Kennedy’s Inaugural AddressKennedy was the youngest person ever to be elected president. His youth helped provide the theme to his inaugural address:“Let the word go forth…That the torch has beenpassed to a new generation of Americans…The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bringto this endeavor will lightour country and all who serve it…And so, my fellowAmericans-ask not whatyour country can do for you-ask what you can dofor your country.”Ask not...speech
Kennedy and the New FrontierCan Government Fix Society?
President Kennedy shakes hands with future President of the United States Bill Clinton
Kennedy’s Domestic Policy
-Razor-thin margin of victory meant Kennedy had no “mandate”
spent $400 million in loans & grantsHousing Act (1962) spent $5 billion
on urban renewal, ended redliningMinimum wage raised to
$1.25/hour, and extended to 3 million more workers
Michael HarringtonThe Other America (1962)
Race to the Moon
• On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut became the first human in space
• Meanwhile, America’s space agency (NASA) began construction on new launch facilities in Cape Canaveral, Florida and a mission control center in Houston, Texas
A Man on the Moon
• Finally, on July 20, 1969, the U.S. would achieve its goal
• An excited nation watched as U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong took the first steps on the moon
• Space and defense-related industries sprang up in Southern and Western states
“One small step for man, one giant leap for
The Camelot YearsWith JFK’syouthful glamourand his talentedAdvisors (the Wiz Kids), the Kennedy WhiteHouse remindedmany of a modern-day Camelot, themythical court ofKing Arthur.
The Best and the Brightest– McGeorge Bundy – NSA
– Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense
– Dean Rusk – Secretary of State
– Robert Kennedy – Attorney General
Had no previous law experience
Kennedy and the Cold War
John Kennedy meeting with Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna, June, 1961
-During the Kennedy Administration, ongoing tensions with the Soviet Union led to crises over Cuba and West Berlin. -To contain communism and stay ahead of the Soviet Union in technology, President Kennedy created aid programs for developing nations and expandedthe space program.
A New Military Policy
• Flexible Response
– increased defense spending in order to boost conventional military forces
– nonnuclear forces such as troops, ships, and artillery
–created an elite branch of the army called the Special Forces, or Green Berets.
- He also tripled the overall nuclear capabilities of the U.S.
• Goal – allow the U.S. to fight limited wars around the world while maintaining a nuclear balance of power with the Soviets
Crises over Cubathe first test of JFK’s administration
• The Cuban Dilemma– Fidel Castro comes to power
– Puts on mass public trials and executions
– U.S. denounces Cuba and accepts thousands of Cuban refugees
– Castro seizes U.S. businesses and Eisenhower cuts off imports of Cuban sugar
– 1960 – Cuba signs a trade treaty with the Soviet Union
The Bay of Pigs-On the nights of April 17,1961,some 1500 Cuban exiles supported by the U.S. militarylanded on the island’s southern coast at Baja deCochinos, the Bay of Pigs-The CIA and the exiles hoped itwould trigger a mass uprisingthat would overthrow Castro.It didn’t! -Cuban forces, backedby Soviet tanks and jet aircraft,easily repelled the exile invasion.-Some of the exiles were killed,others imprisoned.
Crisis over Berlin
• In 1961, Berlin, Germany was a city in great turmoil
• In the 11 years since the Berlin Airlift, almost 3 million East Germans (Soviet side) had fled into West Berlin (U.S. controlled) to flee communist rule
Soviets Seek to Stop Exodus
• The Soviets did not like the fact that East Berliners were fleeing their city for the democratic west
• Their departure hurt the economy and the prestige of the USSR
• Just after midnight on August 13, 1961 the Soviets began construction of a 90-mile wall separating East and West Berlin
East Germany begins construction on the Berlin
Wall, which becomes a primary symbol of the Cold War and Soviet oppression
The Cuban Missile Crisis- In an attempt to counter
any new American intervention and to improve the Soviet position in the nuclear arms race, Castro and Kruschchev devised a daring plan:
- Installation of Soviet missiles and nuclear bombers in Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis-October 16, 1962, photographs takenby American planes revealed Soviet missile bases in Cuba-and somecontained missilesready to launch.-They could reachU.S. cities in minutes.Kennedy Addresses the Nation
-October 22,Kennedy ordereda naval blockadeof Cuba to preventfurther deliveriesof Soviet weapons.-Demands that the Soviets remove the missiles.-Khrushchev promised tochallenge the blockade,calling it “outright banditry.”
-For a few days, nuclear war and massive destruction was a distinct possibility for every American. -In schools, children practiced air raid drills, a common occurrence during the Cold War. -People who had built bomb shelters began stocking them with food and other provisions.
-Suddenly, on October 24, many of the Soviet ships stopped shortof the blockade line, turned, and sailed home. -“We’re eyeball to eyeball,” said Secretary of State Dean Rusk, “and I think the other fellow just blinked.” -On October 28 Khrushchev agreed that he would remove the missiles if the U.S. agreed not to attack Cuba and removed its missiles from Turkey
- Kennedy publicly agreed to the 1st and privately to the 2nd
“We’re eyeball to eyeball,” said Secretary of State
Dean Rusk, “and I think the other fellow
Trying to Ease Tensions
• Two Agreements– 1. Direct hotline between
the White House and the Kremlin
– 2. Signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty – called for an end to all nuclear tests in the ocean, the atmosphere and outer space – by the end of the year, 113 other nations had signed the treaty
Tragedy in Dallas-In the fall of 1963, public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. -On November 22,1963, President andMrs. Kennedy wentto Texas to mendpolitical fences withmembers of the state’s DemocraticParty.
-Crowds lined thestreets of Dallasto greet the President. -In frontof them sat TexasGovernor JohnConnally and hiswife Nellie.
As the car approached a state building known as the Texas State BookDepository, rifle shots rang out.
-Kennedy wasshot in the head.-His car raced toa nearby hospital, wheredoctors frantically triedto revive him,but it was toolate. -PresidentKennedy wasdead.
News of Kennedy Assassination
In 1963, the WarrenCommission investigatedand concluded thatLee Harvey Oswaldhad shot the presidentwhile acting on his own.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Chief Justice Earl Warren presenting the Warren Report to President Johnson
On Sunday, Nov. 24,as millions watchedlive television coverage of Oswaldbeing transferredbetween jails, anightclub ownernamed Jack Rubybroke through thecrowd and shot andkilled Oswald.
Flaws of the Warren Commission
The Magic Bullet Theory•For Oswald to be the killer, he only had time to fire 3 shots•One was the final/fatal head shot to JFK•One grazed spectator James Tague•One was the “Magic Bullet”
Caused seven wounds between JFK and Connally
The Zapruder Film
Lyndon Baines JohnsonTakes the Oath of Office Aboard Air Force One
Lyndon Baines Johnson• 1937 – enters the House as a
New Deal Democrat• 1948 – wins a Senate seat by a
tiny margin of 87 votes• “Landslide Lyndon”
• Effective Legislator • The Johnson Treatment
LBJ’s Victory in 1964-landslide victory against Barry Goldwater -gives LBJ the mandate to aggressively push his Great Society programs through CongressDaisy Ad - LBJ
LBJ’s Great Society
Former President Harry S. Truman watches President Johnson sign the Medicare Bill into law and will become the first recipient of the program
LBJ’S Great Society
Warren Court ReformsUnder Chief Justice Earl Warren,the Supreme Court issued a number of decisions that altered the votingsystem, expanded due process, and reinterpreted aspects of the FirstAmendment.
A sampling of major decisions of the Warren CourtCivil Rights•Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Declared segregation in public schools unconstitutionalDue Process•Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Ruled that unlawfully seized evidence cannot be used in a trial•Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Established suspect’s right to court-appointed attorney if suspects were unable to afford one•Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) Affirmed right of the accused to an attorney during police
questioning•Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Required police to inform suspects of their rights during the
arrest processFreedom of Speech and Religion•Engel v. Vitale (1962) Banned state-mandated prayer in public schools•Abington School District v. Schempp (1963) Banned state-mandated Bible reading in public schools