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Is love doomed to fail?A phenomenological inquiry into the self-other relation
in Sartre and Beauvoir
Noelle Leslie G. de la CruzDe La Salle University (Manila)
The impetus for this paper grew out of a conversation with one ofmy friends. We were talking about our mutual appreciation of Jean-PaulSartres radical notion of freedom, which we agreed was his originalcontribution to philosophy. (True enough, Sartre borrowed ideas fromthinkers as diverse as Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger, Kant, and evenSimone de Beauvoir1. However, his impassioned description of thehuman condition as one of inescapable freedom and abandonment
certainly merits the adjective original.) But while my friend and Iwere both seduced by Sartres hauntingly beautiful view of humanpotentials and personal responsibility, we disagreed fundamentallyabout the actual extent of our freedom. He interpreted Sartre as sayingthat there are, in principle, no limits to the freedom of the for-itself,that any rationalization which attempts to qualify this is bad faith.
I immediately pointed out that this interpretation is simplisticespecially in light of Sartres description of our relations with otherpeople. Indeed, it is often forgotten that in Being and Nothingness(1943), the human being is not simply referred to as a being-for-itself(ltre-pour-soi), but also and more importantly, as a being-for-others
1 While it is often asserted that Beauvoirs work is a mere application of Sartresphilosophy to ethical issues, primarily gender, recent research shows that her ideaof the Other is original. It predates Sartres magnum opus, Being and nothingness,and has even heavily influenced him in his search for an existentialist ethics and histransition into what I call the latter Sartre (the mature, Marxist-friendly Sartrewho penned the Critique of dialectical reason). See in particular Simons (1986).Later in this paper, I will elaborate on the little-known and understated claim thatSartres idea of the Other reflects Beauvoirs influence rather than vice versa.
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(ltre-pour-lautrui). I argued that since an authentic person can neverbe isolated, the regard of other people tends to fix ones possibilities.
My friend countered that one could always choose how to respondto the look of the Other. In other words, one is free to transcend otherpeoples perceptions, to simply refuse their definition of oneself. While
I was thinking about how to respond to this notion, which I badlywanted to say was typically masculine, he added that he was morequalified than I to settle the question of how free we are. He said thiswith the good-natured condescension of a man about twenty years myseniorwho had taken the leap of faith into the unknown abyss ofmarriage, raised three children, and perhaps only recently starteddealing with a classic case of midlife crisis.
That long-ago friendly disagreement comes to mind now as I goback to the issue of freedom and the self-other relation in Sartresthought, especially in light of gender. It has since occurred to me thatthe fact that my friend is male and I female may have contributed to
our differences in opinion, at least to some extent.2
Perhaps theinfluence of gender has led him to read Sartres philosophy as highlyindividualistic, while the same text struck me as a treatise not only onindividual freedom but also on the problem of others existence. AsBeauvoir rightly observes in The ethics of ambiguity(1948), these twoopposing concernsthe freedom of the individual on one hand and thelimiting presence of othersare fundamental to the ambiguity of thehuman condition. While Sartre regards these two as diametricallyopposed, Beauvoir attempts to reconcile them.
As Ive learned from years of feminist scholarship, this perennialand hierarchical dualism in philosophical texts is inevitable, wherein
the privileged part tends to be identified with the masculine and thedenigrated part with the feminine. One such dualism prominent inBeing and nothingness is between freedom and necessity. While2 This is not to say though that gender determines the nature of men and women,
or that there are essential ways of thinking that may be labeled as either male orfemale. Feminists were the first to distinguish between what is culturallyconstructed (gender) and what is biological (sex). (In fact, even sex is already beingcontested as an unstable category.) My own view is that while our attitudes may bedeeply influenced by our cultural milieu, they are not completely determined by it.We are free, to some degree, to respond to the givens of our gendered situation,and thereby to make authentic choices. What distinguishes a feminist from a non-feminist account of male and female capabilities is the extent to which the theory
acknowledges that genderwhile it is a given part of the human conditionissocially constructed and flexible. However, asserting that gender is flexible isdifferent from saying that it is completely irrelevant. Granted, thinking of gender interms of the biological determinacy of sex is contrary to the project of liberatingboth women and men from their established roles in patriarchy. But the otherextremeignoring the influence of gender altogetheris equally pernicious. It istantamount to rejecting the original modern feminist insight, pioneered byBeauvoir, that gender has something to do with otherness or the situation of beingothered. Beauvoirs point is that while the Other is woman, individual women maytranscend this socio-culturally-imposed label.
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Sartre does not directly address the relations between the sexes,focusing rather on the relations between consciousnesses, thefreedom-necessity dualism is nonetheless gendered. The reason lieswith the social construction of male and female roles: Men areencouraged to be independent and to pursue their livelihood and
interests outside the home (freedom), while women are taught to relyon others and to care for the family (necessity). Although masculinityand femininity are set up as complementary in patriarchal culture,freedom is traditionally valued over necessity.
For instance, the message of Being and nothingness is ofteninterpreted as one of absolute freedom. On the other hand, itspessimistic assessment of our relations with others is shrugged off asthe necessary consequence of our absolute freedom. That hell is otherpeople is seen as the unavoidable consequence of coexisting with rivalconsciousnesses. Similarly, Sartres dramatic pronouncement that loveis doomed to fail is generally received with cynical agreement or
resignation. It is not usually taken as an invitation to explore theimpracticability of love as a serious philosophical problem. Among theexistentialists in Sartres circle, it took Beauvoir, a woman, to addressand resolve the problem of the Other satisfactorily, constructing acoherent ethics out of it.
In this paper, I explore Sartre and Beauvoirs unique views aboutthe self-other relation, in particular with regard to the idea of love. Inotice that despite a few contemporary books and anthologies on thetopicprimarily those by Solomon and Higgins (1991), Solomon(1988), and Singer (1987)love has not been sufficiently explored inphilosophy. It is generally not perceived as an important issue; or at
least, this is what a cursory review of available materials and coursesyllabi tells me. Could it be that the mere mention of anything to dowith love is perceived as cloyingly feminine, and hence un-philosophical? As hooks (2002: 77) asserts, In the patriarchal maleimagination, the subject of love was relegated to the realm of the weakand replaced by narratives of power and domination.
In any case, whether one believes that gender is relevant to thediscourse of love or that love is ultimately beyond gender, the topicremains a fundamental part of the existentialist quest for the meaningof the human experience.
Adopting Sartres phraseology, the central question of this paper is,
as the title goes, Is love doomed to fail? I compare and contrast theanswers of Sartre (yes) and Beauvoir (no) as found in their mostnotable works, the specific titles of which will be mentioned shortly.This paper is by no means exhaustive, since the two philosophers wereprolific writers and a full-fledged analysis of the self-other relation in allof their published works is beyond my scope.
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The body of the paper is composed of four main sections. In the firstsection, I discuss Sartres ideas regarding love and the self-otherrelation, as revealed in the Being and nothingness and No exit(1945).
In the second section, I take pains to elaborate on the true nature ofSartre and Beauvoirs philosophical relationship. My goal here is to get
rid of a number of persistent gender-related clichs, which hinder aproper understanding of the extent of Beauvoirs contribution toexistentialism. In this section I also trace Sartre and Beauvoirs self-other relation back to Hegels analysis of the master-slave stage in thedevelopment of consciousness.
In the third section, I discuss Beauvoirs ideas regarding love andthe self-other relation, as revealed in The ethics of ambiguityand Thesecond sex(1949).
Finally, in the fourth section, I evaluate Sartre and Beauvoirs viewsbased on the following questions: (1) What are the central elements of(romantic) love?, (2) How is love related to the self?, and (3) What are
the implications of love for human freedom? Here I directly addressthe main problem of whether love is doomed to fail. I restate it as,Which between the two different accounts of loveconflict orreciprocityis a more ac