists over a range of temperatures.

  • UNIQUE VLE OF ETHANOL-WATER SOLUTIONSFor ideal mixtures, the mvc is always at a higher concentration in the vapor phase than the lvcThe boiling point of the mixture should be a continuously increasing value as the concentration of the lvc is increasedThis is not the case for ethanol-waterThe boiling point has a minimum value for a mixtureThis is called a minimum boiling azeotrope

  • DEW CURVEBUBBLE CURVEvaporliquidmixture

    Chart5

    100100

    95.595.5

    8989

    86.786.7

    85.385.3

    84.184.1

    82.782.7

    82.382.3

    81.581.5

    80.780.7

    79.879.8

    79.779.7

    79.379.3

    78.7478.74

    78.4178.41

    78.1578.15

    78.378.3

    Mole Fraction

    Boiling Point, C

    Boiling Point Diagram

    Chart1

    00

    0.0190.17

    0.07210.3891

    0.09660.4375

    0.12380.4704

    0.16610.5089

    0.23770.5445

    0.26080.558

    0.32730.5826

    0.39650.6112

    0.50790.6564

    0.51980.6599

    0.57320.6841

    0.67630.7385

    0.74720.7815

    0.89430.8943

    11

    Sheet1

    x EtOHy EtOHT Boiling

    00100010010000

    0.0190.1795.50.01995.595.50.0190.17

    0.07210.3891890.072189890.07210.3891

    0.09660.437586.70.096686.786.70.09660.4375

    0.12380.470485.30.123885.385.30.12380.4704

    0.16610.508984.10.166184.184.10.16610.5089

    0.23770.544582.70.237782.782.70.23770.5445

    0.26080.55882.30.260882.382.30.26080.558

    0.32730.582681.50.327381.581.50.32730.5826

    0.39650.611280.70.396580.780.70.39650.6112

    0.50790.656479.80.507979.879.80.50790.6564

    0.51980.659979.70.519879.779.70.51980.6599

    0.57320.684179.30.573279.379.30.57320.6841

    0.67630.738578.740.676378.7478.740.67630.7385

    0.74720.781578.410.747278.4178.410.74720.7815

    0.89430.894378.150.894378.1578.150.89430.8943

    1178.3178.378.311

    Sheet1

    1

    Liquid Mole Fraction EtOH

    Vapor Mole Fraction EtOH

    Ethanol Water VLE

    Sheet2

    Mole Fraction

    Boiling Point, C

    Boiling Point Diagram

    Sheet3

  • AZEOTROPE

    Chart7

    79.879.8

    79.779.7

    79.379.3

    78.7478.74

    78.4178.41

    78.1578.15

    78.378.3

    Mole Fraction

    Boiling Point

    Boiling Point Diagram Near Azeotrope

    Chart1

    00

    0.0190.17

    0.07210.3891

    0.09660.4375

    0.12380.4704

    0.16610.5089

    0.23770.5445

    0.26080.558

    0.32730.5826

    0.39650.6112

    0.50790.6564

    0.51980.6599

    0.57320.6841

    0.67630.7385

    0.74720.7815

    0.89430.8943

    11

    Sheet1

    x EtOHy EtOHT Boiling

    00100010010000

    0.0190.1795.50.01995.595.50.0190.17

    0.07210.3891890.072189890.07210.3891

    0.09660.437586.70.096686.786.70.09660.4375

    0.12380.470485.30.123885.385.30.12380.4704

    0.16610.508984.10.166184.184.10.16610.5089

    0.23770.544582.70.237782.782.70.23770.5445

    0.26080.55882.30.260882.382.30.26080.558

    0.32730.582681.50.327381.581.50.32730.5826

    0.39650.611280.70.396580.780.70.39650.6112

    0.50790.656479.80.507979.879.80.50790.6564

    0.51980.659979.70.519879.779.70.51980.6599

    0.57320.684179.30.573279.379.30.57320.6841

    0.67630.738578.740.676378.7478.740.67630.7385

    0.74720.781578.410.747278.4178.410.74720.7815

    0.89430.894378.150.894378.1578.150.89430.8943

    1178.3178.378.311

    Sheet1

    1

    Liquid Mole Fraction EtOH

    Vapor Mole Fraction EtOH

    Ethanol Water VLE

    Sheet2

    Mole Fraction

    Boiling Point, C

    Boiling Point Diagram

    Sheet3

    Mole Fraction

    Boiling Point

    Boiling Point Diagram Near Azeotrope

  • INCREASING TEMP.

    Chart4

    10

    0.0190.17

    0.07210.3891

    0.09660.4375

    0.12380.4704

    0.16610.5089

    0.23770.5445

    0.26080.558

    0.32730.5826

    0.39650.6112

    0.50790.6564

    0.51980.6599

    0.57320.6841

    0.67630.7385

    0.74720.7815

    0.89430.8943

    11

    Liquid Mole Fraction EtOH

    Vapor Mole Fraction EtOH

    Ethanol Water VLE

    Chart1

    00

    0.0190.17

    0.07210.3891

    0.09660.4375

    0.12380.4704

    0.16610.5089

    0.23770.5445

    0.26080.558

    0.32730.5826

    0.39650.6112

    0.50790.6564

    0.51980.6599

    0.57320.6841

    0.67630.7385

    0.74720.7815

    0.89430.8943

    11

    Sheet1

    x EtOHy EtOHT Boiling

    00100010010000

    0.0190.1795.50.01995.595.50.0190.17

    0.07210.3891890.072189890.07210.3891

    0.09660.437586.70.096686.786.70.09660.4375

    0.12380.470485.30.123885.385.30.12380.4704

    0.16610.508984.10.166184.184.10.16610.5089

    0.23770.544582.70.237782.782.70.23770.5445

    0.26080.55882.30.260882.382.30.26080.558

    0.32730.582681.50.327381.581.50.32730.5826

    0.39650.611280.70.396580.780.70.39650.6112

    0.50790.656479.80.507979.879.80.50790.6564

    0.51980.659979.70.519879.779.70.51980.6599

    0.57320.684179.30.573279.379.30.57320.6841

    0.67630.738578.740.676378.7478.740.67630.7385

    0.74720.781578.410.747278.4178.410.74720.7815

    0.89430.894378.150.894378.1578.150.89430.8943

    1178.3178.378.311

    Sheet1

    10

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    Liquid Mole Fraction EtOH

    Vapor Mole Fraction EtOH

    Ethanol Water VLE

    Sheet2

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    00

    Mole Fraction

    Boiling Point, C

    Boiling Point Diagram

    Sheet3

  • COMPARISON OF UNITS- MOLE, WEIGHT, ANDVOLUME FRACTIONSVOLUMEWEIGHTMOLE

    Chart2

    000

    0.410520.3430.17

    0.694920.6190.3891

    0.737560.6650.4375

    0.763740.6940.4704

    0.791960.7260.5089

    0.815250.7530.5445

    0.823760.76350.558

    0.838880.7810.5826

    0.855410.8010.6112

    0.878850.830.6564

    0.885990.8390.6599

    0.892290.8470.6841

    0.916910.8790.7385

    0.933270.9010.7815

    0.971920.9560.8943

    111

    Liquid Phase

    Vapor Phase

    EtOH Water VLE

    Chart1

    10

    0.0190.17

    0.07210.3891

    0.09660.4375

    0.12380.4704

    0.16610.5089

    0.23770.5445

    0.26080.558

    0.32730.5826

    0.39650.6112

    0.50790.6564

    0.51980.6599

    0.57320.6841

    0.67630.7385

    0.74720.7815

    0.89430.8943

    11

    Sheet1

    x EtOHy EtOHT Boiling

    00100010010000

    0.0190.1795.50.01995.595.50.0190.17

    0.07210.3891890.072189890.07210.3891

    0.09660.437586.70.096686.786.70.09660.4375

    0.12380.470485.30.123885.385.30.12380.4704

    0.16610.508984.10.166184.184.10.16610.5089

    0.23770.544582.70.237782.782.70.23770.5445

    0.26080.55882.30.260882.382.30.26080.558

    0.32730.582681.50.327381.581.50.32730.5826

    0.39650.611280.70.396580.780.70.39650.6112

    0.50790.656479.80.507979.879.80.50790.6564

    0.51980.659979.70.519879.779.70.51980.6599

    0.57320.684179.30.573279.379.30.57320.6841

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