Introduction to microbiology. Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms. 09.02.2011.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>Introduction to microbiology. Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms. 09.02.2011 Slide 2 Slide 3 Course Introduction Instructor: Instructor: Dr Elena Romancenco Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology E-mail: eromancenco@yahoo.com WEBSITE: www.microbio.ukoz.com Slide 4 Course objectives List major groups of microorganisms and their habitats. List major groups of microorganisms and their habitats. Overview and history of Microbiology. Overview and history of Microbiology. Describe the system of scientific nomenclature used to name microorganisms. Describe the system of scientific nomenclature used to name microorganisms. Slide 5 Definition Microbiology (mikros bios logos small, live, study) study microorganisms and their activities. Microbiology (mikros bios logos small, live, study) study microorganisms and their activities. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms usually less than 1mm in diameter which requires some form of magnification to be seen clearly. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms usually less than 1mm in diameter which requires some form of magnification to be seen clearly. Microbiology - study the organisms that can exist as single cells, contain a nucleic acid genome for at least some part of their life cycle, and are capable of replicating that genome themselves or getting replicated with the help of host cells Microbiology - study the organisms that can exist as single cells, contain a nucleic acid genome for at least some part of their life cycle, and are capable of replicating that genome themselves or getting replicated with the help of host cells Slide 6 Branches of Microbiology Bacteriology: study of bacteria Bacteriology: study of bacteria Mycology: study of fungi Mycology: study of fungi Virology: study of viruses Virology: study of viruses Beijerinck, NE: discovered intracellular reproduction of TMV; coined the term virus (1899) Beijerinck, NE: discovered intracellular reproduction of TMV; coined the term virus (1899) Parasitology: study of protozoa and parasitic worms Parasitology: study of protozoa and parasitic worms Slide 7 Branches of Microbiology Immunology: study of immunity Immunology: study of immunity Edward Jenner, UK: developed vaccination (1798) Edward Jenner, UK: developed vaccination (1798) Metchnikoff, RU: discovered phagocytes (1884) Metchnikoff, RU: discovered phagocytes (1884) Paul Ehrlich, DE: theory of immunity (1890) Paul Ehrlich, DE: theory of immunity (1890) Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Treatment of disease by using chemical means Treatment of disease by using chemical means Antibiotics produced naturally Antibiotics produced naturally Synthetic drugs Synthetic drugs Paul Ehrlich (1878) used arsenic compounds to fight disease Paul Ehrlich (1878) used arsenic compounds to fight disease Slide 8 Branches of Microbiology Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Alexander Fleming, Scotland (1928) discovered penicillin Alexander Fleming, Scotland (1928) discovered penicillin Selman Waksman, Ukraine (1944) discovered streptomycin Selman Waksman, Ukraine (1944) discovered streptomycin Problems Problems Toxicity of drugs =&gt; Selective toxicity Toxicity of drugs =&gt; Selective toxicity Resistance of bacteria to drugs Resistance of bacteria to drugs Slide 9 Microorganisms are everywhere, but why is so important to learn about them? Affect our lives in many different ways. Slide 10 Microbes are capable of growing in a wide variety of environments. Microbes are capable of growing in a wide variety of environments. Bacteria will grow in frigid glaciers to boiling volcanic springs, dry sands to the open ocean. Bacteria will grow in frigid glaciers to boiling volcanic springs, dry sands to the open ocean. Slide 11 Slide 12 IMPORTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS Microorganisms are the oldest forms of life. Microorganisms are the oldest forms of life. Nutrient production &amp; energy flow Nutrient production &amp; energy flow Production of foods Production of foods Decomposition (bioremediation) Decomposition (bioremediation) Without certain microorganism life could not exist; produce O 2 and N 2 Without certain microorganism life could not exist; produce O 2 and N 2 Production of drugs &amp; vaccines Production of drugs &amp; vaccines Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Causing disease Causing disease Microorganisms have killed more people than have ever been killed in war. Slide 13 Why Study Medical Microbiology? The majority of serious diseases in humans (especially those of early childhood) are due to microbial infections. The majority of serious diseases in humans (especially those of early childhood) are due to microbial infections. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics and vaccines, a large proportion of children died before adulthood because of infectious disease. Prior to the discovery of antibiotics and vaccines, a large proportion of children died before adulthood because of infectious disease. Till 1900, the average life expectancy in the United States was 40 years of age. Till 1900, the average life expectancy in the United States was 40 years of age. In 2000 - 80 years, largely due to the near eradication of most serious early childhood diseases. In 2000 - 80 years, largely due to the near eradication of most serious early childhood diseases. This trend is seen in the gap between developed and developing countries in terms of causes of death (mortality). This trend is seen in the gap between developed and developing countries in terms of causes of death (mortality). Slide 14 MICROBES MICROBES includes all those living organisms that can not be viewed (seen) in any detail by the human eye. MICROBES includes all those living organisms that can not be viewed (seen) in any detail by the human eye. Alternatively, a MICROBE is any living creature that must be examined with a magnifying lens in order to see its unique physical characteristics (size, shape, motility, color). Alternatively, a MICROBE is any living creature that must be examined with a magnifying lens in order to see its unique physical characteristics (size, shape, motility, color). Slide 15 Microbes Pathogen or pathogenic - capable of producing disease. Pathogen or pathogenic - capable of producing disease. Though only a minority of microorganisms are pathogenic, practical knowledge of microbes is necessary for their treatment so is highly relevant to medicine and related health sciences. Though only a minority of microorganisms are pathogenic, practical knowledge of microbes is necessary for their treatment so is highly relevant to medicine and related health sciences.microorganismsmicrobesmicroorganismsmicrobes Normal flora [ normal microbiota ] - n ot typically- disease-causing Normal flora [ normal microbiota ] - n ot typically- disease-causing microorganisms normally found in and on healthy individuals. microorganisms normally found in and on healthy individuals. microorganisms on the skin,on the skin, in the eyes,in the eyes, in the nose,in the nose, in the mouth,in the mouth, in the upper throat,in the upper throat, in the lower urethra,in the lower urethra, in the lower intestine.in the lower intestine. Slide 16 the Bacterium Escherichia coli; a photosynthetic cyanobacterium a fungus Ebola virus the malaria parasite (a protozoan Slide 17 A, Influenza virus; A, Influenza virus; B, West Nile Virus; B, West Nile Virus; C, Staphylococcus aureus; C, Staphylococcus aureus; D, Streptococcus pneumoniae. Slide 18 Microbial morphology Microbial morphology Microbial cytology Microbial cytology Microbial physiology Microbial physiology Microbial ecology Microbial ecology Microbial genetics and molecular biology Microbial genetics and molecular biology Microbial taxonomy Microbial taxonomy Microbiologists may be interested in various characteristics or activities of microbs and may study: Slide 19 Classification of life Slide 20 For many years, living organisms were divided into two kingdoms: For many years, living organisms were divided into two kingdoms: Animalia (animal) and Animalia (animal) and Plantae (vegetable). Plantae (vegetable). Slide 21 Classification Schemes Plantae Animalia Plantae Two kingdoms Slide 22 But after 1800s, scientists realized that these two kingdoms could not adequately express the diversity of life. But after 1800s, scientists realized that these two kingdoms could not adequately express the diversity of life. Since the 1960s, the most widely used scheme - five kingdoms. Since the 1960s, the most widely used scheme - five kingdoms. five kingdoms five kingdoms Viruses are separate group of biological entities, although not organisms in the same sense as Eukaryotes, Archaea and Bacteria. Viruses are separate group of biological entities, although not organisms in the same sense as Eukaryotes, Archaea and Bacteria. Slide 23 Classification schemes, 5 kingdoms Plantae AnimaliaPlantaeProtistaMoneraFungi Domain Bacteria (Eubacteria) Domain Archaea (Archaeabacteria) Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Slide 24 Classification of Life 3 major Domains of life 3 major Domains of life Bacteria Bacteria Archaea Archaea Eukaryota (Eukarya) Eukaryota (Eukarya) The first two are Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea)- without true nucleus, while the Eukaryotes all have a true nucleus in each cell. The first two are Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea)- without true nucleus, while the Eukaryotes all have a true nucleus in each cell. The 3 Domains. Source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/alllife/images/domains_small.gif Slide 25 Slide 26 Kingdom Monera All organisms in the Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes. All organisms in the Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes.prokaryotes lack nuclei and organelles lack nuclei and organelles most of their cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (the exceptions are the archaebacteria). most of their cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (the exceptions are the archaebacteria). The archaebacteria have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan, cell membranes that utilize different lipids, and ribosomes similar to those found in eukaryotes. The archaebacteria have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan, cell membranes that utilize different lipids, and ribosomes similar to those found in eukaryotes.lipidseukaryoteslipidseukaryotes The bacteria (eubacteria-true bacteria) are characterized by how they metabolize resources, their means of motility, and their shape. The bacteria (eubacteria-true bacteria) are characterized by how they metabolize resources, their means of motility, and their shape. Most organisms in the Kingdom Monera reproduce through binary fission (asexual) or conjugation (sexual). Most organisms in the Kingdom Monera reproduce through binary fission (asexual) or conjugation (sexual). Slide 27 Bacteria Most utilize flagella for movement. Most utilize flagella for movement. Digestion is extracellular (outside the cell) and nutrients are absorbed into the cell. Digestion is extracellular (outside the cell) and nutrients are absorbed into the cell. Circulation and digestion in Kingdom Monera is accomplished through diffusion. Circulation and digestion in Kingdom Monera is accomplished through diffusion. Slide 28 Bacterial Classification by Metabolism Metabolism Morphology (shape) Morphology (shape) Staining, etc Staining, etc Slide 29 According the metabolism Autotrophs manufacture their own organic compounds. Autotrophs manufacture their own organic compounds. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by feeding on other organic substances. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by feeding on other organic substances. Saprophytes, a special kind of heterotroph, obtain energy by feeding on decaying matter. Saprophytes, a special kind of heterotroph, obtain energy by feeding on decaying matter. Slide 30 According the symbiotic relationships with other organisms: In parasitism, harm is caused to the host. In parasitism, harm is caused to the host. In commensalism, one organism benefits while the other is unaffected. In commensalism, one organism benefits while the other is unaffected. In mutualism, both organisms benefit. In mutualism, both organisms benefit. Slide 31 According the respiration: In obligate aerobes, the prokaryotes must have oxygen to live. In obligate aerobes, the prokaryotes must have oxygen to live. In obligate anaerobes, the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. In obligate anaerobes, the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. And in facultative anaerobes they can survive with or without oxygen. And in facultative anaerobes they can survive with or without oxygen. Slide 32 According the shapes: cocci (spherical), cocci (spherical), bacillus (rod shaped), and bacillus (rod shaped), and spirillum (spirals). spirillum (spirals). Slide 33 Classification of bacteria CocciCocci Micrococcus Micrococcus Staphylococci Staphylococci Irregular clusters of cocciIrregular clusters of cocci Diplococci Diplococci Pairs of cocciPairs of cocci Streptococci Streptococci Chains of cocciChains of cocci Slide 34 Classification of bacteria Bacilli Bacilli Rod like Rod like Diplobacilli Diplobacilli Pairs of bacilliPairs of bacilli Streptobacilli Streptobacilli Chains of bacilliChains of bacilli Spirochetes Spirochetes SpiralSpiral Slide 35 Slide 36 Size of bacteria Unit of microbial measurement Unit of microbial measurement micrometers (um) micrometers (um) 1 um being 10-6 m or 0.000001 m(1/25,000 inch)1 um being 10-6 m or 0.000001 m(1/25,000 inch) nanometers nanometers 1 nm being 10-9 or 0.000000001 m.1 nm being 10-9 or 0.000000001 m. Pathogenic bacterial species vary from approximately 0.4 to 2 um in size Pathogenic bacterial species vary from approximately 0.4 to 2 um in size Slide 37 Slide 38 Taxonomy Taxonomy is the classification of organisms. The most common system in use today is the Five Kingdoms: Taxonomy is the classification of organisms. The most common system in use today is the Five Kingdoms: Monera (Prokaryota), Monera (Prokaryota), Monera (Prokaryota) Monera (Prokaryota) Protista, Protista, Protista Fungi, Fungi, Fungi Plantae, and Plantae, and Plantae Animalia. Animalia. Animalia Organisms in each kingdom are divided into phyla. Organisms in each kingdom are divided into phyla. In each phylum, organisms are separated into classes. In each phylum, organisms are separated into classes. In each class, organisms are segregated into orders. In each class, organisms are segregated into orders. In each order, organisms are divided into families. In each order, organisms are divided into families. In each family, organisms are separated by genus. In each family, organisms are separated by genus. And finally, in each genus organisms are divided into species. And finally, in each genus organisms are divided into species. Just remember that King Philip Can Order For Genial Students. Just remember that King Philip Can Order For Genial Students. Slide 39 Naming micoorganisms Binomial (scien...</p>

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