Introduction to Human-Centered Design: Conceptual Design and Prototyping. EPICS High School Workshop Tuesday, July 12, 2011 William Oakes and Carla Zoltowski. Creativity and Brainstorming. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Introduction to Human-Centered Design: Conceptual Design and PrototypingEPICS High School WorkshopTuesday, July 12, 2011William Oakes and Carla ZoltowskiCreativity and BrainstormingCreativity is a divergent thinking skill in which we postpone judgment and try to see a situation from as many different perspectives as possible.Brainstorming is a term used for the creative generation of many ideas.
Why Do It?Creativity and brainstorming can be applied in many situations. Certainly important at the beginning of the design process, it can also be applied to any form of problem solving. It is particularly helpful in getting unstuck when your problem solving bogs down. It is also applied in trouble-shooting and failure analysis to develop the possible hypotheses that will make up your differential diagnosis.
Expanding the Design SpaceBrainstormingBrainstorming can be done individually or as a teamTeam brainstorming = Taking advantage of the contributions of the teamSum is greater than the individualsTheory is to stimulate our brains to use our whole brain to expand the options to include the best solutionBrainstorming rulesExplain the entire procedure to the teamChoose one facilitator Records ideas and participates in the generation of ideas. Record ideas that are easily visible to the whole team. Rotate around the group with each person getting to add one idea per rotation. Let members say passMove quickly.NO value judgments. Write ALL ideas down Facilitator treats ALL ideas the sameContinue until the entire team is passingBrainstorming 6-3-5Group of 6 peopleEach person writes down 3 ideasPass to right, next person adds to paper for 5 minutes..Ideas can be new, extend, or modify original ideasNo verbal communication during activity
Brainstorming 6-3-5 PracticeGet in groups of 6; select one project from your groupEach person writes down 3 ideasPass to right, next person adds to paper for 5 minutes..Ideas can be new, extend, or modify original ideasNo verbal communication during activity
Each groupHow many different ideas did your group come up with?
Did you start running out of new ideas?TriggersTriggers are specific tools to actively bump your brain out of its ruts. They are designed to get you thinking from a different perspective. Many triggers are available (crazy, creative people are always thinking up more), and some are listed below.Others Shoes Reconsider the problem from the perspective of a plumber, civil engineer, physician, child, attorney, basketball player, etc. You can keep this close to your personal comfort level by picking roles you know something about, like plumber perhaps, and then expand to more fanciful ones, like princess.Nature How does nature deal with this issue, or how would you do it if you were Mother Nature?Opposite How would you solve the opposite problem (from cut down a tree to grow a tree)? Or, consider the opposite of some of your ideas (from cut with a saw to join with hot glue).Random Use random words, pictures, movie titles, professor names to generate more ideas.
More TriggersAnalogy Consider what has similar function but different appearance (automatic clothes washer to washboard), what has similar appearance but different function (washboard to cheese grater), or what has a similar name and different use (bottle cap to baseball cap)? Craziest Idea take the craziest idea and try use the kernel to get to a practical solution (Cut down a tree with scissors to cut with large hydraulic shears).Boundaries/Constraints Remove, adjust, or explore the boundaries of the problem. (If the problem is a better way to wash clothes, what about recycling the old shirt into a new shirt instead of washing? Does it have to be wash or can it be clean or deodorize?)Anthropomorphize Consider yourself to be the piece of equipment or process. Or consider yourself a molecule flowing through the system. (For Why is this part failing? think- Am I getting hot anywhere, where do I feel the stress?)Combine Take different ideas and see what happens if you add them together, or combine them in some other way (Problem: wash clothes combine spray with a hose and pound on a rock to spray with wet rocks)Other Brainstorm your own trigger or find a trigger in a reference.
Brainstorming - SCAMPERSubstitute can you use a different method, device, or material or changed the environment?Combine can you combine ideas together to produce a better idea?Adapt what ideas are similar that could be emulated or adapted to fit the current need?Modify, Minify, Magnify can you change the current idea, make it smaller or larger in some way?Put to other uses can you use the idea in a new way?Eliminate are there any ideas that have been shown to not work?Reverse, Rearrange would an opposing idea give you additional information, or can you interchange the key elements of the idea to form a new one?
Looking at natureInnovative vehicle designs often are based on what we think of for a vehicleHow many animals have you ever seen that move with wheels?
Whack Pack appExplorerRole for discovering resources youll use to create new ideasArtistRole for transforming your resources into new ideasJudgeRole for evaluating an idea and deciding what to do with itWarriorRole for implementing your ideaHeraclitusInsightsPractice with TriggersOthers ShoesNatureOppositeRandomAnalogyCraziest Idea Boundaries/Constraints AnthropomorphizeCombine
Each groupWere using the triggers helpful in generating more ideas?