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Final Exam Review Judith Lichtenberg – Foundations and Limits of Freedom of the Press - Freedom of the press in democratic societies is a nearly unchallengeable dogma (belief) – essential, it is thought, to individual autonomy and self-expression, and an indispensable element in democracy and the attainment of truth - At the same time, we know that the press in its most characteristic modern incarnation – mass media in mass society – works not only to enhance the flow of ideas and information but also to - The modern press consists largely of vast and complex institutions that differ in essential respects both from individuals and from the early press, around which the concept of freedom of the press grew. Arguments that support freedom of expression for individuals or for small publications do not necessarily support similar freedoms for the mass media. - What we want when we want free speech: o That people be able to communicate without interference o That there be many people communicating or at least many different ideas and points of view being communicated

Judith Lichtenberg Foundations and Limits of Freedom of the Presss3.amazonaws.com/prealliance_oneclass_sample/a3AybxVo2v.pdf · 2014-01-05 · Final Exam Review Judith Lichtenberg

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Page 1: Judith Lichtenberg Foundations and Limits of Freedom of the Presss3.amazonaws.com/prealliance_oneclass_sample/a3AybxVo2v.pdf · 2014-01-05 · Final Exam Review Judith Lichtenberg

Final Exam Review

Judith Lichtenberg – Foundations and Limits of Freedom of the Press

- Freedom of the press in democratic societies is a nearly unchallengeable dogma (belief) –

essential, it is thought, to individual autonomy and self-expression, and an indispensable

element in democracy and the attainment of truth

- At the same time, we know that the press in its most characteristic modern incarnation – mass

media in mass society – works not only to enhance the flow of ideas and information but also to

inhibit it

- Which views get covered, and in what way, depends mainly on the economic and political

structure and context of press institutions. Important factors:

o News organizations belong to large corporations

o Driven economically

o Media is easily manipulated by government officials

o Characteristics of the media themselves constrain or influence coverage

- Regulations have been implemented for these defects including Ownership of multiple media

properties being limited

- Critics of regulation argue that freedom of the press, like freedom of speech, is at the core of

what our society is about, and that commitment to it prohibits the policies in question:

regulation of the press is incompatible with freedom of the press

- Freedom of the press is an instrumental good (it is good if it does certain things and not

especially good otherwise)

- Theorists Mills and Kant – both stress the role of freedom of expression in human and self-

realization or self-development

o Mills On Liberty asserts the need for “liberty of the press’ and proceeds to list

arguments for freedom of thought and discussion. Defends the connection between

freedom of expression and a person’s self-realization.

o Kant What is Enlightenment? defends freedom of the press with general arguments for

the benefits of freedom of thought and discussion.

The press is treated as a voice, albeit a more powerful one, on a par with

individual voices, and defending press freedom is then equal to a general

defence of free speech. Argues a person’s ability to communicate ideas to the

public at large is essential to human enlightenment

- The modern press consists largely of vast and complex institutions that differ in essential

respects both from individuals and from the early press, around which the concept of freedom

of the press grew. Arguments that support freedom of expression for individuals or for small

publications do not necessarily support similar freedoms for the mass media.

- What we want when we want free speech:

o That people be able to communicate without interference

o That there be many people communicating or at least many different ideas and points

of view being communicated

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o These can be described in two basic principles:

Noninterference – one should not be prevented from thinking, speaking,

reading, writing, or listening as one sees fit.

Multiplicity of voices principle – The purposes of freedom of speech are

realized when expression and diversity of expression flourish.

- A newspaper may not interefere with a person’s right to speak or write, but it may very well

present her from expressing her views in that newspaper. Such decisions are simply exercises of

the newspaper’s editorial autonomy (this agrees with non-interference principle and classes

with multiplicity of voices principle)

- Deepest interest in free speech is a concern about individual autonomy

o This requires freedom to speak as well as freedom to hear.

- Freedom of speech protects expression that is essentially symbolic (primary way we

communicate feelings - art, writing, speaking. Not by punching someone in the nose though)

- Crude relativism – truth or goodness is whatever the majority thinks it is

- Self development – making the most out of oneself, or making oneself as wise as possible

o Self development is a “maximizing” concept: more is better, very important in bridging

the arguments from autonomy and from truth making them almost inseparable. Self-

development/self-realization is how you come to ideas of the truth.

- Autonomy and self-development in an intellectual vacuum are impossible.

o There must be a multiplicity of voices is central to achieving individual autonomy

(independence)

o Hearing others express themselves is essential to attaining the social values underlying

free speech for the individual

- Even under a strong free speech principle, however, all such activities take place under

constraints

o Can’t go into someones house and read their books, there are government restrictions

o In this case property rights are ultimate, simple, and straightforward, always taking

priority

- We hold that the value of privacy of a sphere over which the individual is sovereign, is so

important that it overrides or excludes the principle of equality (makes the freedom of speech

need to be moved to public spaces such as streets and parks to accommodate peoples interests)

- In the case of publishing, no one has a right to publish (I have the right to try to publish but

whether successful typically depends on choices that they are entitled to make.

o The free speech principle does not imply a right to publish where one chooses

o There are “Time, place, and manner” restrictions – often added as if they were minor

qualifications

Therefore, non-interference is sovereign in its place, but its place is much

smaller

- Problem: Most people get the vast majority of their news from mass media

- The increasing extent and power of media corporations, which are often part of an interlocked

with other large corporations. Naive to think their interests are not reflected in the content.

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o Issue with this is mass media presents itself as describing the world “as it is” although

they only present one side on issues, theres no diversity.

- Principle – Argued that state should not interfere in the workings of the press

o Regulation is important though in order to keep the integrity of the press

o Content regulation: Makes specific demands of press institutions to cover certain kinds

of issues, to cover them in a certain way, or to provide access to certain points of view.

Negative aspect of government regulation

- Structural Regulation: Builds rules and constraints into the structure and organization of media

take as a whole. Positive move of government regulation.

o Weakens the objection in the principle that the gov’t is in no position to regulate the

press. Proves regulation can be productive, creates variety in programming

Why privacy is important – James Rachels

- Privacy necessary to protect people’s interest in competitive situations (ex. Not telling the other

team the play they will do)

o Also used to keep some aspect of life or behaviour private because it would be

embarrassing if people knew about it

o Medical records should be kept private since there are consequences about them going

public (Ex. Spreading someone has a disease could ruin a marriage)

o When people apply for credit theres a file of information on them. This should not be

leaked, unfair to decide someones credit on this personal information about them thats

irrellavant

- We need to account for the value which privacy has for us, not only in the few special cases but

in the many common and unremarkable cases as well – nobody wants to have their room

bugged even if nothing they are doing is questionable

- Rachels ‘Privacy is necessary if we are to maintain the variety of social relationships with other

people that we want to have, and that is why it is important to us

o There are different patterns of behaviour associated with different relationships

o However one conceives one’s relations with other people, there is inseparable from

that conception an idea of how it is appropriate to behave with and around them, and

what information about oneself it is appropriate for them to have.

Ex. Group therapy alot of people usually find something inappropriate about it

cause one simply does not reveal one’s deepest feelings to strangers.

- Privacy has to do with the crucial part of our lives – our relations with people- and how its

organized as its importance can hardly be exaggerated. Thus we have good reason to object to

anything that interferes with these relationships and makes it difficult or impossible for us to

maintain them the way we want to.

- Seperation allows us to behave with certain people in the way that is appropriate to that sort of

relationship

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o We regulate our behaviour according to the kinds of relationships we have with the

people around us.

- If we cannot control who has access to us then we cant control the patterns of behaviour we

need to adopt or the kinds of relations with people that we will have.

Toward a Theory of Privacy in the Information Age – James Moor

- Given the ability of computers to manipulate information- to store endlessly – we are justifiably

concerned that in a computerized society our privacy may be invaded and that information

harmful to us will be revealed.

- Greased information – is information that moves like lightning and is hard to hold onto

- Computers have elephant memories - big, accurate and long term

- The greasing of information allows other computers to capture and manipulate information in

ways we do not expect. Example Pizza Pizza knows what you like from their restaurant after you

have ordered there once before.

- Once information is captured electronically for whatever purpose, it is greased and ready to go

for any purpose.

o We leave electronic footprints everywhere and data collected for one purpose can be

resurrected and used elsewhere.

o Problem with computer privacy is to keep proper care on where such information can

and should go

- Instrumental values – values which are good because they lead to something else which is good

(goods as means – ex computer is a good as a means cause it helps in writing papers)

- Intrinsic values – values which are goods themselves. (goods as ends – ex just the joy of using

the computer is a good as an end, theres no value to that)

- Privacy has instrumental value. Example if it was leaked someone had HIV they would risk

discrimination, people might not want to date them, might not get hired for jobs.

- The justification of privacy would be more secure if we could show its intrinsic value.

- He claims all sustainable human cultures will exhibit these values (core values - Life, happiness,

freedom, knowledge, ability, resources, and security).

o core values are values that all normal humans and cultures need for survival

these are sent down through generations and are understood differently and

utilized differently depending on the culture

privacy is an expression of security, one of the core values

all cultures need security of some kid, but not all need privacy. As societies

become larger, highly interactive, but less intimate, privacy becomes a natural

expression of the need for security. We seek protection from strangers who may

have goals anti-thetical to our own.

- With information being greased now in a computer culture its inevitable that privacy will

emerge as an expression of the core value security. People have a basic right to be protected.

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- The Publicity Principle: Rules and conditions governing private situations should be clear and

known to the persons affected by them. (encourages informed consent and rational decision

making)

- The Justification of Exceptions Principle: A breach of private situation is justified if and only if

there is a great likelihood that the harm cause by the disclosure will be so much less than the

harm prevented that an impartial person would permit a break in this and in morally similar

situations (example think someone with HIV, telling their partner is more moral than letting

then contract the disease.

- The Adjustment Principle: If special circumstances justify a chance in the parameters of a

private situation, then the alteration should become an explicitly and public part of the rules

and conditions governing the private situation.

- It is imperative that we create zones of privacy that allow citizens to rationally plan their lives

without fear.

Case 6-A Funerals of Fallen Soldiers

- A 21 year old soldier was killed in Iraq. The funeral brought out thousands and was highly

publicized. A photographer was told to capture photos for a magazine of the grieving family, he

also used one with the open casket. Family tried to sue saying it was a “private religious

ceremony” although a judge ruled against this saying “the family put the death in the public eye

intentionally drawing attention to the burial.”

Case 6-D Kobe Bryant Rape Case

- Kobe was staying in Colorado to rehab his knee. Picked up a girl working at the place and slept

with her. She said it was rape it said it wasn’t. She filed a criminal lawsuit (which didn’t release

her name). Later, she dropped the case and changed it to a civil lawsuit giving the public

grounds to release her name. Two papers in Colorado were covering the story, one decided it

was ethical to use her name in the paper and the other did not.

Case 11-D Naomi Campbell

- Celebrity supermodel, known for partying and rumoured to use drugs, in the media spotlight.

Tabloids went hard on her saying she was really into coke which she denied. A tabloid in London

posted photos of Campbell leaving a Narcotics Anonymous meeting in which she sued for

invasion of privacy and won. Judge noted even celebrities are entitled to privacy but also

believed the tabloid The Mirror were entitled to publish to the public her misleading drug

addiction

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Objectivity and Truth

1984: Orwell’s and Ours - Noam Chomsky

- News media and question of truth – what extent is it factual accuracy

- Main interest with international affairs

- Soviet Newscaster Vladimir Danchev contested the totalitarian state concept of press freedom

by calling the Russian mission an “invasion”, he was put into a psychiatric hospital.

o Considered a triumph in human spirit – a refusal to be cowed by totalitarian violence

- Argues in the US everyones to soft to do what Danchev did. Journalists and other intellectuals

are so subservient to the doctrinal system that they can’t even perceive that “an invader is an

invader unless invited in by a government with a claim to legitimacy,” when its the US that is an

invader

- We call people ‘invaders’ when they come into the US but call us ‘defenders’ when we go into

their country (uses the example of Vietnam and how no one thought the war was right, over

70% of US weren’t in favour, the media spinned it to make it look like they were bad)

- ‘doves’ – thought we couldn’t win the war, were anti war ‘hopeless cause’

- ‘hawks’ – dedicated to the thought we could win

- Democratic system “brainwashing under freedom” with propaganda. In a totalitarian

government only the doctrine needs to be obeyed but in a democratic one they have control of

a whole lot more.

o Democratic systems have alot more ideological control

Objectivity, Impartiality and Good Journalism – Matthew Kieran

- Focuses on news reports, investigative journalism

- Supposed duty to impartiality and objectivity, arises from conceiving of the media as an

unofficial fourth estate. Supposed to report appropriately events that affect our lives as

members of society.

- Journalists prize their reputation for impartiality (fairness)

- Although, given that journalists bring to bear their fundamental value assumptions in making a

report, any event is open to innumerable redescriptions in different terms.

o Journalists who search for ‘the right’ description, interpretation and evaluation of states

of affairs are, on such a view, misguided and misleading.

o Nature of the event partly depends on those who interpret it

- Rodwell photograph said “Time for peace, Time to go” on an Ireland wall, photo was

photoshopped just “Time for Peace” completely altering the interpretation and evaluation

coming from the viewer

- But where interpretations differ, because of different basic beliefs and evaluative commitments,

there is no resolvable dispute.

- Discusses the OJ Simpson case and how it was interpreted and covered completely different by

mass media, black media and female media

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- If someone interpreting a message does not have relevant background information it can

misconstrue the message they receive from the content.

o Example with the altered pic, photoshopping it made it a misrepresentation

- Representations of events can be used to express general perceptions, hopes and fears. But,

used as such, the image should not necessarily be understood as an interpretation and

evealuation of the nature of the event it is of.

- Whichever type of news coverage wins out will, according to Rorty, effectively remake reality in

its own image: a chilling though reminiscent of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four.

- Conflicts in news reporting usually occur because there are differences in judgement as to what

really constitutes a news story, how a story should best be covered and what the public ought to

have their attention drawn to.

o This can be sometimes confusing – look at the OJ Simpson case, both the mass, black,

and female media were producing factual information except how it was projected on

to its audience was very different with respect to what it concentrated on

Different legitimate reports are, essentially, not different interpretations at all

but incomplete sketches of the correct report.

Different scenarios may legitimately admit more than one possible evaluation

that are equally consistent, coherent and explanatory

There are radically different correct interpretations of the world

- Good Journalism – aims at discovering and promoting the audience’s understanding of an event

via truth-promoting methods.

o Honesty, discipline and impartiality are required to be a good journalist

- Bad Journalism – is truth-indifferent and fails to respect truth-promoting practices.

Case 8-B – Photo Manupulation Comp Technology

Youre a good graphic designer that can create eye-catching layouts. Editor’s caution you to never edit a

photograph. You do a piece on the senator of the US and the photographer took a picture where the flag

in the background was right above his head, it was very distracting. You decide to change it and move it

to the side (is that unethical?)

You find a picture of kids break dancing but one of the kids looks awkward. You digitally remove him

from the picture and put in another double of one of the other kids in the picture. The mom of the kid

removed from the pic notices and calls to ask why her kids been removed.

Case 8-D - Faking Photos

A computer software corporation is looking to buy some real estate in the city that would be taking over

some slums in the city, run down bars, hotels, homeless shelters. You are a photographer and your

manager asks you to get a photo of the area and homeless shelter to run in the paper before the deal is

put through. You ask a bunch of bums to pose for a picture but none of them will let you. Instead you

ask a friend to get dressed up and rub a ton of shit on em to make him look poor. You then take a

picture of him, it goes on the front cover of the paper and following that tons of community members

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called in complaining they don’t want the homeless shelter removed. The deal is stopped. Is that

justified?

Case II-A – The “Duty to Die” Controversy

The Governor of Colorado was making a speech on medical-cost containment and quoted a guy who

essentially said it was our duty to die to let the future generations develop our world. The reference to

the guy was never mention in the report and the context was completely different than the way he said

it. This caused a stir nationally, and the Governor was particularly upset about it. The problem was other

than changing a ‘we’ to a ‘you’ he was quoted correctly in the report. This incorrectly reported story

hurt his reputation heavily.

Case II-E – When is Objective Reporting Irresponsible Reporting?

Amanda Laurens was a reporter for a local newspaper who did a story that had the Mayor accusing a

city council member of being a “paid liar” that distorts facts of pesticides on birds. After the press

conference she called the Mayor to ask if he had anything to respond to the accusation. He replied it

was “utter nonsense” and “politically motivated”. She later filed her story (under a short time line),

reporting both ends of the report. Her boss applauded her report as it gave a fair and balanced story of

the two. The mayor was cool with it, the councilman was pissed. He said the story was fair but not

truthful. He also said a good reporter would’ve researched this further before putting the story

together.

Advertising and Behaviour Control – Robert L. Arrington

Puffery – the practice by a seller of making exaggerated highly fanciful or suggestive claims

about a product or a service

o Puffery is not bragging; it is designed to achieve a very definite effect

o Using the technology of so-called motivational research, advertising firms first identify

our often hidden needs (for security, conformity, oral stimulation) and our desires (for

power, sexual dominance, and dalliance adventure) and then they design ads which

respond to these needs and desires.

Successful ad agency “manipulates human motivations and desires and develops a need for

goods with which the public has at one time been unfamiliar – perhaps even desirous of

purchasing

It is very repetitiousness has generated what ad theorist call – information

o In this case, it is indirect information, information derived not from the content of what

is said but from the fact that it is said so often and so vividly that it sticks in one’s mind

Another technique is how subliminal suggestions can be used to control customers

o Stores play subliminal suggestions in their music to influence customers

Puffery, indirect information transfer, subliminal advertising – are these techniques of

manipulation and control whose success shows that many of us have forfeited our autonomy

and become a community, or herd, of packaged souls

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If companies didn’t use these techniques then it would be very hard to sell products

Embellishment and distortion are among advertising’s legitimate and socially desirable purposes

o To reject these techniques of advertising would be “to deny men’s honest needs”

Philip Nelson has developed an interesting defence of indirect information advertising

o He argues that even when the message (the direct information) is not credible, the fact

that the brand is advertised, and advertised frequently, is valuable indirect information

for the consumers

The reason for this is that the brands advertised most are more likely to be

better buys – losers wont be advertised a lot, for it simply wouldn’t pay to do so

o Nelson goes as far as to say that advertising, seen as information, does not require an

intelligent human response

If the indirect information has been received and has had its impact, the

consumer will purchase the better buy even if his explicit reason for doing so it

silly

Even though his behaviour is overtly irrational, but acting on the indirect

information he is nevertheless doing what he ought to do

What is involved in the notion of autonomy

1. Autonomous Desires

Viewer is watching TV about an ad for a facial hair product, he thinks if he uses

it then he will look much younger

Was the desire to be younger manufactured by the commercial, or was it

‘original to me’ and truly mine? Was it autonomous or not?

o We should not equate nonautonomous desires, desires which are not

original to me or truly mine, with those which are culturally induced

o If we did equate the two, he points out, then the desires for music, art,

knowledge could not properly be attributed to a person as original to

him for these are surely induced culturally

o The only desires a person would really have as his own in this case

would be purely physical like food, shelter and sex

o But if we reject the equation of the nonautonomous and the culturally

induced, then the mere fact that my desire to be young again is caused

by the TV commercial – surely an instrument of popular cultural

transmissions – does not in and of itself show that this is not my own,

autonomous desire

First-order Desire – is thought of as being nonautonomous, imposed on one

Second-order Desire – to maintain and fulfill a first-order desire, then the first-

order desire is truly his own, autonomous, original to him

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2. Rational Desire and Choice

Desires induced by advertising are often irrational ones in the sense that they

are no expressed by an agent who is in full possession of the facts about the

products advertised or about the alternative products, which might be offered.

Advertising leads us to act on irrational desires or to make irrational choices

We have been prevented from following our rational wills or develop our true

self

The problem faced by this line of criticism is that of determining what is to

count as rational desire or rational choice?

o If we require that the desire or choice be the product of an awareness

of all facts about the product, then surely every one of us is always

moved by irrational desires and makes nothing but irrational choices

Advertising does not provide relevant information but rather makes claims

which aren’t 100 percent true

A purchasing decision based on anticipation of imaginary benefits is not, it

might be said, a rational decision, and a desire for imaginary benefits is not a

ration desire

Surely many ads directly promise subjective effects which their patrons actually

desire (and obtain when they purchase the product), and thus the ads provide

relevant info for rational choice

3. Free Choices

How do we distinguish between an impulse we do not resist and one we could

not resist, between freely giving in to a desire and succumbing to one?

o A person acts or chooses freely if he does so for a reason, that is, if he

can adduce considerations which justify in his mind the act in question

o However, a person will act from habit, or whim or impulse, and on these

occasions he does not have a reason in mind

o Nevertheless he often acts voluntarily in these instances, i.e. he could

have acted otherwise

o And this is because if there had been a reason for acting otherwise of

which he was aware, he would in face have done so

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4. Control or Manipulation

A person C control the behaviour of another person P if:

o C intends P to act in a certain way A

o C’s intention is casually effective in bringing about A; and

o C intends to ensure that all of the necessary condones of A are satisfied

Control is the intentional production of behaviour

It is not enough just to have the intention; the intention must give rise to the

conditions which bring about the intended effect

The controller is not just influencing the outcome, not just having input; he is as

it were guaranteeing that the sufficient conditions for the indented effect are

satisfied

The Making of Self and World in Advertising

In this paper I will criticize a common practice I call associated advertising

I will argue against associative advertising by examining the virtues and vices at stake

Associative advertising is a technique that involves all of the following

1. The advertise wants people to buy (or buy more of) a product. This objective is

largely independent of any sincerer desire to improve or enrich the lives of the

people in the target markets

2. In order to increase sales, the advertiser identifies some deep-scatted non-market

good for which the people in the target market feel a strong desire. By “non-market

good” I mean something which cannot, strictly speaking, be bough or sold in a

marketplace like friendship, acceptance and esteem of others

3. In most cases the marketed product bears only the most tenuous relation to the

non-market goo with which it is associated in the advertising campaign For example,

soft drinks, cannot give one friend, sex, or excitement

4. Through advertising, the marketed product is associated with the non-market desire

it cannot possible satisfy If possible, the desire for the non-market good is

intensified by calling into question one’s acceptability. For example, mouth wash,

toothpaste, deodorant ads are concocted to make us sorry that we stink

5. Most of us have enough insight to see both (a) that no particular toothpaste can

make us sexy and (b) that wanting to be considered sexy is at least part of our

motive for buying toothpaste. Since we can see clearly what the appeal of the ad is,

we are usually not lacking in relevant information or deceived in any usual sense

6. In some cases, the product actually gives at least partial satisfaction to the non-

market desire – but only because of advertising. For example, mouthwash has little

prolonged effect on stinking breath, but it helps reduce the intense anxiety’s

reinforced by mouthwash commercials on TV because we at least feel that we are

doing the proper thing

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Briefly examine how associative advertising effects (1.) the people who plan and execute

marketing strategies and (2.) the people who are exposed to campaign

1. Many advertisers come to think clearly and skilfully about how to sell a marketable

item by associating it with a non-market good which people in the target market

desire

An important ingredient in this process is lack of concern for the well being

of the people who will be influenced by the camping

It is quite common for advertisers to concentrate their attention on selling

something that is harmful to many people like candy or cigarettes

Prima facie morally objectionable

o Targets of associate advertising are sloe made worse by exposure of

effective ads of this kind: The harm done is of 2 kinds

1. We often find that we are buying more but enjoying it less.

We have all the material goods, but no family or friends

2. You are what you own ads. They tell us friends, lovers,

acceptance, excitement, and power are all gained by

purchases you make.

5 important objections that associative advertising is morally objectionable

1. Since each of us is (or can easily be if e want to be) aware of what is going on in

associative advertising, we must want to participate and find is unobjectionable.

Accordingly, the argument goes, associative advertising is not a violation of

individual independence

2. One could insist that even if the non-market desires are not satisfied completely,

they must be satisfied for the most part or we would stop falling for associative

advertising

3. One might claims that by associating mundane marketable items with deeply rooted

non-market desires, our everyday lives are invested with new and grated meaning.

“In the factory we make cosmetics; in the store we sell hope”

a. Everyone in the world is trying in his special personal fashion to solve a

primal problem of life – the problem of rising about his own negligibility, of

escaping from nature’s confined, hostile, and unpredictable reality, of find

significance, security, and comfort in the things he must do to survive

4. Even one who is sympathetic with must of the above might object that associative

advertising is necessary to an industrial society such as ours

a. Argued about whether, without modern ads of the sort I have described,

there would be enough demand to sustain our present levels of production

5. It seems obvious to me that no broad legislative prohibition would improve matters

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Society of Professiona Journalists: Code of Ethics

Duty of journalists it to serve the truth

a) Responsibility

The publics right to know of events of public importance and interest is the

overriding mission of the mass media

The purpose to distributing news and enlightened opinion is to serve the

general welfare

b) Freedom Of The Press

Freedom of the press is to be guarded as an inalienable right of people in a

free society

It carries it the freedom and the reasonability to discuss, question and

challenge actions and utterances of our government and od our public and

private institutions

c) Ethics

Journalists must be free of obligation to any interest other than the

public’s right to know

a) Gifts or anything of that nature should not be accepted

b) Secondary employment or their personal lives thought not be

brought into journalism

c) News communications from private sources should not be

published

d) Seek news that serves the public interest, despite the obstacles

e) Journalists acknowledge the newsman’s ethic of protecting

confidential sources of information

f) Plagiarism is dishonest and unacceptable

d) Accuracy and Objectivity

Good faith with the public is the foundation of all worthy journalism

a) Truth is the ultimate goal

b) Objectivity in reporting the news is another goal that serves as the

mark of an experienced professional

c) There is no excuse for inaccuracies or lack of thoroughness

d) Newspaper headlines should be accurate and photos should give an

accurate picture of an event and not highlight an event out of

context

e) News reports should be free of opinion or bias and represent all

sides of an issue

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f) Partisanship in editoral comment that knowingly departs from the

truth violates the spirit of American journalism

6. Fair play

Journalists at all times will show respect for the dignity, privacy rights and

well-bring of people encountered in the course of gathering information

7. Pledge

Adherence to this code is intended to preserve and strengthen the bond of

mutual trust and respect between American journalists and the American

people

Encourages journalists to adhere to these tenets, and shall encourage

journalistic publications and broadcasters to recognize their responsibilities

to frame codes of ethics in concert with their employees to serve as

guidelines in furthering their goals

The Quest for a code of Professional Ethics:

An Intellectual and Moral Confusion