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INVESTIGATION OF THE IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF · PDF file liquids (scalds), hot solids (contact burns) or flames (flame burns) [1]. According to statistics compiled by WHO

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  • INVESTIGATION OF THE IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS (ROSEMARY) ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST MICROORGANISMS IN

    BURN WOUND INFECTIONS

    BY : POOJA NEIL LUMB U29/37241/2011 B. PHARM IV

    SCHOOL OF PHARMACY

    SUPERVISOR: DR. B. AMUGUNE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY

    UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

    A DISSERTATION IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD

    OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF PHARMACY OF UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.

    SEPTEMBER 2015

  • DECLARATION

    Investigator I, Pooja Neil Lumb, hereby declare that this work is my original work and has not been submitted

    elsewhere for examination, award of a degree or publication. Where other people’s work or my own

    work has been used, this has properly been acknowledged and referenced in accordance with the

    University of Nairobi’s requirements.

    Signature: Date:

    Supervisor This proposal has been submitted for evaluation and examination purposes with my approval as the

    supervisor.

    Dr. B. Amugune, PhD Senior Lecturer – Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry University of Nairobi

    Signature: Date:

    ii

  • DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

    Name of Student: POOJA NEIL LUMB

    Registration Number: U29/37241/2011

    College: College Of Health Sciences

    School: School Of Pharmacy

    Course Name: Bachelor Of Pharmacy

    1. I understand what Plagiarism is and I am aware of the University’s policy in this regard.

    2. I declare that this project is my original work and has not been submitted elsewhere for

    examination, award of a degree or publication. Where other people’s work, or my own work

    has been used, this has properly been acknowledged and referenced in accordance with the

    University of Nairobi’s requirements.

    3. I have not sought or used the services of any professional agencies to produce this work.

    4. I have not allowed, and shall not allow anyone to copy my work with the intention of

    passing it off as his/her own work

    5. I understand that any false claim in respect of this work shall result in disciplinary action, in

    accordance with University Plagiarism Policy.

    Signature: Date:

    iii

  • DEDICATION

    Oh God! Thou art the Giver of Life,

    Remover of pain and sorrow,

    The Bestower of happiness,

    Oh! Creator of the Universe,

    May we receive thy supreme sin-destroying light,

    May Thou guide our intellect in the right direction.

    - A translation of the Gayatri Mantra,

    A Hindu Prayer

    I would like to dedicate this project to my parents. To my mother, who has always guided,

    supported and strengthened me, and to my Late father, whose presence I felt throughout the course

    of the project as he had planted the Rosemary bush that provided the focus of my project. Thank

    you both. I wish to make you proud parents. May God always continue to watch over us.

    iv

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    “The will to win, the desire to succeed, the urge to reach your full potential... these are the keys that

    will unlock the door to personal excellence,” - Confucius.

    This project was successful because of the support and aid of those around me.

    My heartfelt gratitude goes to my supervisor Dr. Beatrice Amugune for her invaluable guidance and

    input on the matters experimental aspects and the writing of the dissertation of this project. Her

    approachability and patience are both highly appreciated.

    Special thanks extended to Dr. Alex Okaru, lecturer of the department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    for support in carrying out the experimental procedures involved in Gas Chromatography. His

    willingness to share his time and insight is greatly valued.

    More appreciation goes to Mr. H.N. Mugo and Mr. J. Nyamatari of the department of

    Pharmaceutical Chemistry, as well as to Mr. J. Mwalukumbi and Mr. R. Ingwela, of department of

    Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Nairobi, for their assistance in laboratory work.

    To my paternal uncle Mr. R. K. Lumb, I will treasure him for not only wholeheartedly supporting

    my education but also being a father figure.

    I am indebted to my friends F. S. Gulamhussein and T. P. Patel for their vital contribution and

    encouragement.

    To my classmates, B. Pharm class of 2015, I wish to express my gratitude for their support in all my

    ventures as a student as well as being their class representative. I wish all of them success ahead.

    v

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TITLE....................................................................................................................................................i

    DECLARATION..................................................................................................................................ii

    DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY................................................................................................iii

    DEDICATION.....................................................................................................................................iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................................................v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................................................vi

    LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................................ix

    LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................................x

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................xi

    ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................................xii

    CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION................................................................................................1

    1.1 Burns..........................................................................................................................................1

    1.2 Burn wound infections...............................................................................................................1

    1.3 Micro-organisms involved.........................................................................................................2

    1.4 Plants as a source of drug products............................................................................................3

    CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW.....................................................................................4

    2.1 Rosmarinus officinalis...............................................................................................................4

    2.2 Uses of Rosemary......................................................................................................................5

    2.2.1 Traditional uses and folklore..............................................................................................5

    2.2.2 Culinary uses......................................................................................................................6

    2.2.3 Cosmetic, fragrance and industrial uses.............................................................................6

    2.3 Precautions, side effects and interactions..................................................................................7

    2.4 Previous studies done on Rosemary..........................................................................................7

    2.5 Previous studies on burns..........................................................................................................9

    2.6 Current burn wound treatment options....................................................................................10

    2.7 Traditional medicines used for burn wounds and research for alternatives.............................10

    2.8 Justification..............................................................................................................................11

    2.9 Research question....................................................................................................................11

    2.10 Hypothesis..............................................................................................................................11

    2.11 Objectives..............................................................................................................................12

    2.11.1 General objectives..........................................................................................................12

    2.11.2 Specific objectives..........................................................................................................12

    vi

  • CHAPTER THREE – EXPERIMENTAL..................................

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