Introducing Quotations

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


Introducing Quotations. Introduce every quotation smoothly and grammatically into a statement of your own. Do not leave the quotation hanging with no introduction, and do not violate the rules of grammar to include the quotation. Is this correct? Why or why not? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Introducing Quotations

  • Introducing Quotations Introduce every quotation smoothly and grammatically into a statement of your own. Do not leave the quotation hanging with no introduction, and do not violate the rules of grammar to include the quotation.

  • Is this correct? Why or why not?Macbeth has changed. "Out, out, brief candle!" (5.5.23).

    NO transition phrase; insufficient introduction; Isolated Quote (IQ)

  • Is this correct? Why or why not?For example, Macbeth, a changed man after the death of his powerful wife, wearily exclaims, "Out, out, brief candle!" (5.5.23).

    Yes, its correct.

  • Is this correct? Why or why not?Macbeth has changed "Out, out, brief candle!" (5.5.23).

    No, its not grammatically correct Fragment

  • For example, upon hearing that his wife has died, Macbeth can only cry, "Out, out, brief candle!" (5.5.23). This shows that life now seems to him no more than a flame that quickly vanishes. For example, Macbeth now sees life as a mere "tale / Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, / Signifying nothing" (5.5.26-28). This shows that

  • Student sample:In response to the witches first statements regarding Macbeth becoming king and Banquo fathering kings, Macbeth wants to think upon what hath chanced, and at more time, the interim having weighed it , let us speak out free hearts each to other, thus leaving this prediction to chance (1.3.153-155).Whats wrong?No line breaks

  • Student sample:When Macbeth is too afraid to follow through with the murder plot orchestrated by Lady Macbeth, she responds by taunting, Wouldst thou have that / Which thou esteemst the ornament of life, / and Live a coward in thine own esteem? (1.7.41-43).NOTE: Do not overuse the word says. Vary your language.

  • What other words can you use besides says.


  • Student Sample:When Macbeth finds that Macduff has fled to England and because that poses a threat to Macbeth, he promises to seize upon Fife, give to the edge o the sword / His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls / That trace him in his line (4.1.151-153). Macbeths quick temper, and consuming paranoia finally entrap him and diminish his conscience that had once been so strong. His desire for power causes him to do whatever he feels is necessary to keep his position.

  • Shakespeares Conception of Moral Order in MacbethMacbeths Tomorrow and tomorrow soliloquy must cause him to recognize how he has undone himself and the world, how he has unmade his life, reducing it to no more thana walking shadow, a poor playerThat struts and frets his hour upon the stageAnd then is heard no more a taleTold by an idiot, full of sound and fury,Signifying nothing. (5.5.24-28)

  • What finally raises Macbeth to the level of a tragic figure is his recognition not so much of what he has done, but of what he has undone: honor, love, obedience.

  • When Macbeth expresses reluctance to proceed with the murder, Lady Macbeths response is:From this timeSuch I account thy love. Art thou afeardTo be the same in thine own act and valorAs thou art in desire? (I.7.38-41)

  • Lady Macbeth proceeds through the use of language that is implicitly sexual to taunt her husband into committing the murder, for her goal is Macbeths arousal to a state in which he will bend up / Each corporal agent to this terrible fear (1.7.80).

  • The Subversive Metaphysics of MacbethThe first report of the battle is balanced, as the sergeant compares the two armies to two spent swimmers, that to cling together / And choke their art (1.2.8-9).

  • Blended QuotationsIt is conventional to write about literature in the present tense, so you have to be careful about weaving quotations into your own text.Always write a lead-in or introduction to your quotations.In a literary analysis, the lead-in often highlights the significance of the quote you are using to support your interpretation.

  • Don't confuse the author with the narrator of a story or a character in the story. If you are quoting the words of a character, you should name the character who is speaking and provide a context for the spoken words.Don't just dump a quote into your paper without some kind of lead-in.

  • Blended quotations (grammatically incorporated in your sentence)Example 1: (from Homers Odyssey)For example, when Odysseus firstencounters Nausikaa, the narrator shows how thoughtful the hero is while "debating inwardly what he should do" (151). [Notice that you close your sentence with a period after the parenthetical citation of book and line number. If there is a period, semi-colon, or colon at the end of the quoted material, you must leave it out.]

  • Example 2 For example, when Odysseus wishes Nausikaa a happy marriage, he offers a glimpse of his ideal of marriage, which includes "a home, a husband, and harmonious / converse with him" (193-94). In addition, we know that this represents his ideal because he describes "a strong house held in serenity / where man and wife agree" (194-95).

    [Notice the use of the front slash / to separate two lines of verse in an embedded quotation.]

  • Note that the particular verb you choose helps orient your reader toward your opinion of the statement.

    "Jones says" is

    "Jones informs us" is"Jones alleges" is somewhatneutralpositive


    Are the following statements positive, negative, or neutral

  • Other verbs to choose from include:

    says argueswrites explainsobserves assertsnotes thinksremarks commentsadds statesdeclares claimsinforms us allegesaffirms

  • BracketsUse brackets to set off changes within a quotation. You may need to clarify the reference of a pronoun or add a word to fit a quotation into your sentence:For example, Polonius suspiciously warns his daughter, "Do not believe his [Hamlet's] vows" (1.3.127). For Robert Frost, the "Two roads [that] diverged in a yellow wood" are symbolic.

  • Use an ellipsis { ... } to indicate deleted sectionsDickinson says the funeral service was likea Drum / ... / My mind was going numb (6-8).

    Do not use the ellipsis at the beginning or end of the quotation.A Service, like a Drum Kept beating beating till I thought

    Example like a Drum / Kept beating beating NO

  • Student SamplesOriginal: Audens poem shows an example of how people were in despair during Hilters power Faces along the bar/Cling to their average day/The lights must never go out/The music must always play (45-48).Revised: For example, Audens poem shows how people living under Hitlers reign dealt with despair, sitting with Faces along the bar / Cling[ing] to their average day and professing that The lights must never go out/The music must always play (45-48).