INTRODUCTION TO MALAYSIAN SOCIETY. 1.1 The Early History Of Malaysia Ancient (kuno) history - Paleolithic - Mesolithic - Neolithic - Metal Age

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  • INTRODUCTION TO MALAYSIAN SOCIETY
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  • 1.1 The Early History Of Malaysia Ancient (kuno) history - Paleolithic - Mesolithic - Neolithic - Metal Age
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  • Paleolithic The characteristics: - Exist 35,000 years ago - Lived in caves - Main activity- collecting product & hunting - Started using stone tools - The tools simple & crude - Area- Tampan Estuary, Badak cave (Perak), Niah Cave(sarawak) & Tingkayu (sabah).
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  • Mesolithic The characteristics: - Exist 11,000 years ago - Live in caves, along rivers & lake - Started farming - Used more refined stone tools - Able to make earthenware - Area- Cha cave (Kelantan), Kecil cave (Pahang), Kepah Cave (Kedah), Jenderam Hilir (Selangor)
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  • Neolithic The characteristic: - Exist 5,000 years ago - Used more sophisticated stone tools. - Started rearing livestock - Started communicating with communities in other places - Started creating object and using accessories - Area- Cha cave(Kelantan), Madai cave(Sabah), Gamantang cave(Sabah), Tengkorak cave(sarawak)..etc
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  • Metal Age The characteristic: - Exist 2,500 years ago - Population grew - Developed residential - Areas in wide open land near rivers - More orderly & sedentary lifestyle - Practices social customs - Area- Lang River(Selangor), Muar river(Johor), - Tembeling River(Pahang), Terengganu River (Trgnu)
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  • 1.2 Protohistory Age Arise on early kingdoms in the Malay Archipelago It proves by founding of archaeological evidence & some record from Yunan, Arab, Persians, China & India.
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  • What is Malay Archipelago??? Largest group of islands in the world located off the southeastern coast of Asia between the Indian and Pacific oceans It consists of the more than 13,000 islands of Indonesia and some 7,000 islands of the Philippines IndonesiaPhilippines Principal islands include the Greater Sunda Islands (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes), the Lesser Sundas, the Moluccas, New Guinea, Luzon, Mindanao, and the Visayan Islands.Sunda IslandsSumatraJavaBorneoCelebesMoluccasNew GuineaLuzon MindanaoVisayan Islands
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  • Malay kingdoms in Malay Archipelago Funan- located in Kampuchea, influence by Old Kedah religion. E.g. Pengkalan Bujang Old Kedah- monarchy system, strategic location, important entreport, influence by Hinduism & Buddhism. Gangga Negara port & trade centre Langkasuka, Patani- trade centre, influence by Hinduism & Buddhism
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  • contd Chih-tu, Kelantan- influence by Buddhism, strong relationship with China Srivijaya, Sumatera- well-known trade centre, strong relationship with China & India, centre of Buddhism & Sanskrit language, own several vassal States. Majapahit, Jawa- Owned several vassal states, trade centre, strong relationship with China, India & the Middle East.
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  • Majapahit.. Is the strongest kingdom in 13 century..but.. Its GOLDEN ERA ends after the existence of the Malay Kingdom of Malacca.
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  • THE MALAY KINGDOM OF MALACCA
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  • The GOLDEN AGE of Malacca. Known as The Venice of The East Spread of Islam Vast territory Strong trade relations with China & India Empire of advance civilization
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  • PROSPERITY OF MALACCA EMPIRE Geographic- strategic location midway the trade routes between China & India, its port hidden from south-west & north-west monsoon wind, natural deep port. Economy- centre of maritime, rich with natural resources, cheap price, low & orderly tax collection, lots of facilities Political Administration- centre of the spread of Islam, diplomatic ties with China, efficient administrative system, Malay is lingua franca, strong military
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  • Develop The Early Integration.. Existence of plural society Existence of plurality society Plurality in nature.. British Colonization - Existence of concept Pecah Perintah (separation between county & religion) -
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  • Effects of Colonization British Colonization - Existence of concept Pecah Perintah (separation between country & religion) - Separation of Power ( judiciary, executive & legislative) - Education 3M
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  • Fall of the Malacca Empire Factors decline of Malacca Empire internalexternal
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  • Internal Sultan Mahmud Syah was a weak ruler Weak administration & lack of efficient leader Fight between Malays and Indian- Muslims. Merchant activities decreased Sea people do not help Malacca against Portuguese
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  • External Discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in south Africa Bad attitude from outsiders Malacca was taken by Portuguese Internal conflicts
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  • MULTIRACIAL SOCIETY Ethnic Composition of the Malaysian Population - Chinese and Indian immigrants came to Malaya after the development of the tin ore industry in 1848. - Chinese comprised merchants who settled in Malacca, Kuala Terengganu and the estuary of the Johor and Pahang rivers, while Indians were labourers in sugar cane and coffee plantations in Penang Island and Province Wellesley.
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  • Ethnic Composition of the Malaysian Population (Contd) According to 1870 statistics, the total population in Malaya was less than half a million In 1921, the figure increase to 3.3 million. In 1931, the total population of non-Malays exceeded the total population of Malays; Malays was 44.7%, non-Malays were 53.2% where 39.0% was Chinese. By the time independence, Malays was 49.8%, Chinese was 37.2%, and Indians was 11.3% and others, 1.8%.
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  • Main inhabitants of Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia Malay Banjar Boyan Bugis Jawa Kampar Kerinci Mendaling Minangkabau Rawa Johor-Riau Chinese Hokkien Chuan-Chew Chin-Chew Eng-Hua Eng-Choon Hok-Chew Kwantung Kanton Teochew Hakka Hailam
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  • Main inhabitants of Malaysia (contd) Indian Malayali Punjabi Ceylonese Tamil Telegu Indigenous Negrito Senoi Melayu Asli (each of the stocks consists of a tribal community)
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  • Sabah & Sarawak Sabah Bajau Dusun Murut Bisaya Kadayun Orang Sungai Orang Laut Brunei Sarawak Bidayuh Bisaya Iban Kayan Kedayan Kelabit Kenyah Melanau Malays Murut Penan Punan
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  • The Malays History of the Malays in Malaya Most of the Malay people in Peninsular Malaya today were the descendants of people who originated from the Indonesian Archipelago.
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  • The factors of the Indonesian migration to Malaya.
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  • After the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the area was divided into Indonesia and Malaysia
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  • Javanese The great migration resulting from the Dutch transmigration policy, that is, the moving of people from the Island of Jawa. The majority of them consisted of coffee and rubber plantation workers and labourers in newly opened land. It was estimated that i1930, there were 170,000 Jawa people in Singapore. In Malaya, most of the Jawa people were concentrated in Johor (Muar, Batu Pahat and Pontian), Selangor (Kelang, Kuala Selangor, Kuala Langat) and Perak (Hilir Perak, Krian, Parit Buntar)
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  • Banjar The Banjar people originated from the district of Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Most of them were involved in paddy planting In 1931, the Banjar population in Malaya totalled 45,382 people Most Banjar people lived along the coast and in river valleys such as Kerian, Parit Buntar (Perak), Sabak Bernam (Selangor) and Batu Pahat (Johor)
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  • Bugis The Bugis people originated from the Sulawesi Islands They were the business groups and in Malaya, many of them lived in Perak, Selangor, Pahang, and Johor In Johor, the Bugis people were mostly found in the Benut, Kukup and Rengit (Batu Pahat district) areas, while in Selangor, they were mostly found in the Langat Valley, In Perak, the Bugis people were mainly merchants.
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  • Boyanese The Boyan people originated from Boyan Island The majority of them migrated to Singapore, Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru and Penang Island. They concentrated in cities because they were experts in horse-rearing.
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  • Minangkabau The Minangkabau people originated from Sumatra In Malaya, they were found mainly in Negeri Sembilan and Malacca, where they were known as followers of Adat Perpatih. They were mostly involved in business and agriculture.
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  • Economy Malays were the poorest compared to Chinese and Indians. Many of the Malays were involved in the agricultural and traditional industries sectors that were said to have low productivity. Most Malays live in the rural areas where the standard of living is low. Malays are not exposed to similar opportunities as other communities living in urban areas. The British policies had ultimately left the Malays in the rural areas and involved in traditional economic activities. The British denied the Malays an involvement in modern economic activities largely participated by the non-Malays.
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  • Politics Malays were strong in the political sense but weak economically. Malay and pro-Malay parties always have the most el