Intellectual Disabilities: Developmental & Mild Intellectual Disabilities Melissa Amato + Laura Gavrila + Remo Paglia + Prashanth Paramanathan + Monika.

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Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010

Intellectual Disabilities: Developmental & Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Melissa Amato + Laura Gavrila+ Remo Paglia + Prashanth Paramanathan + Monika Thakur

July 2010

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010AGENDA

1. Conceptions Challenge2. History, Change & Our Current Situation3. Ministry Definitions 4. Presenting Issues in the Field5. General Characteristics of MID and DD6. Carousel: Instructional Strategies & Activities7. Case Study: IEP Group Work8. Conclusion: A Summary of Strategies for the Classroom2Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Conceptions Challenge

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Conceptions about Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

1. Developmental disability is like an illness. False

2. An intellectual or developmental disability puts a cap on learning False

3. The disabilities occur equally across class and gender False

4. Developmental and intellectual disabilities are reflected in physical ability True

5. Students with intellectual and developmental problems dont always learn more when they are included with/separated from other students. True

6. A low IQ test score is not evidence of at least borderline disability and means the subjects adaptive skills are below normal. True

7. Students with intellectual or developmental disabilities are always compliant/difficult. False

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010History, Change & Our Current Situation

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Changes Over Time Terminology

1920-1950s: American psychologist H.H. Goddard - Feeble-minded, Moron, Idiot & Imbecile

1950s: Mental Retardation - Mild, Moderate, Severe & Profound

End of the Twentieth Century: Intellectual/Developmental & Disabilities/Challenged

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010The State of Things Today

Three Inter-related Factors:

1. Sub-Average Intellectual Functioning

IQ test scores

Prior to 1973: IQ test score below 85

After 1973: IQ test score 70-75 Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 20102. Problems in Adaptive Behaviour:

Considered in assessments since 1970s

Refers to how well an individual is able to adapt to his environment (self-care, social skills, health & safety, etc.)

3. Both of the above occurring during the developmental period

Birth until age 18

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Ministry Definitions

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Mild Intellectual Disability:

A learning disorder characterized bya) an ability to profit educationally within a regular class with the aid of considerable curriculum modification and supportive serviceb) an inability to profit educationally within a regular class because of slow intellectual developmentc) a potential for academic learning, independent social adjustment, and economic self-support

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Developmental Disability:

A severe learning disorder characterized bya) an inability to profit from a special education program for students with mild intellectual disabilities because of slow intellectual developmentb) an ability to profit froma special education program that is designed to accommodate slow intellectual developmentc) a limited potential for academic learning, independent social adjustment, and economic self-support Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Presenting Issues in the Field

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Presenting Issues in the Field1) Terminology2) Normalization3) Inclusion4) Time to Learn5) Employment and Vocational Training6) Greater Challenge in the Classroom

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010General Characteristics of MID and DD

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010General Characteristics of MID and DDDelays in Cognitive Development: Delays in speech and/or language acquisition Low literacy/numeracy Low achievement in most/all academic areas Deficits in reading and problem-solving Difficulty remembering Inattentive/distractible Inability to understand similarities/differences Generalization skillsDifficulties with Appropriate Social Relationships: Difficulty understanding non-verbal cues (e.g. body language) Difficulty understanding/expressing a range of emotions Immature behaviour Obsessive/compulsive behaviour Self-injurious behaviour Withdrawn Learned helplessness Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010General Characteristics of MID and DD (contd)

Delays in Adaptive Skill Areas: Appear clumsy Personal care/hygiene needs Use simplistic, vague, or colloquial language Require consistency and routines Delayed fine motor coordination Delay in learning to walk, talk, toilet train, etc.Low Self-Esteem: Afraid to take risks/try new things Easily frustrated Vulnerable to peer pressure/teasing Needs help to establish positive self-image Demonstrates withdrawal to respond to fear/failure Helplessness Low motivation Lack independent work habits Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010General Characteristics of MID and DD (contd)

Difficulty Understanding Abstract Concepts: Interpret language literally Confused by figurative language

Source: The Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner: Special Education Companion. (2002) Mild Intellectual Disability. Retrieved July 13, 2010, from http://www.ldcsb.on.ca/schools/cfe/toolbox/Resources/Special_Education/speced_MID.pdf

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Carousel: Instructional Strategies & Activities

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Case Study: IEP Group Work

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Case Study: IEP Group Work

Instructions:

1. In your groups, read The Case of Robyn (page 153 in our text).

2. On chart paper, list:

(a) Robyns Areas of Strengths and Needs based on the information found in the case study;

(b) Any TWO accommodations strategies you would recommend to foster greater inclusiveness for Robyn in the classroom.

3. Present your groups findings to the class.

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Conclusion: A Summary of Strategies for the Classroom

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Strategies for the Classroom

Positive Attitude: Recognize and accept that DD and MID students are like all students they have strengths and needs and likes and dislikes the biggest distinguishing factor is that they tend to learn more slowly.

Collaborative Approach: Ensure that teachers and EAs work together in an atmosphere of mutual respect and shared responsibility.

Teamwork: Cooperate extensively with other parents, professionals and advocacy groups in the wider community.

Attention to Structure: Students are more comfortable when routines and expectations are regularized - and sequences repeated until assimilated. Attention to details that may seem trivial are critically important (i.e. colour coded notebooks for different subjects).

The key is to find a balance between structure and flexibility so organization does not become more important than learning.

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010Strategies for the Classroom (contd)

Drill and Repetition: Effective for students with cognitive limitations. Design D&R activities in a motivating manner through the use of games, puzzles, etc.

Momentum: It is important that teachers, E.A.s and parents foster a sense of commitment within the individual and avoid doing the work of students who often back away from challenge. Encouragement and praise is vital!

Assistive and Adaptive Technology: The use of classroom technologies such as voice creation and recognition software can create a high degrees of stimulation and help maintain attention while meeting instructional needs in areas such as literacy and numeracy.

Developmental and Mild Intellectual Disabilities July 2010THANK YOU!

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