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Ozone Applications in Golf Course Irrigation Water Treatment Keisuke Ikehata, PhD, PE, PEng Pacific Advanced Civil Engineering (PACE) 1 2013 World Congress & Exhibition International Ozone Association- International Ultraviolet Association September 22-26, 2013 Las Vegas, Nevada

International Ozone Association- Ozone Applications in

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Ozone Applications in Golf Course Irrigation Water Treatment

Keisuke Ikehata, PhD, PE, PEng Pacific Advanced Civil Engineering (PACE)

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2013 World Congress & Exhibition International Ozone Association- International Ultraviolet Association September 22-26, 2013 Las Vegas, Nevada

Co-authors Andrew T. Komor, Yao (Fiona) Jin,

Jacob D. Peterson, Ernesto Camarena, Nima Maleky (PACE)

2

Outline Introduction/

Background Golf Course Irrigation

Water Quality Ozone Opportunities Case Study – Hydrogen

Sulfide Removal System Upgrade

Conclusions

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Introduction – Golf Courses in the United States

15,500 golf courses in the U.S. ~ 6,500 km (as large as the

State of Delaware or ½ of LA County)

Area of a typical 18-hole golf course: 110 to 190 acres 35% is turf areas (greens,

tees, fairways)

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Introduction – Golf Course Irrigation Water Golf courses are a major water user

Irrigation of turf areas and other planted landscaping areas

Water usage at golf courses in Southern California is very high Arid to semi-arid climate More than 500 golf courses Example: 1,000 acre-feet (326 million

gallons or 1,200,000 m3) per year in the Palm Springs area (CVWD 2013) One million gallons (3,800 m3) per day

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Introduction – Golf Course Irrigation Water

6

0

5

10

15

20

25

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Mon

thly

Irrig

atio

n W

ater

Usa

ge(m

illio

n ga

llons

)

Month

South CourseNorth Course

2 to 20 million gallons per month 0.07 to 0.7 million gallons per day

Introduction – Golf Course Irrigation in Southern California Sources

Groundwater Treated or untreated imported water (Colorado

River, State Water Project) Recycled water (treated municipal wastewater)

Issues Quantity (climate change, conservation) Quality (turf health, aesthetic)

Recycled water and brackish ground water Water treatment is often recommended or

required

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Golf Course Irrigation Water Quality – Problems

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Parameters Suspended solids pH TDS, salinity Hardness, alkalinity Boron Nutrients Iron & manganese Hydrogen sulfide

Undesirable effects Reduced soil

permeability Foliar burning Plant toxicity Odor Discoloration Equipment staining

and clogging

Golf Course Irrigation Water Quality – Treatment Dissolved solids

Soil permeability, plant toxicity

Partial desalination Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O)

addition Boron

Plant toxicity RO + IX

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Golf Course Irrigation Water Quality – Treatment Iron & manganese

Discoloration, precipitation

Oxidation and filtration Note: They are also plant nutrients

Sulfide Odor, sulfur precipitation Oxidation

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Golf Course Irrigation Water Quality – Treatment Reverse osmosis Chemical oxidation

Chlorine Hydrogen peroxide Ozone

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O3

Golf Course Irrigation Water Quality – Ozone Opportunities Removal of sulfide odor <0.2 mg/L

Removal of iron and manganese <0.2 mg/L (iron) <0.1 mg/L (manganese) They are also plant nutrients

Removal should be considered only when they are excessive (>0.2 mg/L)

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Golf Course Irrigation Water Quality – Ozone Opportunities

Pre-treatment of RO desalination Organic and biological

fouling Colored groundwater

in coastal orange county, CA and high TOC recycled water

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Ozone Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide Ozone is an excellent oxidant

3 to 4 mg of ozone per 1 mg of H2S Instantaneous reaction (1/2 life <1 sec, k =

104 to 109 M-1 s-1)

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Ozone Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide – Golf Course Industry Unique challenges and opportunities

Ozone is expensive High capital cost

More sophisticated operations Operators (i.e., golf course management

staff) training Objectionable odor – Major PR issue for

prestigious and/or luxurious country clubs

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Case Study – H2S Removal System Upgrade (Background) A country club in LA

County Two 18-hole golf courses

Water source Two wells

380 and 270 gpm (1,440 and 1,000 L/min)

Brackish groundwater TDS: 700 to 850 mg/L

Serious rotten egg odor

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (The Project) Started working with the club in 2010 Evaluation of existing system Water balance analysis Alternative water source evaluations Sulfide monitoring Bench-scale ozone test Full-scale design, engineering, project

management, construction, installation, , startup, field supervision

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (Old System – Evaluation) High levels of H2S during warm months

High water demand Well 3: 1 to 9 mg/L Well 4: <0.2 mg/L Combined water: Up to 5.5 mg/L

Bench-scale ozone test 4.5:1 mass ratio

Ozone requirement 4.5 mg/mg x 5.5 mg/L x 2,500 L/min = 62

g/min = 89 kg/day (200 ppd)

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (Old System – Identified Issues)

Undersized ozone generator 10.6 ppd

(4.8 kg/day) Ineffective

injection system Serious

corrosion of water storage tank interior

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (Old System – Scheme)

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System – Options)

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#

Ozone Generator Capacity

(ppd)

Allowable Sulfide in

Combined Stream (mg/L)

Allowable Sulfide in Well

#3 Water (mg/L)

Maximum Oxygen (ppd)

Ozone Generator Power (kW)

Ozone Generator

Cooling Water (gpm)

1 38 1.1 1.8 380 6.5 4.8

2 70 2.0 3.4 780 12.0 8

3 100 2.8 4.9 1,000 17.1 15

4 130 4.0 6.8 1,400 26.0 16.3

5 200

(100 × 2) 5.7 9.7 2,000 34.2 30

H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System – Features) Oxygen-fed ozone generator

Ozonia OZAT CFV-04 (130 ppd, 59 kg/day) Oxygen source: LOX (max. 2,000 ppd or 910

kg/day) Sidestream injection

Motive water (200 to 300 gpm) is withdrawn from the water storage tank

Stainless steel serpentine contactor 424 gallons (1,600 L)

Sulfuric acid injection for water conditioning Total capital cost: $410,000

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System – Scheme)

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System – Operation) Simplified operation

Three oxygen flow 6.9 scfm (195 L/min) 8.6 scfm (244 L/min) 11 scfm (311 L/min)

Three power settings 39%, 60%, 82%

Automatic selection based on the number of pumps running

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System) Construction started in Spring 2013 Started up in July 2013

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System)

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H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System – Start up)

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Oxygen Flow Rate

(scfm)

Power Setting

Applied Ozone Dose

(mg/L)

Sulfide in Combined Raw Well

Water (mg/L)

Sulfide in

Main Flow*

(mg/L)

Ozone Residual (mg/L)

Sulfide Residual (mg/L)

Ozone: Sulfide Mass Ratio†

6.9 Min 39% 5.4 4.5 3.1 0 0.300 1.8

8.6 Min 39% 5 3.5 2.2 0 0.086 2.4

8.6 Low 60% 8 4.5 3.0 0.74 0.004 2.8

8.6 High 82% 11 4.0 2.9 1.32 0.004 4.0

11 Min 39% 6 4.5 2.9 0 0.058 2.1

11 Low 60% 8 4.3 2.8 1.06 0.003 2.9

11 High 82% 11 4.4 2.9 2.26 0.003 3.8

H2S Removal System Upgrade (New System – Two Weeks)

Sulfide: <0.3 mg/L in treated water, undetect at the pump station

High dissolved oxygen (>20 mg/L) and ORP (>260 mV)

No odor complaint (as of September 20, 2013)

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0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Color COD

Col

or (P

tCo

CU

), C

OD

(mg/

L) RawTreated

-1,000

0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

Sulfide ORP

Sulfi

de (µ

g/L)

, OR

P (m

V)

Combined Raw WaterMain FlowTreatedPump Station

Conclusions Opportunities exist in golf course irrigation

water treatment Aesthetic is very important

Ozone treatment is beneficial Sulfide odor removal Iron and manganese removal (only when

they are excessive; >0.2 mg/L) RO pretreatment (potential opportunity)

Simple system operation is important

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Conclusions Successful completion of the three-year

sulfide oxidation system upgrade project by PACE ~ 1 MGD irrigation water system Year-around odor monitoring Bench-scale ozone test New 130 ppd (59 kg/day) ozonation system

LOX-fed ozone generator Sidestream injection with tank water as a motive

water Total capital cost: $410,000 (including

engineering, installation, startup)

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Thank you! Contact Information

Keisuke Ikehata, PhD, PE, PEng Email: [email protected] Phone: 714-481-0662

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