Introduction to Canon Law Introduction to Canon Law (Kyrkans struktur och ordning grundkurs i kanonisk rätt) grundkurs i kanonisk rätt)

Introduction to Canon LawIntroduction to Canon Law · Introduction to Canon LawIntroduction to Canon Law ... („Act“) of rules claim English law right Latin lex ius Italian legge

Embed Size (px)

Citation preview

Introduction to Canon LawIntroduction to Canon Law

(Kyrkans struktur och ordning –grundkurs i kanonisk rätt)grundkurs i kanonisk rätt)

Law ?Law ?

canon law (angl.)

written legal system juridicaldocument

(„Act“)of rules claim

(„Act )

English law rightLatin lex iusLatin lex iusItalian legge dirittoItalian legge dirittoFrench loi droitSpanish ley derechoG G t R htGerman Gesetz RechtSwedish lag rätt rätt /Swedish lag rätt rätt /


Canon Law Civil Law with regard gto religious affairs

laws giventreaties between l ilaws given

unilaterally between Church

laws given unilaterally

by the church

& State


yby civil

authoritieschurch (concor-dats)


lcanon law

divine law(ius divinum)

merely ecclesiastical law(ius mere ecclesiasticum)(ius divinum) (ius mere ecclesiasticum)



custom (written) lawlaw positive


creation revelation community of legislatorcreation revelation community of the faithful


Academic degrees in the Church

1st cycle in theology(≥ 5 years)

2nd cycle in theology

3rd cycle in theology(≥ 5 years)

→ Baccalaureate in theology (STB)

theology(2 years)→ Licentiate in


→ Doctorate in gy ( )Theology (STL) Theology (STD)

1st cycle in canon2nd cycle in 3rd cycle in

1st cycle in canon law(2 years)

canon law(3 years)

Li ti t i

canon law

D t t i(2 years) → Licentiate in Canon Law(JCL)

→ Doctorate in Canon Law(JCD)(JCL) (JCD)

academic degreein civil law

Canon Law F ltiFaculties

and Institutesa d st tutes

Current Canon Law Periodicals• L'Année Canonique • Kanon• Anuario Argentino de Derecho

Canónico• Apollinaris

• Kirche und Recht• Monitor Ecclesiasticus• Le Nouvel Agenda canonique• Apollinaris

• Archiv für katholisches Kirchenrecht • Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law

• Le Nouvel Agenda canonique• Österreichisches Archiv für Recht

und Religion• Les Cahiers du droit ecclésial• Canon Law Abstracts• Canonical Studies

g• Periodica de re canonica• Philippine Canonical Forum• Prawo Kanoniczne• Canonical Studies

• Commentarium pro Religiosis et Missionariis

• Prawo Kanoniczne• Quaderni dello Studio Rotale• Quaderni di diritto ecclesiale

• De processibus matrimonialibus• Direito e Pastoral• Il Diritto Ecclesiastico

• Revista Española de Derecho Canónico

• Revista Mexicana de Der Can• Il Diritto Ecclesiastico• Folia canonica• Forum

• Revista Mexicana de Der. Can.• Revue de Droit Canonique• Roczniki Teologiczno-Kanoniczne

• Forum Iuridicum• Ius Ecclesiae• Ius Canonicum

g• Studia Canonica• Studies in Church Law• Tribunál• Ius Canonicum

• Ius matrimoniale• The Jurist

• Tribunál • Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für

Rechtsgeschichte, Kan. Abteilung

Literary forms in canon law documents (e. g., in the CIC)

canonical norms

with regard to on the juridical with regard to gactions status of persons,

groups, other norms (in order to explain

institutions them, restrict them, refer to

th )comman-ding or

recom-mending them)ding or


other literary forms

with sanction

without sanction moral norms dogmaticsanction sanction moral norms dogmatic


Norms which bind human behavior

norms coming from God norms made by men

through through merely civil lawgcreation= moral

grevelation= divine



civil law

moral norms

divine positive




for man‘s social existence =

other moral norms (for interior behavior forexistence =

natural lawinterior behavior, for

behavior towards God and towards oneself)

Canonical instruments which can restrict the binding force of legal norms

instruments in instruments in

force of legal norms

instruments in the hands of

instruments in the hands of

church authorities

those for whom laws are made

complete loss of right ofnon-reception

complete loss of binding force

right of remonstration custom contrary

to the lawto the law

exemption in individual cases


epiky(epie∂keia)individual cases dispensation (epie∂keia)

Periods in the History of Canon Lawy

1 Canon Law before Gratian ( ius vetus“) until 11401. Canon Law before Gratian („ius vetus ) until 1140

2 Canon Law from Gratian to the 1140-15632. Canon Law from Gratian to the Council of Trent („ius novum“)

1140 1563

3 post-Tridentine Canon Law 1563-19173. post-Tridentine Canon Law 1563-1917

4 C L i th difi ti i 19174. Canon Law since the codification since 1917

Disciplinary documents of thep ypost-apostolic and early Church

– Didache („Teaching of the 12 Apostles“)Didache („Teaching of the 12 Apostles ) (1st century)

– Traditio Apostolica (3rd c.),Didaskalie (3rd c Syria)– Didaskalie (3rd c., Syria)

– Apostolic Constitutions (3rd c.)p ( )

Collections of Canonsbefore the Decretum Gratiani (ca 1142)before the Decretum Gratiani (ca. 1142)

• Syntagma Canonum Antiochenumy g• Prisca = Itala (5th c.)

V i Hi (5th )• Versio Hispana (5th c.)• Collectio Dionysiana (ca 500)Collectio Dionysiana (ca. 500)• Collectio Dionysio-Hadriana (802)• Collectio Hispana (= Isidoriana), 6th c.• Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (ca 850)• Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (ca. 850)

containing fictitious decrees• Nomokanones (Eastern Roman Empire)• Capitularies (France)• Capitularies (France)• Penance Books (Ireland, Scotland)

Collections of Canonsbefore the Decretum Gratiani (ca 1142)before the Decretum Gratiani (ca. 1142)

i th 9th t t ti ll ti• since the 9th century systematic collections:– Collectio Anselmo dedicata (9th c Italy)– Collectio Anselmo dedicata (9th c. Italy)– Libri duo de synodalibus causis (ca. 906, by y ( y

Regino of Prüm)D t b B h d f W ( 1020)– Decretum by Burchard of Worms (ca. 1020)

– three collections of Ivo of Chartres (ca 1095):three collections of Ivo of Chartres (ca. 1095): Collectio Tripartita, Decretum and Panormia

The Corpus Iuris Canonici1 D t G ti i“ i t G ti1. ca.

1140„Decretum Gratiani“(= „Concordia discordantiumcanonum“)

private Gratian

canonum )

2 1234 Liber Extra“ official Raymond of2. 1234 „Liber Extra(= Decretals of Gregory IX“)

official Raymond of PeñafortOPOP

3. 1298 „Liber Sextus“ official

4 1314 Clementines“ (Clemens V) official4. 1314 „Clementines (Clemens V) official

5. 1500to

two collections of Extravagantes“:


„Extravagantes :the „Extravagantes of John XXII“ and the „ExtravagantesXXII and the „Extravagantescommunes“

From the „Introduction“ to the CIC of 1983:Subsequent laws especially those enacted bySubsequent laws, especially those enacted by the Council of Trent during the time of the Catholic Reformation and those issued later by various dicasteries of the Roman Curia, werevarious dicasteries of the Roman Curia, were never digested into one collection. This was the

h d i th f ti l i l tireason why during the course of time legislation outside the Corpus Iuris Canonici constituted “an pimmense pile of laws piled on top of other laws.” The lack of a systematic arrangement of the lawsThe lack of a systematic arrangement of the laws and the lack of legal certainty along with the g y gobsolescence of and lacunae in many laws led to a situation where church discipline wasa situation where church discipline was increasingly imperiled and jeopardized.

Guiding principles for the reform of the CIC(approved 1967)(approved 1967)

1. juridic character of the new codej2. coordination between the forum internum and forum externum3 not only justice but also charity temperance moderation3. not only justice, but also charity, temperance, moderation,

equity4 bishops may have ordinary faculties to dispense4. bishops may have ordinary faculties to dispense5. principle of subsidiarity6 f f6. rights of persons defined7. protection of subjective rights; administrative procedures;

distinction between legislative, administrative, and judicicial functions

8. revision of the principle of territoriality9. less latae sententiae penaltiesp10. careful systematic arrangement

CIC Reform Commission (October 30, 1981)

Periods of the Preparation of the CIC 1983

1. 1965-1977 First drafts → eleven drafts for individual parts of theindividual parts of the Code

2 1972 1980 Reactions from Schema CIC/19802. 1972-1980 Reactions from the entire church

→ Schema CIC/1980

church3. 1980-1982 Discussions of

th R f→ Schema CIC/1982 ( S h N i i “)the Reform

Commission(„Schema Novissimum“)

4. 1982-1983 Final redaction by the pope and

→ CIC/1983by the pope and some of his advisorsadvisors

CCEO Reform Commission (November 12, 1988)