Researched by : Anthony Fisher Class : 7H Teacher : Mr.
CONTENTSPg. 1 Ivory Billed Woodpecker Title Page Pg. 2 Contents
Page Pg. 3 Classification Pg. 4 Scientific Name and What It Means
Pg. 5 Reproduction and How It Gives Birth Pg. 6 Reproduction and
How It Gives Birth Pg. 7 Gestation Period Pg. 8 Life Patterns Pg. 9
Food Eaten Pg. 10 Hunting Patterns Pg. 11 Predator Pg.12 Reason for
Most Deaths Pg. 13 Does It Get Eaten Pg. 14 Is It Endangered Pg. 15
Preferred Living Environment and Information on Its Natural Habitat
Pg. 16 Location Pg. 17 Special Features and Abilities Pg. 18
Description Pg. 19 How Long Has It Been On Earth Pg. 20 What It
Evolved From Pg. 21 Is It Found To Be a Pet Pg. 22 Who Discovered
It and Where Pg. 23 What Countries Did It Come From Pg. 24 What
Countries Has It Been Introduced To Pg. 25 Has There Been Impact on
Its Survival Pg. 26 Life Span In the Wild Pg. 27 Life Span In
Captivity Pg. 28 Extra Information Pg. 29 Bibliography3
Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Cordata Class: Aves Order: Piciformes
Family: Picidae Picina Woodpeckers Genera: Campephilus Species: C.
SCIENTIFIC NAME AND WHAT IT MEANSThe scientific name for the
Ivory Billed Woodpecker is: Campephilus Principalis The scientific
name means chief lover of caterpillars. The Ivory Billed Woodpecker
was given the name Principalis because it was believed to be the
largest woodpecker but there are at least two others, one from
Mexico and one from South East Asia that are bigger.
REPRODUCTION AND HOW IT GIVES BIRTHThe Ivory Billed Woodpecker
is thought to pair for life. They usually travel together, and will
mate every year between January and May. Before they have their
young birds, the parents need to make a nest. They usually make
their nests in dead trees, about 8 15 metres above the ground.
Usually two to five eggs are laid, and they are incubated for three
to five weeks. Both of the parents are involved with taking care of
the eggs, and they both sit on the eggs. The male takes sole
responsibility of taking care of the eggs at night. Both parents
will feed the newly born chicks for months, and after about five
weeks after their birth, they learn to fly, and even after that,
the parents still feed them for about another two months. The young
usually leave their parents after a year.6
The family will usually split up around late fall or early
winter. Little is known on this subject and much information is
assumed, taken from related Pileated species of woodpeckers. There
is no information on the age at first breeding or diseases.
The gestation period is thought to be between 3-5 weeks.
The Ivory Billed Woodpecker does not live in a group. The male
Ivory Billed Woodpecker only has one other female woodpecker mate.
Each pair needs about 16-25 kilometres in area so that they can
find enough food for themselves and their young. The call of the
Ivory Billed Woodpecker is a nasal toot like a toy horn. It is
referred to by scientists as a Kent call. It also makes a double
knock by striking its beak against the tree or wood.
The Ivory Billed Woodpecker usually eats the larvae of wood
boring beetles, but the Ivory Billed Woodpecker will also eat
seeds, fruits, and other insects. The Ivory Billed Woodpecker uses
its large beak to peel of the bark from dead trees to find insects
HUNTING PATTERNSIt is thought that the Ivory Billed Woodpecker
roosted in a tree cavity until late morning when it came out and
preened and stretched before leaving for the feeding area. By late
afternoon it would fly back towards the roost site where it would
enter by dusk. It is thought that they may have finished feeding by
midday but there is no definite information on this. There is no
evidence of migration. It is suggested that the species was
nomadic, moving to areas that may have recently killed trees, thus
providing them with their food.
The only known predators are humans but there is a possibility
that Racoons, Rat Snakes, Great Horned Owls, Barred Owls, Coopers
Hawks, and Stygian Owls could also be predators of the Ivory Billed
REASON FOR MOST DEATHSThe reason for the most deaths of the
Ivory Billed Woodpecker is Humans, as Humans were cutting down a
lot of trees, and the Ivory Billed Woodpecker had nowhere to live,
or did not have a lot of food. In Cuba, for example the Ivory
Billed Woodpecker was hung outside homes to prevent witchcraft. As
the Ivory Billed Woodpecker became rare they were then hunted by
DOES IT GET EATEN?13
There is no conclusive information but possibly Racoons, Rat
Snakes, Great-Horned Owls, Barred-Owls, Coopers Hawks and Stygian
Owls may take Ivory Billed Woodpeckers, but given the size of the
woodpeckers, and where they roost it would not happen
IS IT ENDANGERED?14
The Ivory Billed Woodpecker is critically endangered. It is also
thought to be extinct, but on rare occasions, the Ivory Billed
Woodpecker has been seen by people. In June 2006, a $US10,000.00
reward was set for any information regarding the Ivory Billed
Woodpecker. During 1920, it was thought to be extinct, but then a
pair was found in Florida, but they were then shot for
PREFFERED LIVING ENVIRONMENT AND INFORMATION ON ITS NATURAL
The Ivory Billed Woodpecker likes living in dead trees, usually
in pine forests or thick hardwood swamps in the river drainages in
the south of the USA. A subspecies also lived in Cuba. It usually
lives at a height of 8-21 metres. After the Civil War, the timber
industry deforested many trees in the southern areas of America and
South America, leaving almost no space for the Ivory Billed
Woodpeckers to live in. The area went from about 24 million acres
of habitat to 4.4 million scattered acres at second growth forest.
The birds need virgin forests with lots of old, dead or dying trees
to provide them with food and shelter. When the forests were
destroyed, so were the birds.
SPECIAL FEATURES AND ABILITIES
A group of Woodpeckers has many collective nouns like, a decent
of Woodpeckers, a drumming of Woodpeckers and a gattling of
woodpeckers. The English name of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker refers
to the colours of its bill which is actually made of bone covered
with keratin. The birds bill keeps growing throughout its life
because it keeps on wearing it down. The Ivory Billed Woodpecker
has no jawbone or teeth and no vertebrae in its tail.
The Ivory Billed Woodpecker is the third largest, and rarest,
Woodpecker in the world, and the largest in the United States. The
Ivory Billed Woodpecker has a total length of 20 inches, around
50cm and it weighs around 570 grams. The Ivory Billed Woodpecker
has a wingspan of 30 inches. The Ivory Billed Woodpecker is a shiny
blueblack colour, and it has white markings on its neck and its
back, and also on the wings. The male has a large red crest with
black on the forward facing part while the female has a black
crest. Both have an ivory coloured bill. Eyes are clear lemon
yellow with legs and feet grey.
HOW LONG HAS IT BEEN ON EARTH?
It is thought that the Ivory Billed Woodpecker was probably
never very common, and DNA testing on remains in museums suggests
that the Cuban and North American Ivory Billed Woodpecker and the
Imperial Woodpecker diverged sometime in the Mid-Pleistocene
revolution. This was a period of global cooling and lowered sea
WHAT IT EVOLVED FROM
No material seems to be available on what the Ivory Billed
Woodpecker evolved from but the related birds are the Acorn
Woodpecker, Black-backed Woodpecker, Pileated Woodpecker,
White-Headed Woodpecker and the Red-bellied Woodpecker. White
IS IT FOUND TO BE A PET?The Ivory Billed Woodpecker is not a
They are nearly extinct in the world and they need 16-25
kilometres in the area to support one pair.
WHO DISCOVERED IT AND WHERE?I cannot conclusively find who and
where the Ivory Billed Woodpecker was discovered but22
the first noted names are for a naturalist, John James Audubon
and his apprentice, Joseph Manson, in 1820 shooting and collecting
numerous Ivory Billed Woodpeckers along the Ohio, Arkansas and
John James Audubon
WHAT COUNTRIES DID IT COME FROM?
There has not been any evidence of Ivory Billed Woodpeckers
outside of America. Evidence suggests that ancestors of the Ivory
Billed Woodpeckers arrived from South America or Central America
since these were the regions where Campephilus Woodpeckers were
most abundant. It seems possible they may have come through Mexico
and around the Gulf Coast to the south eastern states and then to
Cuba or from the Yucatn Peninsula to Cuba then to the south eastern
WHAT COUNTRIES HAS IT BEEN INTRODUCED TO?None to date.
HAS THERE BEEN IMPACT ON its SURVIVAL?
There has been a lot of impact on the Ivory Billed Woodpeckers
survival, as it is now critically endangered, and could possibly be
LIFE SPAN IN THE WILD
The life span in the wild for the Ivory Billed Woodpecker is not
known, but it is estimated to live for about 10-20 years.26
LIFE SPAN IN CAPTIVITYThe life span in captivity is not known,
as there are none in captivity.
EXTRA INFORMATIONIn 1938, there was only about 20 individual
Ivory Billed Woodpeckers left in the world. The Ivory Billed
Woodpecker is also known as the Grail Bird, Good God Bird and the
Lord God Bird because of peoples reactions when they see it.28
Our knowledge of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker is limited because
there have been few studies done on the species.
BIBLIOGRAPHYThe sites that I used to gather information for my
assignment on the Ivory Billed Woodpecker are listed below.