Introduction to the PNS

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This presentation was delivered to 1st year pharmacy students and accompanies and accompanies Goodman & Gilman's (12e) chapter 8.

Text of Introduction to the PNS

  • 1. Peripheral Nervous SystemBrian J. Piper, Ph.D., M.S.

2. The Nervous System -------------------------------Enteric (digestive) 3. Goals Anatomy & Physiology of: Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System 4. Meninges of the Spinal CordSpinal cordVentral rootSubarachnoid Pia materspaceDorsal rootSpinal nerveArachnoid materEpidural spaceDorsal root Dura materganglionDorsal rootDorsal branchSpinal(dorsal ramus)nerveVentral branchDorsal root (ventral ramus)ganglionSpinal cordVentral rootEpiduralspaceThoracicvertebraBody ofvertebra(a) (b) 4 5. Refresher I Afferent: towards center (brain), sensory Efferent: away from center (brain), motor Ganglia: mass of cell bodies Plexus: network of neurons 6. Refresher II Nicotinic: subtype of Acetycholine receptor Jean NicotNicotiana tobaccum1530-1600 Muscarinic: subtype of Acetycholine receptor Amanita muscaria 7. Peripheral Nervous System Cranial nerves arising from the brain Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera Spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera 7 8. 12 Cranial Nerves On Old Olympic Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops Once One Openly Told Tourists About Fighting Vampires Gobling Various Antelope Herds Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final Very Good Vacations Are Heavenlyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mnemonics_for_the_cranial_nerves 9. CN I: Olfactory Connect nasal cavity to temporal cortex Substantial individual differences Forms new neurons throughout life! 10. CN II: Optic Connects retina to thalamus (lateralgeniculate nucleus) Partial decussation 11. CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) Connects cochlea to brainstem Responsible for balance & hearing 12. Somatic Nervous System Voluntary Nervous System Motor cell bodies in ventral horn Send axons to muscle Use Acetylcholine to stimulate 13. Autonomic NS: Two NeuronsACh ACh: AcetylcholineHowland & Mycek (2006). Lippincotts Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology. p. 36. 14. Autonomic Nervous System Autonomous automatic Functions: blood pressure, heart rate, sleep,bladder & bowel function Sympathetic NS: fight or flightMedulla: EpinephrineCortex: CortisolWalter Cannon Parasympathetic NS: rest & maintain 15. Automobile Analogy 16. Functional Consequences of Normal ANS Function SympatheticParasympathetic Heart RateIncreasedDecreased Blood pressureIncreasedDecreased Bowel motilityDecreasedIncreased LungBronchodilationBronchoconstriction PupilsDilation Constriction Adrenal glandsCatecholamine release- Sexual function (males) Orgasm Erection Bladder Increased sphincter tone Decreased sphincter tone Parotid gland -SalivationLow & Engstrom (2012). Disorders of the ANS. In Harrisons VII, Ch 375, p. 3352. 17. Unbalanced SympatheticParasympathetic Heart RateIncreased Bowel motilityDecreasedIncreased LungBronchodilationBronchoconstriction PupilsDilation Constriction Adrenal glandsCatecholamine release- Sexual function (males) Orgasm Erection Bladder Increased sphincter tone < Decreased sphincter tone Parotid gland -SalivationLow & Engstrom (2012). Disorders of the ANS. In Harrisons VII, Ch 375, p. 3352. 18. Sympathetic & ParasympatheticInnervation I Central componentsaccident example All at once (Sym)versus individualcomponents (PS) 19. Sympatheticversus ParasympatheticPreganlionic projection: shortlong 20. ComparisonSympathetic ParasympatheticOriginT1 to T12, L1, L2 CN III, VII, IX, X, S2, S3Target organs Diffuse LocalizedTransmitter AdrenergicMuscarinicAmplification Yes (1:20)No (1:1) 21. Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous SystemsSomatic Sympathetic ParaSymp# neurons 1 >12MyelinatedYes Pre-GangPre-GangNeuro-ACh Pre: ACh Pre: AChtransmitter Post: NE, Ep Post: AChReceptorNicotinic Pre: NicPre: NicPost: Adren Post: mus 22. Light ReadingO:15 to 3:58: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPS7GnromGo 23. ANS (Stress) & Health Top Causes of Death (2009): 1) Heart Disease 2) Cancer 3) Chronic respiratory diseases 4) Stroke 5) Accidents 6) Alzheimers 7) Diabetes 8) Influenza & pneumonia 9) Kidney disease 10) Suicidehttp://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr59/nvsr59_04.pdf