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INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT WITH SUSTAINABLE ... · PDF file INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT WITH SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE Yoshiaki Matsuda Professor Emeritus, Kagoshima University

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  • INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT WITH SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE

    Yoshiaki Matsuda Professor Emeritus, Kagoshima University

    and Fisheries Consultant, IC Net/JICA 5-72 Senshu-kitanomaru Akita 010-0872, Japan

    ABSTRACT

    Aquaculture grows in importance as capture fisheries faces serious problems of fuel price hike, over-investment, resource depletion and management. However, aquaculture is not without problems, as several common property management issues observed in capture fisheries are present in aquaculture. Many governments have focused on responsible fisheries from the time FAO adopted the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in 1995. However, many aquaculture farmers, processors and fish traders are not yet aware of the importance of responsible fisheries. As a result, mishandling of foods such as false labelling and unsafe food supply, have caused consumers’ rejection of food and fish products. Accordingly, requirements for HACCP-like quality standard, eco-labelling, transparency and traceability have increased and added costs for the products. Aquaculture production in the Asian region comprises more than 90% of world production. Integrated coastal zone management developed in the western countries is important in aquaculture production. However, the history of coastal zone use reveals existence of many stakeholders with diverse interests, which makes coordination difficult. Issues include environment vs. development; land use vs. maritime use; producers vs. processors, traders and consumers; trading vs. self-consumption; governments vs. private entities; primary industry vs. secondary and tertiary industries; free market economy vs. community development; open access vs. limited entry; technological development vs. traditional practices; and Asian context vs. western context. This paper reviews the global trends in aquaculture and coastal zone management and discusses the role of sustainable aquaculture in integrated coastal zone management.

    Key words: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), sustainable aquaculture, food safety, traceability

    INTRODUCTION

    The 21st century is said to be the Ocean Age. The ocean is the last frontier of the earth since marine objects have been difficult to sense due to barriers of water, current, high salinity, low dissolved oxygen, buoyancy, high pressures and aquatic organisms. Fisheries and marine transportation have been the only industries based on the sea for a long time. All other maritime uses are rather recent activities. Among maritime industries, fisheries based on renewable resources are the most dynamic and integrated industry binding land with sea. Wise management of fisheries using common property will contribute to the society’s environment and resource enhancement. It will open economic opportunities in rural areas. It will enhance community development with cultural,

    recreational, and educational opportunities. Moreover, wise management of fisheries will help safeguard national security. Thus, an integrated coastal zone management of any country must consider sustainable management of both fisheries and aquaculture. Although food security is a barometer of a nation’s independence, the food self-sufficiency rate widely varies from 0% to 237% (Table 1). Due to the globalization and free trade trends, this gap has widened. With current agricultural technology, political will, life style, and population growth in developing countries, the world food shortage problem will be serious in the very near future (Tables 2-4). With agriculture’s limited growth, fisheries and aquaculture have been the focus of development since the 1970s. However, capture fisheries productions have reached a

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    Table 1. Food (calorie base) self-sufficiency rate by country in 2003 (%)

    Australia Canada USA France Germany England Italy Japan

    237 145 128 122 84 70 62 40

    Source: FAO, Food Balance Sheets

    Table 2. Estimation of world population and food production

    Year 2000 2010 2030 2050

    Population (1,000)* 60,900,000 68,400,000 82,000,000 90,800,000

    Food Grain: 1,861 production Meat: 234 No increase? No increase? No increase?

    (million tons)** Fish: 143

    *Japan Atomic Energy Culture Promotion Foundation, 2006. **FAO.

    Table 3. Per capita grain consumption (kg/person/year)

    Average Asian 135-180kg Average Indian 200kg Average developing country’s people 200kg Average Japanese 500kg Average developed country’s people Over 500kg Average American 1,000kg Average people 340kg

    Source: Nagasaki, F., Meat Culture and Fish Culture, Nobunkyo, Tokyo 1999:52-56.

    Table 4. Maximum population on earth fed by current level of food production

    Current level 5,500,000,000 Assuming American style by all 3,400,000,000 Assuming Japanese style by all 8,700,000,000 Assuming Indian style by all 13,400,000,000

    Source: Nagasaki, F., Meat Culture and Fish Culture, Nobunkyo, Tokyo, 1999:53-54.

    plateau of 100 million tons (Fig. 1) (Garcia and Newton, 1996; FAO, 2005; FAO, 2007), while 280-500 million tons of fishes were estimated to be eaten by whales protected by IWC (International Whaling Commission), an international fisheries management organization (Tamura and Ohsumi, 1999). On the other hand, aquaculture production increased from 30 million tons in 1994 to 67 million tons in 2006 (Figs. 2, 2-2. 3 and 3-2).

    TRENDS IN AQUACULTURE

    Fig. 2 shows the world aquaculture production by species. In 2006, total production accounted for 66.7 million tons including freshwater fishes (28 million tons) followed by aquatic plants such as kelp, wakame and Eucheuma sp. (15 million tons), molluscs such as oyster and scallops (14 million), crustaceans such as shrimps (4.5 million

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    Fig. 1. World fisheries production: 1950-2005. Source: FAO FishStat Plus

    1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

    180

    160

    140

    120

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    Marine capture fisheries

    Inland aquaculture Inland capture fisheries Mariculture

    Year

    M ill

    io n

    to ns

    Fig. 2. World aquaculture production by species: 1994-2006.

    1994 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

    Year

    1 ,0

    0 0 t

    on s

    Molluscs

    Miscellaneous animals

    Marine fishes

    Freshwater fishes

    Diadromous fishes

    Crustaceans

    Aquatic plants

    80,000

    70,000

    60,000

    50,000

    40,000

    30,000

    20,000

    10,000

    0

    tons), diadromous fishes such as salmon, tuna and yellowtail (3.1 million tons), marine fishes (1.8 million tons) and others (0.5 million tons) (Fig. 2-2).

    On the other hand, world aquaculture production by continent is shown in Fig. 3. In 2006, Asia produced 61 million tons (92% of total), followed by America (3.3%), Europe (3.2%),

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    Fig. 2-2. World aquaculture production by species in 2006. Source: FAO-Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service-31/07/2008

    1994 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

    Year

    Fig. 3. World aquaculture production by continent: 1994-2006.

    80000

    70000

    60000

    50000

    40000

    30000

    20000

    10000

    0

    1 ,0

    0 0 t

    on s

    Oceania Europe Asia America Africa

    Crustaceans

    Diadromous fishes Freshwater fishes Marine fishes

    Miscellaneous animals Molluscs

    6.7%

    4.6%

    2.7%

    0.7% 22.6%

    41.6%

    21.1%

    Total production: 66,747,000 tons

    Aquatic plants

    Africa (1.1%) and Oceania (0.2%) (Fig. 3-2). Thus, Asia dominates aquaculture. Therefore, the world aquaculture policy must consider the Asian context of aquaculture. Aquaculture productions of the top 12 countries are shown in Figs. 3-3. China dominates aquaculture production in the world followed by India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Rep. of Korea, Japan, Bangladesh, Chile, Norway and USA. Many governments promote aquaculture for foreign exchange earnings, income, and employment generation. Aquaculture development in the world has been closely associated with trade. Although seafood trade has been dominated by

    three species: shrimp, salmon and tuna, shrimp is a typical species produced in the south and exported to the north. Shrimp culture is popular in developing countries such as China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Myanmar, the `Philippines, Ecuador, Columbia, Honduras, Guatemala. World shrimp production in 2006 was 6,624,000 tons including 3,164,000 tons (47.8%) from aquaculture. Major exporting countries include Thailand with US$1.2 trillion in 2001, followed by Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Mexico, Argentine, Ecuador, China and Bangladesh while major importing countries include the USA with US$3 trillion in 2001, followed by Japan, Spain, France, Canada, Italy, the

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    UK, the Netherlands, Belgium and Thailand (FAO 2007). Thailand imports shrimp for processing, then re-exports the final products to developed countries. The world shrimp aquaculture production by country is shown in Figs. 4 and 4-2. Artificial

    propagation technology of Penaeus japonicas, a temperate species of Kuruma shrimp, was developed by Gensaku Fijinaga in Japan in 1964 and this technology was successfully applied by a

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