Introduction to linguistics: A Quick Review

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  • 2. Essential Questions What is language? What are its properties? How did it/does it evolve? How does language serve as a medium of communication? How does language serve as a medium of thinking? What is common to all languages? How do languages differ?
  • 3. Properties of Language Arbitrariness: theres no natural connection between a linguistic form and its meaning Discreteness: sounds are meaningfully distinct Productivity: infinite number of possible utterances Displacement: allows users to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment Duality: language is organized at two levels or layers simultaneously CulturalTransmission: language is passed on from one generation to the next
  • 4. Sub-fields of structure-focused linguistics include: Phonetics study of the physical properties of speech production and perception Phonology description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language; deals with the abstract representation of sounds Morphology study of internal structures of words and how they can be modified Syntax study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences
  • 5. Sub-fields Semantics study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences Pragmatics study of how utterances are used in communicative acts and the role played by context and non-linguistic knowledge in the transmission of meaning; study of speaker-intended meanings Discourse analysis analysis of language use in texts (spoken, written, or signed)
  • 7. Key Concepts in PHONETICS Phonetic Description of Consonants Aspects in Describing Consonants: -Voicing Aspect [voiced/ voiceless] - Place of Articulation [bilabial, velar, alveolar] - Manner of Articulation [stop, fricative, nasal] Phonetic Description ofVowels The 12-vowel-sound system of English International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Universal system of symbols
  • 8. Phonetic Description of Consonant s 1.Which of the following is an accurate phonetic description of the phoneme / k /? a. Voiceless velar stop b. Voiced alveolar stop c. Voiced velar stop d. Voiceless alveolar stop e. None of the above ANSWER: a.Voiceless velar stop
  • 9. Phonetic Description of Consonant s 2.Which of the following is a BILABIAL NASAL? a. [ n ] b. [ b ] c. [ p ] d. [ m ] e. [ f ] ANSWER: d. [ m ]
  • 10. Phonetic Description ofVowels 3.Which of the following is phonetically described as high front tense unrounded vowel? a. [ i ] b. [ u ] c. [ ] d. [ e ] e. None of the above ANSWER: a. [ i ]
  • 11. Phonetic Description ofVowels 4.Which of the following is the accurate phonetic description of the sound [ e ], as in bake [beIk]? a. Mid back lax round vowel b. Mid front tense unrounded vowel c. High front lax unrounded vowel d. Low front tense unrounded vowel e. None of the above ANSWER: b. Mid front tense unrounded
  • 12. Phonetic Description ofVowels Jaw height [ high, mid, low ] Tongue position [ front, central, back ] Lip shape [ rounded, unrounded ] tension Mid back lax round vowel / a / as in law Mid front tense unrounded vowel / a / as in bake High front lax unrounded vowel / I / as in sick Low front tense unrounded vowel / a / as in cat
  • 13. Key Concepts in PHONOLOGY Phonemes smallest unit of sound / b / Phones version of a sound-type produced in actual speech [ b ] Allophones versions of one phoneme [aspirated, flapped, dental] Minimal pairs bat-vat; wet-wit... Syllables and clusters Onset - the beginning consonant of a syllable Nucleus the vowel in the syllable Coda the terminal consonant following the nucleus
  • 14. Questions in Phonology 5.Which of the following is NOT a minimal pair? a. caught cut b. weight wait c. feat fit d. bet bit e. phase vase ANSWER: b. weight wait homophones are not minimal pairs; they are phonetically identical
  • 15. Questions in Phonology 6.Which of the following syllables have an onset and a nucleus, but no coda? a. bash b. floor c. beg d. tree e. Ouch ANSWER: d. tree
  • 16. Key Concepts in MORPHOLOGY Morpheme free and bound, inflection, derivation Word-formation processes -Coinage -Blending -Borrowing -Clipping -Compounding -Backformation, hypocorism -Conversion -Derivation
  • 17. Word-formation Processes Coinage: xerox, teflon, kleenex, zipper, fingerboarding Borrowing: croissant, piano, pretzel, robot, yogurt.. Compounding: textbook, sunburn, wallpaper Conversion: verb-to-noun, phrasal verb-to-noun Blending: smog, infomercial,Spanglish, modem Clipping: fax, condo, cab, bra, fan, perm Backformation: donation-donate, emotion-emote, liaison-liaise *hypocorism: preggy, telly, brekkie, Aussie, hankie Derivation: mis + re + present = misrepresent
  • 18. Questions in Morphology 7.Which of the following words contains an INFLECTIONAL morpheme? a. useless pursuit b. loudest noise c. wise decision d. great teacher e. None of the above ANSWER: b. loudest noise (1superlative inflection) Inflectional Morphemes: 2ownership (s), 3plurality (+s/es), 4present tense, 5past tense, 6progressive form, 7past participle form (-s, -ed,-ing, -en), 8comparative degree
  • 19. Questions in Morphology 8. In which of the following examples does the vowel / a / function as a BOUND morpheme? a. ASAP b. amoral c. a man d. about e. ago ANSWER: b. amoral / a / in amoral functions as a prefix, or a bound morpheme
  • 20. Questions in Morphology 9.The following words are products of a word-formation process called blending, EXCEPT--- a. Telecast b. Phone c. Brunch d. Motel e. Simulcast ANSWER: b. phone clipping (telephone)
  • 21. Questions in Morphology 10. What word-formation process yielded the word wannabe, as in Shes a wannabe actress? a. Backformation b. Blending c. Coinage d. Compounding e. Conversion ANSWER: e. Conversion want to be (verb phrase-to-adjective)
  • 22. Key Concepts in Semantics Semantic Roles experiencer, location, source, goal, theme Lexical Relations synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy (inclusive meaning rose flower, poodle dog, carrot vegetable)
  • 23. SEMANTIC ROLES Mary saw a mosquito on the wall. She EXPERIENCER THEME LOCATION AGENT borrowed a magazine from George and she THEME SOURCE AGENT hit the bug with the magazine. THEME INSTRUMENT
  • 24. Questions in Semantics 11.What is the semantic role of the underlined word in this sentence: The students heard a mysterious noise from the adjacent room. a. Agent b. Theme c. Source d. Experiencer e. Location ANSWER: d. Experiencer
  • 25. Questions in Semantics 12.Which of the following are NON-GRADABLE synonyms? a. ultimate final b. swift quick c. common ubiquitous d. typical conventional e. fatal deadly ANSWER: a. ultimate final (we cant say more final, most final)
  • 26. Key Concepts in Pragmatics Deixis are words that point (deictic expressions: here, there, this, that, etc.) Referent the noun being referred to Anaphora any subsequent pronoun Example: I wanted that job so much, but it went to DEIXIS REFERENT ANAPHORA my former classmate who has better qualifications. REFERENT ANAPHORA
  • 27. Questions in Pragmatics 13. Which word in the following sentence is a DEICTIC EXPRESSION? Their parents used to live in that old colonial house before the war broke in 1942. a. Their b. Before c. That d. Live e. None of the above ANSWER: c.That
  • 28. Key Concepts in Discourse Analysis Types of text/ text genres Style and register Coherence and cohesion -cohesive/ transitional devices