Intercultural Language Learning. What is culture? Before looking more closely at Intercultural Language Learning, let’s first consider what we understand.
<ul><li><p>Intercultural Language Learning</p></li><li><p>What is culture? Before looking more closely at Intercultural Language Learning, lets first consider what we understand by the term culture.</p></li><li><p>What is culture?Culture is a complex system of concepts, attitudes, values, beliefs, conventions, behaviours, practices, rituals and lifestyle of the people who make up a cultural group, as well as the artefacts they produce and the institutions they create. </p><p>(Report on Intercultural Language Learning Commonwealth of Australia 2003 p 45) </p></li><li><p>Visible and Invisible Aspects of CultureVisiblereadily observable</p><p>Invisibleusually out of our own and others conscious awarenessdresslanguagebehaviours appearance beliefsvaluesexpectationsperceptionsnormsassumptionsworld viewroleshabitstime orientation</p></li><li><p>The invisibility of cultureOur own culture is invisible to us.</p><p>We naturally believe that the way we see the world is the way things really are.</p><p>We attribute the mannerisms, behaviours and values of others, to their culture. </p><p>Learners need to recognise that they have a culture of their own before they can be open to accepting that other people do things differently and have other new frames of reference or at the very least, to recognising that there are other frames of reference.</p><p>Phillips, E. 2001. IC? I see! Developing learners intercultural experience. LOTE CED Communiqu, p2.</p></li><li><p>Language plays a primary role in the transmission of cultural behaviour.Both the language forms -the visible- and the messages conveyed by them -the invisible - provide cultural knowledge.</p><p>In this way, language and culture are inextricably linked.</p></li><li><p>Language is embedded in a cultural contextBy themselves, the words dont convey the message.</p><p>Understanding a language and culture is not just knowing the words.</p><p>It is seeing the deeper meanings created by the words and knowing when and where they are used.</p><p>ILTLP: Professional Learning Programme 2007</p></li><li><p>Lets look at the invisible messages in some Australian and Chinese terms. Bring a plate</p><p> Tall poppy</p></li><li><p>Language and cultureLanguage does not have to be complex and complicated to carry cultural messages.</p><p>Language and culture are fundamentally interrelated.</p><p>They work together to shape how we view the world and how we function in society.</p></li><li><p>Culture as PracticeIn Intercultural Language Learning, culture is viewed as sets of practices, as the lived experience of individuals.</p><p> Behaviours are seen as context-sensitive, negotiated and highly variable.</p><p>Being interculturally competent is seen as having the ability to interact in the target culture in informed ways. </p><p>It does not involve making generalisations about, or stereotyping, a group of people.</p></li><li><p>In the Culture as Practice approach:cultural knowledge is knowing about how to engage with the members of a cultural group.</p><p>it is not simply a case of knowing information about the culture. </p><p>it is not about learners being observers of facts they are merely required to recall. </p></li><li><p>In the Culture as Practice approach:culture is not regarded as a separate component of the LOTE curriculum.</p><p>learning about culture and the link between language and culture are part of the language learning process right from the very beginning.</p><p>learning about culture is not something that we put off until later on or do separately.</p></li><li><p>In the Culture as Practice approach, learners understand that culture is: multifaceted: within a particular cultural group, people adhere to the cultural codes of the group to varying degrees and in different ways variable: there is not one fixed, stereotypical way of living, thinking and being within a particular cultural group</p><p>people adopt a variety of practices in order to live their lives and interact with members of their society.dynamic:these practices are constantly being created and re-created and vary from person to person, group to group and over time.</p></li><li><p>In the Culture as Practice approach:learners develop an intercultural perspective - the Third Placewhere the language and culturein which they live - the First place - are made apparent alongside the target language and culture - - the Second place -</p></li><li><p>Moving to the Third Place</p><p>Learners use the knowledge they have gained from their exploration and analysis of their First Place and the Second Place to reach their Third Place positions.</p><p>This Third Place position then forms the basis for the ongoing development of their intercultural skills.</p></li><li><p>Culture and IcLLThe Culture as Practice approach is the approach to culture that best supports Intercultural Language Learning </p></li><li><p>Why the need for IcLL?Education needs to engage with and be responsive to a changing world.</p><p>Learners need to develop the knowledge, understanding and attributes necessary for successful participation and engagement within and across local, regional and global communities and in all spheres of activity.</p><p>The development of language skills and inter-cultural understanding is an investment in our national capability and a valuable resource.</p><p>National Statement p2</p></li><li><p>Aims of IcLL:Develop in learners the capabilities to:</p><p>communicate, interact and negotiate within and across languages and cultures</p><p>value and understand their own and others languages thus extending their range of literacy skills</p><p>understand themselves and others, and to understand and use diverse ways of knowing, being and doing</p><p>further develop their cognitive skills through thinking critically and analytically, solving problems and making connections in their learning</p><p>Such capabilities assist learners to live and work successfully aslinguistically and culturally aware citizens of the world.</p><p>National Statement for Languages Education in Australian Schools p3</p></li><li><p>What is Intercultural Language Learning?(IcLL)</p></li><li><p>Intercultural Language Learning:represents a major direction in languages education in Australia and elsewhere in the world </p><p>involves the fusing of language, culture and learning into a single educative approach</p><p>begins with the idea that language, culture and learning are fundamentally interrelated</p><p>places this interrelationship at the centre of the learning process</p></li><li><p>IcLL :</p><p>is an overall approach a personal orientation based on principles of teaching and learning</p><p>connects with contemporary curricular and pedagogies that emphasise students initiative in making sense of their learning</p><p>impacts on our work as designers and teachers of curriculum </p><p>means we need to address the ways in which learning about language and culture will occur in our classrooms</p></li><li><p>IcLL recognises:the need to develop with learners an understanding of their own language(s) and culture(s) in relation to an additional language and culture.</p><p>that learners need to develop a cultural position their Third Place - which mediates between languages and cultures.</p></li><li><p>The Third Place:is not a fixed point common to all learners.</p><p>is negotiated by each individual learner as an intersection of the cultural perspectives of the self and the other.</p><p>Teachers accept and respect a students informed Third Place decision.</p><p>Third Place positions/decisions may change over time as a result of increasing knowledge and experience.</p></li><li><p>The Third Place:is a position of higher understanding about a learners own language and culture and the target language and culture.</p><p>involves a higher-order level of intercultural learning other than merely learning about a culture and comparing it to ones own.</p><p>means reconsidering who we are.</p><p>involves reflection about oneself, others and ones reactions to both.</p></li><li><p>The process of finding ones Third Place is: dynamic developmental on-going It engages learners:cognitively behaviourally affectively</p></li><li><p>Four recognised stages in IcLL:1. The need to learn about languages and cultures.</p><p>2. The need to compare and contrast them.</p><p>3. The need to analyse, experiment and reflect.</p><p>4. The need to find ones own Third Place.</p></li><li><p>To arrive at their Third Place, students need to develop strategies of: Observation Exploration Reflection Mediation</p><p>It is our role as teachers to help them develop these learning strategies.</p></li><li><p> Lets look at a possible situation in Australia and China and engage in a little observation and reflection ourselves.</p></li><li><p>Responding to compliments in Australia and China:</p><p>Your husband is wonderful! Hes such a great help around the house. Well, really. Hes just average. He could do more to help.</p><p>Youve really made great achievements at work lately. Oh, you're over-rating me.</p><p>What do you notice about theresponses here?</p><p>What is similar?</p><p>What is different?</p><p>Why do you think this is so?</p><p>How would you respond inthis situation?</p></li><li><p>Development of intercultural competence: ongoing & cyclical</p><p> A cyclical, ongoing process. There is noabsolute endstate or finalgoal.ILTLP: Professional Learning Programme p69</p></li><li><p>NoticingNoticing can involve different modes: visual,auditory, cognitive, affectiveWhat do you see?What do you think?What do you feel?What do you understanding about yourself?What do you understand about others?</p></li><li><p>No one size fits all Observations and trying things out may lead to a positive or negative evaluation of an interaction.</p><p> Students may find new practices comfortable or uncomfortable.</p><p> These may be evaluated as having been successful or unsuccessful.</p></li><li><p>In coming to a Third Place decision, learners need to make choices about: what to hold on to what to adopt what to relinquish what to let pass</p><p>They also need to know what the consequences of their choices would be. In intercultural interactions, the ethical consequences are always heightened. </p></li><li><p>Teachers need to understand that:they do not assess if a students informed Third Place decision is right or wrong.</p><p>it is not about them making value judgements.</p><p>rather, teachers assess the strengths and weaknesses of a students argumentation their skills of observation, analysis and reflection.</p></li><li><p>In summary: IcLL teaches studentsto look for the invisible features of their own and another language and culture.</p><p>how to step out of the confines of their own language and culture and to see them for what they are one possible world view.</p><p>to develop flexibility and independence from a single linguistic and conceptual system</p><p>to consider diverse perspectives of others</p></li><li><p> How to apply Intercultural Language Learning in the classroom.</p></li><li><p>Guidelines:Base your teaching on the five pedagogical principles of Intercultural Language Learning.</p><p>2. Learn where to look for and find cultural messages in language use.</p><p>3. Choose resources that support IcLL.</p><p>Dont put off cultural learning until later. Start straight away.</p></li><li><p>Guidelines: cont.5. Use ICTs to connect students with the target country language and culture.</p><p>6. Where possible, invite community members from the Target Country into the classroom.</p><p>7. Make every effort yourself to keep up to date with the evolution of your TC language and culture.</p></li><li><p>Lets look more closely at the first two points.Five Pedagogical Principals </p></li><li><p>1. Active Construction </p><p>Learners:use language purposefully in a range of tasks in which they discover and create meaning in interaction with people, texts and technologies. Teachers:encourage noticing, recognising, comparing, interpreting, analysing</p><p>allow time for questioning, discussing and experimenting</p><p>select/design tasks that stimulate student interest and extend their thinking about language and culture</p></li><li><p>2. Making connectionsLearners :develop ways to rethink their initial conceptions</p><p>develop a growing understanding of language and culture and their interdependence</p><p>make connections, reorganise and extend their existing knowledge using these new insights</p><p>Teachers:draw on the diverse linguistic and cultural background of their students and use this as the basis for building new knowledge</p><p>challenge students initial conceptions and help them reflect on and re-think their initial conceptions</p></li><li><p>3. Social Interaction Learners:understand that learning is a social and interactive process</p><p>Teachers:provide opportunities for students to engage in interactive talk and questioning with the teacher, their peers and others</p><p>value and promote discussion, thinking, inquiry, experimentation</p><p>listen to and build upon student responses</p><p>guide conversation to include learners views, judgements, rationales</p><p>draw upon multiple ideas, knowledge, beliefs, values, behaviours</p></li><li><p>4. ReflectionLearners:reflect critically on language, culture, and their interrelationshipquestion stereotypes</p><p>develop the capability to reflect on and engage with difference</p><p>monitor their own production and its possible consequences and effects</p><p>Teachers provide opportunities for students to develop these skills</p></li><li><p>5. ResponsibilityLearners:recognise the need to de-centre from their own cultural perspective </p><p>show willingness to interact with people and texts from another language and culture</p><p>seek and respond to feedback on their own learning </p><p>take responsibility for their own learning</p><p>Teachers:foster engagement with difference</p><p>foster awareness of generalisations</p><p>demonstrate intercultural understanding through their personal attitudes and behaviours</p></li><li><p>2. Where to find culture in language use?</p></li><li><p>Some areas to look for culture in language use:The importance placed on speaking in a society</p><p>Approaches to interpersonal relationships Proximity versus distanceHierarchy versus equalityConsensus versus conflict</p><p>Approaches to understanding politeness</p><p>Level of ritualisation</p><p>Expression of emotions and feelings</p><p>See: Framework from Teaching Invisible Culture : Ch 3Joseph Lo Bianco and Chantal Crozet</p></li><li><p>Ultimately, what does Intercultural Language Learning mean for teachers and students?</p></li><li><p>For teachers, it means: developing an overall position, an orientation, a way of thinking and doing in relation to our work as curriculum designers and teachers. </p><p> addressing the ways in which learning about language and culture will be practised by our learners.</p></li><li><p>For students, it involves:them developing a similar overall position which will help them towards the ongoing development of their intercultural competence.</p><p> Ultimately, it is about each students individual journey.</p></li><li><p>The good newsResearch projects have shown that the implementation of Intercultural Language Learning has made a positive difference to students engagement in the language learning process. </p></li><li><p>Sources :</p><p>Report on intercultural language learningAnthony Liddicoat, Leo Papademetre, Angela Scarino, MichelleKohler July 2003</p><p>Striving for the Third Place : Intercultural CompetenceThrough Language Education : Joseph Lo Bianco, AnthonyLiddicoat, Chantal Crozet</p><p>Teaching Invisible Culture : Classroom practice and Theory Edited by Joseph Lo Bianco and Chantal Crozet</p></li></ul>