1 1 Sukuk issuance Sukuk issuance – Corporate & Corporate & FI's FI's, & Their , & Their Role in the Islamic Inter Role in the Islamic Inter- bank Market bank Market By By Masood Aijazi CFA Masood Aijazi CFA ISLAMIC INTERBANK MARKET & SUKUK ISLAMIC INTERBANK MARKET & SUKUK Please read the Disclaimer on page 2 2 2 Disclaimer Disclaimer This presentation represents the views of Masood Aijazi CFA, not his employer National Commercial Bank (NCB) nor the conference organizer, International Islamic Financial Markets (IIFM) NCB or IIFM in any way, shape or form are not responsible for contents of this presentation. This presentation was prepared for educational purposes only. Any other use without proper permission is not allowed

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Sukuk issuance Sukuk issuance –– Corporate & Corporate & FI'sFI's, & Their , & Their

Role in the Islamic InterRole in the Islamic Inter--bank Marketbank Market


Masood Aijazi CFAMasood Aijazi CFA


Please read the Disclaimer on page 2

22 2


This presentation represents the views of Masood Aijazi CFA, not his employer National Commercial Bank (NCB) nor the conference organizer, International Islamic Financial Markets (IIFM)

NCB or IIFM in any way, shape or form are not responsible for contents of this presentation.

This presentation was prepared for educational purposes only. Any other use without proper permission is not allowed


33 3


� Interbank Market & Liquidity � Interbank markets� Conventional LM� Principles of sound LM� Challenges of LM in Islamic Banks

� Sukuk� An overview� Problems & Challenges� Towards Islamic Interbank MM market

� Way Forward, S/T MM Sukuk, REMMS� Features� Structure� Benefits� Risks

44 4

Interbank Interbank

Markets & Markets &



55 5

Interbank MarketInterbank Market

� A term used to describe professional markets between banks

� Most commonly used to refer to� the wholesale market in forex, but also used for

� funds traded overnight to satisfy reserve requirements at the central bank

Source: Reuters Financial Glossary

66 6

Interbank Market: a Tool for LiquidityInterbank Market: a Tool for Liquidity

Liquidity → free spending power� Money, fully liquid, other assets vary (in degrees) � Liquidity: ease of converting an assets to cash with little or no loss of value;

� Liquid assets: � cash � deposits in other banks� short term liquid securities

� Liquidity & profitability two divergent objectives

___________� More than listing

� Is there a buyer when you are a seller?

� More than negotiable

� At what price?


77 7

Interbank MarketsInterbank Markets

Interbank Markets: (private & public) arrangement to absorb transitory liquidity shocks

� An insurance for the banks

� Market efficiency: how interbank market investments (of different maturities) respond to expected liquidity shocks

88 8

Liquidity Management;Liquidity Management; Ability to Withstand StormsAbility to Withstand Storms

Liquidity Shortage Assassin of banks

Dry ClimateDry Climate


Liquidity Liquidity

Excess, a Excess, a

Drag on Drag on


Smooth Smooth



Challenge Challenge

for IFIsfor IFIs

Credit for this Graphics: Dr. Syed Salman Ali, IDB


99 9

� Negotiable CDs

� Commercial Papers

� Bankers Acceptance

� Treasury Bills

� Treasury Bonds/Guilds

� Govt. & Corporate Bonds

� Financial Derivatives

� Options

� Swaps

� Future

� Repos

� Interbank Markets

� Lender of Last Resort

Conventional Liquidity ManagementConventional Liquidity Management

1010 10

Liquidity RiskLiquidity Risk

�� Investment FirmInvestment Firm’’s Definition:s Definition:

“liquidity risk includes both

� the risk of being unable to fund [its] portfolio of assets at appropriate maturities and rates, and

� the risk of being unable to liquidate a position in a timely manner at reasonable prices.”

J.P. Morgan Chase (2000).J.P. Morgan Chase (2000).

�� Regulators' Definition:Regulators' Definition:

� “risk to a bank’s earnings and capital arising from its inability to timely meet obligations when they come due without incurring unacceptable losses.”

Office of the Comptroller (2000)

� Many different risks culminate in liquidity risk


1111 11

LM 101

� Risk Pyramid (Conventional)� Blended portfolio from Triple-A down to Single-B

� Can interpolate risk between Triple A and Single-A

� Cannot extrapolate risk from lesser risks to triple-A

� Access to determinate amount of cash

� When you need it

� Preservation of capital on demand

� Free from price risk

� Undoubted quality low credit risk

� Fiduciary or trust money should be both liquid, safe & price risk free

� Sound risk management principles apply

� Need a quality Triple-A overnight instrument with stable capital values

1212 12

Level Playing Field?Level Playing Field?

� Excess Liquidity in Islamic banks� Serious business risk

� Islamic financial institutions are almost 50% more liquid as compared to conventional financial institutions. a recent study

� Out of US$ 13.6 billion total assets of Islamic banks in the study US$ 6.3 billion were found to be in liquid assets

� Underutilization of financial resources

� Lower income and higher cost

� Loss of competitiveness


1313 13

Islamic BanksIslamic Banks’’ Assets PortfolioAssets Portfolio











Source: Iqbal Munawar, Ausaf Ahmad & Tariqullah Khan (1998), Challenges Facing Islamic Banking, Jeddah:IRTI


1414 14

Key Issues in Liquidity


Small No. of participants

No Islamic Inter-bank Market

Slow DevelopmentInIslamic financial Instruments

Absence of Islamic Secondary market

No Lenderof LastResort

Different Shari’a interpretation

Key Issues in Liquidity ManagementKey Issues in Liquidity Management

Credit for this diagram: IIFM


1515 15

LM in IFIsLM in IFIs

� Commodity Murabaha

� Commodity Murabaha

� Commodity Murabaha

� Commodity Murabaha

� Deposit Management

� Sukuk

� Infrastructure Institutions� Liquidity Management Center


1616 16

� Investments long dated – deposits are short

� massive gap, asset/liability mismatch

� Massive liquidity problem

� Can not borrow when there are withdrawals

� Excess liquidity

� Overwhelming use of Muarabaha

� Sukuks oversubscribed, no secondary market

� Shortage of instruments

� Lack of liquidity ironically increases demand for liquidity

� liquidity vehicles cannot withstand a $100m injection or withdrawal

� Malaysia, is an exception where Islamic interbank market do exits (believe it not)

Challenges of L.M In IFIsChallenges of L.M In IFIs


1717 17

Overview of issuesOverview of issues

Courtesy: HSCB AmanahCourtesy: HSCB Amanah

1818 18


� Incorrect judgment and complacency� Unanticipated change in cost of capital� Abnormal behavior of financial markets� Range of assumptions used� Risk activation by secondary sources� Break down of payments system� Macroeconomic imbalances� Contractual forms� Financial Infrastructure deficiency


1919 19

Commodity Muarabah, A Panacea?

What is commodity murabaha?Commodity murabaha, as it is generally known, is sale of certain specified commodities, through a metal exchange, on a cost plus profit basis. If the customer wishes to invest money with the Bank it will purchase commodities at Cost X from Broker A and sell them to the Bank at Cost X plus Profit Y = Contract Price. The Bank will repay the Contract Price over a period of time.

What is tawarruq?Tawarruq is the reverse form of commodity murabaha, where the bank sells commodities to the customer on deferred payment at cost plus profit. The customer then sells the commodities to a third party on spot basis and gets instant cash

Source: HSBC Amanah FAQ

2020 20

Islamic Bank / Investor(Principal)



Conventional Bank(Agent)


Pay (Spot)Receive

(Sales proceeds at maturity)

Receive funds from Investor

(to pay Broker ‘A’)

Sell(at a profit & deferred payment)

Settle Investor

(Sales proceeds less Agents fees)

Funds Flow

Commodity Flow

How Commodity Murabaha Works?

Credit for the diagram: IIFM


2121 21

Problems with Commodity Problems with Commodity


� Higher costs: →less competitive than conventional→ Sub LIBOR

� Lack of standardization, all Murabahas are not equal

� No secondary market, no sales, capital blockade

� Bilateral transactions, thus higher counterparty risk

� Back to back (or reverse) murabaha needed for maintaining liquidity (Tawarruq not approved by all)

� Break clause? some scholars approve, however expensive

� Flow of funds away from Muslim economies

� Not contributing in any real growth or development

� Operational, credit, dispute, & legal risks (receivables realization)

� Limited supply of commodity. How much metal in the world?

� Interim solution: was supposed to be an interim solution until..

2222 22

Islamic MM Malaysian ExperienceIslamic MM Malaysian Experience

The Islamic Inter-bank Money Market (IIMM)Introduced on 3 January 1994 based on Mudharabah

Facilitates funding for IFIs

Inter-bank Trading of money marketinstruments:Based on debt trading principles; Instruments –

Government Investment Issues

(GIIs), Islamic Treasury Bills (ITBs), Islamic

Acceptance Bills (IABs), Bank Negara Negotiable

Notes (BNNNs);

Inter-bank Investment:Placement and acceptance of funds based on

Mudharabah, profit sharing contract and shorter

tenure i.e. up to 12 months maturity.


2323 23

� Mudarabah Interbank Investment (MII)� Wadiah Acceptance� Government Investment Issue (GII)� Bank Negara Negotiable Notes (BNNN)� Sell and Buy Back Agreement (SBBA)� Cagamas Mudharabah Bonds (SMC)� When Issue (WI)� Islamic Accepted Bills (IAB)� Islamic Negotiable Instruments (INI)� Islamic Private Debt Securities� Ar Rahnu Agreement-I (RA-i)� Sukuk BNM Ijarah (SBNMI)

Type of Islamic MM Instruments in MalaysiaType of Islamic MM Instruments in Malaysia

2424 24

SukukSukukMillion Dollar QsMillion Dollar Qs

Can they cure Liquidity Management problem for IFI ?Can they cure Liquidity Management problem for IFI ?

Can they help in developing Islamic Interbank Markets?Can they help in developing Islamic Interbank Markets?


2525 25

Sukuks OverviewSukuks Overview

� Sukuk: financial certificate, an Islamic equivalent of bond

� Securitized assets

� Assets-backed securities

� Must have an underlying tangible assets transaction� Ownership

� master lease agreement

� Hard asset backed:� It must be backed by a real asset, (land, or equipment),

� Sukuk mean dealing in a real asset, not simply trading paper

� Primary condition: Assets on the balance sheet of the issuing entity

� The Sukuk model:� Derived from the conventional securitization process

� SPV to acquire assets & to issue financial claims on the assets

� Financial assets claims: → a proportionate beneficial ownership

2626 26

Types of SukukTypes of Sukuk

� Ijara Sukuk

� Mudaraba Sukuk

� Musharaka Sukuk

� Murabaha Sukuk

� Istisna'a Sukuk

� Salam Sukuk

� Other types� Sukuk Al Wakala, Sukuk Al Muzra’a, Sukuk Al Musaqa,

Sukuk Al Muqarasa, Sukuk Ijara Mowsufa Bithimn, Sukuk Manfaa Ijara, Sukuk Manfaa Ijara Mowsufa Bithimn and Sukuk Milkiyat Al Khadamat

� AAOIFI issued standards for 14 different Sukuk types


2727 27

Growth of Sukuk in $M*Growth of Sukuk in $M*

Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06
















2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total

9 1010





* Does not include many Malaysian Sukuks due to Shariah issues

2828 28

A+, 700 , 4%

A-, 2,396 , 14%

Unrated, 11,310 , 67%

BBB-, 200 , 1%

B+, 600 , 4%

A, 80 , 0%

AA, 120 , 1%

AA-, 120 , 1%AAA, 1,400 , 8%

AAA 1,400

AA 120

AA- 120

A+ 700

A 80

A- 2,396

BBB- 200

B+ 600

Unrated 11,310

Total 16,926

Global Sukuk by S&P RatingGlobal Sukuk by S&P Rating

Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06


2929 29

1 yr or less , 754.50 , 4%

2-5 yrs, 11,490.80 , 68%

6-10 yrs, 4,680.60 , 28%

Global Sukuk by TenorGlobal Sukuk by Tenor

Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06

Only a fraction (about 4%) of Sukuk are for less than a year

3030 30

Issuer Issue

Date Country


Size ( US$'M M

equivalent )

Margin/ Tenor Rating/ Listing

PCFC Sukuk (Corporate) Jan-06 UAE

3,500 7.125-10.125%/ 2 Years -

Dubai Global Sukuk FZCO (Govt)Nov-04 UAE

1000 6m LIBOR + 0.45%/ 5 Years Govt. rating applicable

SABIC Sukuk (corporate)Jul-06


Arabia 800 SIBOR + 0.40 % -

Government of Qatar (Govt)Sep-03 Qatar

700 6m LIBOR + 0.4% / 7 Years

S&P: A+ / Lubuan &


Pakistan International Sukuk Co. Ltd.(Govt) Jan-05 Pakistan

600 6m LIBOR + 2.2% /5 Years S&P: B+ Luxembourg

Malaysia Global Sukuk (Govt)Jul-02 Malaysia

600 6m LIBOR + 0.95%/ 5 Years S&P: A- / Bahrain & Lubuan

Emirates Airline SukukJun-05 UAE

550 LIBOR + 0.75% / 7 Years -

Wings FZCO (Corporate) Jun-05 UAE

550 6m LIBOR + 0.75%/7 Years Luxembourg

Islamic Development Bank (Corporate) Jun-05 Inter'l

500 6m LIBOR + 0.12% / 5 Years

S&P: AAA Fitch: AA /

Luxembourg , Lubuan &


IDB Trust Services (ISDB) (Corporate)Aug-03 Inter'l

500 6m LIBOR +0.12% /5 Years

S&P: AAA Fitch: AA / Lubuan &


Sub Total (55% of Total)9,300

10 Largest Sukuk 10 Largest Sukuk (Jan. 07)(Jan. 07)

Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06Source: LMC Bahrain, Jan 06


3131 31

An Example: Malaysian Global SukukAn Example: Malaysian Global Sukuk

Credit for this slide: BMA presentation, Feb., 2004.

3232 32

Wings FZCO SukukWings FZCO Sukuk


3333 33

German State Sukuk, a Pleasant SurpriseGerman State Sukuk, a Pleasant Surprise

� $ 100m 5 year Sukuk issued by state of Saxony-Anhalt

� Saxony-Anhalt a new state of Germany after reunification

� State debts are guaranteed by federation of Germany

� Rating of AAA by Fitch and AA- by Standard & Poor’s

� Citigroup, Lead Manager & KFH Co-Lead Manager

� Approval form Citi Islamic Bank Shari’ah Board

� Underlying: buildings owned by Ministry of Finance

� Sale & leaseback structure

� SPV registered in Netherlands

� A variable rent (EURIBOR+1%)

� Listed at Luxembourg Exchange

� Reason to choose Sukuk:

� Broaden the investor basis

� Access to different funding sources

� Promote the location

3434 34

Sukuk in USSukuk in US

� $165.67 million Sukuk by Houston, Texas based East Cameron Partners (ECP)

� First ever Shariah compliant gas backed securitization

� ECP gas reserves are in shallow waters (off the coast of Louisiana)

� BSEC is the arranger & Merrill Lynch the Book runner

� A two-tier structure

� A purchaser SPV (in Delaware) to acquire the assets

� An Issuer SPV (in Cayman Islands) to issue the Sukuk & use the proceeds to invest in the Purchaser SPV by way of a Shariah-compliant Funding Agreement,”

� This deal, claimed BSEC, also has two other “firsts”

� First ever Islamic securitization rated by S&P,

� First securitization embedding Shariah-compliant hedges


3535 35

� $750 million issued in Oct ’06 by Khazanah, a Finance Ministry sub

� Arranged by CIMB, HSBC & UBS

� Khazanah owns a 40 percent stake in Telekom, Malaysia, national telecom utility, 7 percent set aside for this transaction

� Sukuk represent interests in a trust constituted by the issuer & are exchangeable into shares of Telekom Malaysia

� World's first exchangeable & effectively equity-linked Sukuk

� Sukuk pays an coupon of 1.25%, YTM of 5.07% pa (equivalent to US 5-year mid swap over 3 basis points). It comes from dividend income of Telekom shares

� An exchange premium of 19% over 1-day volume weighted average price of Telekom shares on Sept. 27, 2006

� Listed on the Labuan & Hong Kong Exchange

� A call option exercisable by Issuer at the end of year 3.

� Order book was oversubscribed 6 times

� Shariah acceptance outside Malaysia?

Malaysian Khazanah SukukMalaysian Khazanah Sukuk

3636 36

DJ &CITI Sukuk IndexDJ &CITI Sukuk Index

� First global Sukuk index

� Criteria

� issue size of $250 million,

� minimum maturity of one year

� minimum rating of BBB-/Baa3 by leading rating agencies

� Index at the onset was tracking only seven Sukuk


3737 37

Malaysian Sukuk ControversyMalaysian Sukuk Controversy

� LMC & DJ-City Index excludes most Malaysian corporate Sukuks

� This is primarily due to Islamic private debt securities (IPDS), based on sale of receivables

� Issues backed by sale of so-called debt, are frowned upon by scholars in Gulf & Pakistan, but Malaysian scholars have okayed them

� The Malaysian IPDS market is by far the largest Islamic corporate issuances market

� At the beginning of 2005 outstanding IPDS issues in the market totaled just under RM 90 billion.

� Currently, IPDS issues account for 45 % of the Malaysian corporate bond market

3838 38

Sukuk RevisitedSukuk Revisited� Hot issue, some innovation & variety. Now time for better quality

� Need more financial engineering. No imitation of conventional

� No default, truly hard asset backed, it can get sick but will never die

� Sukuk Market is growing fast

� Most issues are over-subscribed, setting new records� Oil revenues $300B+ in GCC in 2006, demand is mounting� Successful issues, listing & rating in international markets (US, UK,

Germany etc), KSA & Pakistan now in the game� Dubai Ports, customs & FZ convertible Musharaka Sukuk of $3.5B

($11B subscribed)

� Still Limited supply

� Conservative estimate of IF market $300-500 B� Sukuk issued so far, about $17B� Galaxy of Islamic Investments still lack variety

� No Secondary market or active trading, “buy & hold”,

� Primary market has to expand

� Benchmark LIBOR, thus doubts and criticism


3939 39

� Instrumental for increasing width & breadth of IFI offerings

� Higher development costs, but it could be rewarding in L.T.

� Trading floor need to be opened

� More corporate issues are needed

� Sukuk Index & first Sukuk Fund are positive signs

� Sukuks are being considered by global financial heavyweights so..

� Over a Billion $ issued by Bahrain, more ST, Salam Sukuks

� As Bonds are off limit, Islamic investors need portfolio stabilizers

� Do not address liquidity problem yet, still mostly mid term

� Shortage of credit lines to IFI has led to an increase in cash holdings but lack of instruments creates a liquidity trap

� There needs to be a truly global-sized liquid inter-bank market where institutions can park their liquidity reserves

Sukuk RevisitedSukuk Revisited

4040 40

� Innovative ideas:� Performance/GDP linked sovereign Sukuk

� Corporate Sukuk linked to KPI i.e. sales, GM

� Musharaka/Mudaraba pools for SME (need for micro-credit)

� Innovative credit enhancement/risk reduction features i.e. equalization reserve, smoothing

� Handsome rewards for risk sharing. No default. Variable return risk

� Islamic Commercial Papers

� Islamic bankers acceptance

Sukuk RevisitedSukuk Revisited


4141 41

Short Term Money Market SukuksShort Term Money Market Sukuks


A Breakthrough Idea!A Breakthrough Idea!

4242 42

REMMSREMMS®®Real Estate Backed Money Market SukukReal Estate Backed Money Market Sukuk

� Sharia’h compliant securities based on RE & its cash flows

� Objectives:

� Liquid, safe, & price risk free

� stable & steady income

� Target Initial Issue: US $4 Billion

� Rating Target: AAA or higher

� Projected Returns: Short term money market rates

� Maturity: 30 days to 180 days

� Market making by global institutions

� Backed by quality real estate portfolio in US & Europe

� Long term credit leases to top rated corporations

� Conservative Shariah structure to maximize acceptance


4343 43

REMMSREMMS®® : : Underlying PropertiesUnderlying Properties

� Grade “A”, high quality/prime trophy properties� Well diversified core portfolio of 15-20 properties� Commercial real estate

� Office Buildings� Retail Shopping Centers� Special purpose institutional property� Industrial

� All across US & Western Europe� No tenant in unaccepted lines of business� Long term triple net leases (net of taxes, maintenance & Insurance)

� Tenants; highly rated corporations � Stable and predictable cash flows from rentals� Professional management� Owned by institutional investors� No mortgages recorded� Predicable risk & return profile

4444 44

�� Real Owners (Sponsors)Real Owners (Sponsors)� Effective owners with risks & rewards of real estate ownership

� Participate in 20% upfront equity investment

� Investment horizon: 10-15 years

� Modest predictable operating income, potential capital gains

� Projected IRR: 12%-25% p.a.

� Limited partners in a fund

�� Sukuk holdersSukuk holders (Effective Financiers)

� Legal title holders of Real Estate (but effectively financiers)

� Participate in 80% financing of acquisition through Sukuk

� Monthly cash distribution from rental income (3%-6% p.a.)

� Ownership certificates (Sukuks) are easily transferable

� Price guarantee based on property purchase agreement

� All cash flows are known in advance to avoid Gharar

� There are some though minimal risks

� Units holders of the trust, a separate legal entity

REMMSREMMS®® : : Two Types of InvestorsTwo Types of Investors


4545 45

REMMSREMMS®®: Simplified : Simplified StructureStructure

Operating SPVOperating SPV

Effective owners Effective owners

with operating with operating

surplus & capital surplus & capital


Finance SPVFinance SPV

(Sukuk Trust) (Sukuk Trust)

Legal owners but Legal owners but

effective financierseffective financiers

Sukuk HoldersSukuk HoldersPeriodic money market Periodic money market returns & liquidityreturns & liquidity


Primary Lease


Sukuks (Units)


Sub Lease



Operating Surplus

& Gains



4646 46

REMMSREMMS®®: Multiple Cushions : Multiple Cushions Risk Reduction for Sukuk HoldersRisk Reduction for Sukuk Holders










4747 47

� A simple concept; has been in discussion for some time

� Due Credit to Mr. Abdulhak El Kafsi,& Ahmed Adil (E&Y)

� Effective financing through Sukuk issues rather than typical borrowing from the banks

� Optimal equity investment (20%) by sponsors to maximize returns

� Effective benefits of real estate portfolio ownership i.e. rental income & capital gains stay with the sponsors

� Sukuk holders receive periodic money-market returns

� Specific legal entities or SPVs are created & used for various roles in the transaction

� Sponsors & Sukukholders have a irrevocable Bai Al Arboon agreement to sell/buy properties at an agreed price (most probably at the purchase price)

REMMSREMMS®®; ; OverviewOverview

4848 48

� High yield � MM (LIBOR+) rates, compared to Sub Libor Murabaha rates

� Stable & predictable income� Shorter tenor� Long term financing at lower MM rates (vs. Mortgage

rates)� Highly liquid, overnight potential� Price risk insulation� Real Estate assets can absorb massive amounts� Traditional love affairs of M.E investors to RE� Interbank secondary market tradability� Highly rated, standardized instrument� Real estate backing & cash flows to reduce risks � RE & its CFs to satisfy scholars strict requirements� Stability & strengths of RE to offset S.T spikes� Leverage to Islamic R.E investors

REMMSREMMS®®; Benefits; Benefits


4949 49

� Refinancing risks� Real Estate risks

� Property prices risk� Vacancy risks

� Money market rates risks� Credit risks� Residual value and valuation risks� Operational risks� Asset safeguarding risks� Counterparty risks (operating SPV & tenants risks) � Sukuk placement & redemptions risks� Profit margin risks (spread/operating SPV & Sukuk holders) � Foreign exchange risks� Performance risks � Regulatory, legal and taxation risks � Shariah Issues

� Bai Al Arboon Agreement

REMMSREMMS®®; ; Risks & IssuesRisks & Issues

5050 50

� Fundamental error, long term asset, real estate being financed from short term Sukuk

� Solution: standby standard Islamic financing arrangement by a major bank or Sukuk purchase commitments

� Borrowing from banks up to 80% value has never been a problem

� Sukuk purchase commitments/underwriting

� Primary reason for issuance of Sukuk is to fill the gap

� Due to shortage of Islamic MM instruments, refinancing every 1-6 month cycle will not be a problem

REMMSREMMS®®; ; Big ProblemBig Problem

Asset Asset –– Liability MismatchLiability Mismatch


5151 51

� RE Advisor identifies & proposes a property for acquisition

� Sponsors commit to purchase, Advisor finalizes due diligence

� Modalities of leasing structure established

� Closing formalities are completed in the name of newly established SPV.

� Finance SPV issues Sukuks against the property.

� Finance SPV pays sponsors the funds raised from Sukuk issues.

� Finance SPV mandates Advisor to manage the assets on behalf of Sukuk holders.

REMMSREMMS®®: : Phase A, AcquisitionPhase A, Acquisition

5252 52

REMMSREMMS®®: Phase B, : Phase B, RegularRegular OperationsOperations

� Finance SPV will lease the properties to Operating SPV at money market rate

� Operating SPV will sub-lease property to a quality top rated tenants

� Sub lease payments to cover primary lease payment + spread

� Difference in sub-lease income and primary lease costs (spread) will accrue as an Operating Surplus in operating SPV

� Finance SPV regularly collects rents and distributes to Sukuk holders


5353 53

� Operating surplus accrues to sponsors � Capital gain opportunities realized

� Payback finance SPV� Finance SPV redeems Sukuks� Operating SPV payout to sponsors

� Sponsors uses Arboon (call option) to buy property from Sukuk holders (to realize capital gains)

� Sukuk holders have Arboon (put option) to sell property at cost (to preserve principal in a down market)

� Bai Al Arboon Agreement (Put and call options) are tried and tested for being Sharia’h compliant

REMMSREMMS®®: Phase C, Disposal: Phase C, Disposal

5454 54


� Interbank market is a must for liquidity

� Need of a safe & price risk free instrument

� Vast use of Murabaha & its limitations

� Sukuk came long way

� Still supply is limited

� No secondary market for Sukuk

� A breakthrough idea, REMMS

� MM Sukuk backed by quality real estate

� Highly liquid & tradable instrument

� Asset liability mismatch & possible solutions


5555 55

Thank YouThank YouYour comments are welcomeYour comments are welcome

[email protected]@gmail.com

[email protected]@alahli.com

5656 56

Types of SukukTypes of Sukuk

� Ijara Sukuk� Leasing structure with purchase option� stand-alone assets (identified on the balance sheet)� Rental rates can be fixed or floating� Cash flow from leases passed through (coupon & principle payments) � Efficient medium-to-long term mode of financing� Cross-border applications for an increasing range of asset classes � Usually an SPV, an entity/intermediary between issuer & Sukukholders� Due to SVP, low risks to bank, nor subject to bank regulation

� Mudharabah Sukuk� An agreement made between capital provider & an entrepreneur to

enable the entrepreneur to carry out business projects, � Predetermined profit sharing ratios (participation or trust financing). � In case of losses, born by funds provider only

� Musharaka Sukuk� Similar to the Mudaraba � both parties provide financing to the projects� in case of losses, both parties will lose proportionate to capital


5757 57

Types of SukukTypes of Sukuk

� Murabaha Sukuk� Based on the traditional notion of purchase finance � Relatively straightforward structure � Declared mark-up integrated in selling price with a deferred payment.� IFI purchases equipment/goods then sells to customer at cost + profit

� IFI securitizes the transactions with a proportion of the fixed mark-up

� Istisna’a Sukuk� Used for the advance funding of a major projects or large items of

equipment i.e. turbines, power plants, ships or aircraft� construction/manufacturing financing� IFI funds the manufacturer/ contractor during the construction,

acquires title & on completion either immediately passes title to developer on agreed deferred payment or, leases

� if the Sukuk are listed during the Istisna’a period, the Sukuk should be traded only at par as the underlying assets does not exists yet.(Debtcan’t be traded according to Islamic law)

� AAOIFI issued standards for 14 different Sukuk types� Other types: Sukuk Al Wakala, Sukuk Al Muzra’a, Sukuk Al Musaqa, Sukuk Al

Muqarasa, Sukuk Ijara Mowsufa Bithimn, Sukuk Manfaa Ijara, Sukuk Manfaa Ijara

Mowsufa Bithimn and Sukuk Milkiyat Al Khadamat.

5858 58

Salam Sukuk

� a sale, seller undertakes to supply a commodity to buyer at a future date in return for an advanced price paid in full on the spot

� Price is in cash but the supply of the good is deferred

� As a form of financing, the purchaser is able to acquire assets by advance payment at a discounted price & subsequently sells upon delivery

� Salam Sukuk, a type of a forward contract forbidden under Shariah law unless there are strict conditions to eliminate uncertainty

� It differs from Istisna’a Sukuk in that, the purchase price for assets must paid in full & delivery date must be fixed

Types of SukukTypes of Sukuk