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Internal Combustion Engines – The Diesel Objectives Uses for internal combustion engines Thermodynamic principles involved Components and purposes of

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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Internal Combustion Engines The Diesel
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  • Objectives Uses for internal combustion engines Thermodynamic principles involved Components and purposes of each Operation of systems Two stroke engines Four stroke engines
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  • The Diesel is a Hacker
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  • Engine Uses Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG) Propulsion Certain amphibious landing ships Mine warfare ships Patrol craft Tug boats Small boats Outboard motors
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  • Thermodynamic Principles All internal combustion Open cycle, heated engine Gasoline (Otto) engine Spark ignition Compresses air-fuel mixture Diesel engine Compressed ignition Compresses air only
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  • Structural Components Cylinder Block Part of engine frame that contains cylinders in which piston moves Supports liners & head
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  • Structural Components Cylinder Head/Assembly Serves to admit, confine, and release fuel/air Cover to cylinder block Supports valve train Crankcase Engine frame section that houses the crankshaft Oil sump Reservoir for collecting and holding lube oil
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  • Moving Components Three Groups according to motion Reciprocating only (pistons and valves) Reciprocation & rotary (connecting rods) Rotary only (crankshafts and camshafts)
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  • Moving Components Piston Acted on by combustion gases Lightweight but strong/durable Piston Rings Transfer heat from piston to cylinder Seal cylinder & distribute lube oil Piston Pin Pivot point connecting piston to connecting rod Connecting Rod Connects piston & crankshaft reciprocating rotating motion
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  • Moving Components Crankshaft Combines work done by each piston Drives camshafts, generator, pumps, etc. Flywheel Absorbs and releases kinetic energy of piston strokes -> smoothes rotation of crankshaft
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  • Moving Components Valves Intake: open to admit air to cylinder (with fuel in Otto cycle) Exhaust: open to allow gases to be rejected Camshaft & Cams Used to time the addition of intake and exhaust valves Operates valves via pushrods & rocker arms
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  • Operation Increased pressure of combustion gases acts on piston -> converted to rotary motion Can be 2 or 4 stroke engines 2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1 crankshaft rev 4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2 crankshaft rev
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  • Operation Engine stroke A stroke is a single traverse of the cylinder by the piston (from TDC to BDC) 1 revolution of crankshaft = 2 strokes of piston
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  • Four-Stroke Diesel Engine Intake stroke Intake valve open, exhaust valve shut Piston travels from TDC to BDC Air drawn in Compression stroke Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of air increase
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  • Four-Stroke Diesel Engine Power stroke Intake and exhaust valves shut Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC Exhaust stroke Intake valve shut, exhaust valve open Piston moves from BDC to TDC Combustion gases expelled
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  • Four-Stroke Diesel Engine Strokes Intake Compression Power Exhaust
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  • Two-Stroke Diesel Engine 1 power stroke every crankshaft revolution (vice every two w/ 4-stroke) Uses pressurized air to simultaneously supply new air and expel combustion gases Scavenging Exhaust valve open, inlet port exposed Pressurized air enters, expels combustion gases Piston near BDC
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  • Two-Stroke Diesel Engine Compression Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of air increase Power stroke Intake and exhaust valves shut Fuel injected into cylinder and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC
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  • Two-Stroke Diesel Engine Strokes Compression Power (Intake/Exhaust)
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  • Two vs. Four-Stroke Engines Two-stroke advantages Higher power to weight ratio Less complicated valve train Four-stroke advantages More efficient burning process As size increases, power-to-weight ratio improves
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  • Gasoline vs. Diesel Engine
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  • Supporting Systems Air system Supplies & removes air/gases Air supplied at constant pressure by blower/compressor Fuel System Carburetor: mixes air & fuel in proper proportion (NOT on diesels) Fuel injector: sprays fuel in (more efficient)
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  • Supporting Systems Ignition system Diesel has compression ignition Gasoline has spark plugs Cooling system Uses fresh water and/or salt water to cool Lubrication system Provide lubrication and cooling Drive Train Direct or Indirect
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  • Safety Precautions Noise Fuel Flammability Maintenance Water Issues
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  • Questions?

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