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JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY (1800 – 1816)

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JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY (1800 – 1816). 1. ELECTION OF 1800. “Revolution of 1800” Adams v. Jefferson (again) Challenged by Aaron Burr (DR) Major Issues: - Expansion of Military - Foreign Affairs - Alien & Sedition Acts. 2. 2. ELECTION OF 1800. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY (1800 – 1816)

  • 1JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY (1800 1816)

  • *2ELECTION OF 1800Revolution of 1800Adams v. Jefferson (again)Challenged by Aaron Burr (DR)

    Major Issues:- Expansion of Military - Foreign Affairs- Alien & Sedition Acts

  • *3ELECTION OF 1800Jefferson wins; becomes 3rd US PresidentDR's also win majority in House & SenateAllows for easy passage of DR laws

  • *4JEFFERSONS PHILOSOPHYProtect basic human rightsCitizen control via annual electionsWill of the PeopleMajority RuleGovt. should only perform necessary dutiesTherefore, govt. should be as small as possible

  • *5A NATION OF FARMERSGovt. should support an agrarian societyBased on a model in northern Scotland: - Communal Rights - Individual Rights

    Farmers had most independence; Jefferson referred to this as agrarian democracyCities, factories, and land speculation will corrupt peopleUpper class gains more power, which will inevitably limit the power of farming classes

  • *6EXAMPLE POLICIESWestward expansionMore farming=more democracyReduce size of Army/NavyCut taxes and govt. spendingInternational commerce to support farmingHousehold TechnologyReduce govt. debt with surplus tax $$Strict constructionism

  • *7LOUISIANA PURCHASE (1803)French Revolution endsNapoleon becomes EmperorRestore French Empire

    Spain, fearing Napoleon, cedes Louisiana Territory to France

    Napoleon restricts Mississippi and New Orleans to US trade

  • *8FRENCH EMPIRE

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  • *10LOUISIANA PURCHASE (1803)Napoleon needs $$ to finance European campaigns (Napoleonic Wars)Loses last colony in West (Haitian Slave Rebellion)Sell Louisiana & New Orleans to USUS doubles in size; largest land purchase in historyAmericans begin to push west

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  • *12LEWIS & CLARK (1803-1805)- Created land route to Pacific Ocean- Discovered 300 new species- Richness of West documented; fuels expansion

  • *13QUICK WRITE - JEFFERSONIAN??Jefferson, and the Republicans, believed in a strict interpretation of the ConstitutionMore importantly, they believed in strict constructionism of the Constitution, i.e. using only the enumerated powers of govt.

    In your opinion, was the Louisiana Purchase an example of his Republican beliefs? Or did Jefferson act more like a Federalist, using a loose interpretation in this acquisition?Please explain your answer.

  • *FEDERALIST STRONGHOLDS:MARSHALL COURTJohn Marshall (Chief Justice) 1800-1835Judges appointed by Washington/AdamsServe as check to Jefferson & DRsRevolution of 1800 deal w/ HamiltonStrong natl. govt.Federal SupremacyPro-Industry14

  • *MARBURY V. MADISON (1803)Midnight JudgesWilliam MarburyMarbury not granted commission (contract)Denied by MadisonAsks SC for Writ of Mandamus15

  • *MARBURY V. MADISON (1803)Judiciary Act of 1789Changed jurisdiction of Supreme CourtMarshall finds law unconstitutionalEstablished judicial reviewChecks & BalancesDeclare acts of other branches unconstitutional16

  • *BARBARY PIRATES, ARRR!- US expands trade to MediterraneanPirates capture ships; ransomDemand tribute- US no longer protected by France & GB- US has no Navy; need warships?- Barbary Wars (1802)- from the shores of Tripoli1717

  • *18MORE PROBLEMS W/ BRITAIN & FRANCENapoleonic Wars (1802-1814)Neither side respects American neutralityBlockades to prevent trade w/ enemyHurts US tradeBritish continue impressment

  • *19BLOCKADE

  • *20EMBARGO ACT (1807)Jefferson wants neutralityStop abuses by Britain & France

    Passes Embargo Act:Goal: Respect US neutralityRestricts trade w/ European countries Britain & France need US goods for war

    Jefferson underestimates GB/French rivalry; Napoleonic Wars continue

  • *21US REACTIONS TO EMBARGO ACTHurts US more than EuropePublic Outrage!Political seats up for grabs (Federalists?)DRs re-gain Presidency w/ election of James Madison

    US Exports in 1806: $108 MillionUS Exports in 1808: $22 MillionRecession

  • *22POLITICAL CARTOON c. 1808

  • *OTHER ISOLATIONIST ACTSNon-Importation Act (1806)Limit European imports

    Non-Intercourse Act (1809)Limited ONLY French & British imports

    Macons Bill No. 2 (1810)Stop attacks; permit trade23

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