INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
WITH SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE
Professor Emeritus, Kagoshima University
and Fisheries Consultant, IC Net/JICA
Akita 010-0872, Japan
Aquaculture grows in importance as capture fisheries faces serious problems of fuel price hike, over-investment,
resource depletion and management. However, aquaculture is not without problems, as several common
property management issues observed in capture fisheries are present in aquaculture. Many governments have
focused on responsible fisheries from the time FAO adopted the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries in
1995. However, many aquaculture farmers, processors and fish traders are not yet aware of the importance
of responsible fisheries. As a result, mishandling of foods such as false labelling and unsafe food supply, have
caused consumers’ rejection of food and fish products. Accordingly, requirements for HACCP-like quality
standard, eco-labelling, transparency and traceability have increased and added costs for the products.
Aquaculture production in the Asian region comprises more than 90% of world production. Integrated coastal
zone management developed in the western countries is important in aquaculture production. However,
the history of coastal zone use reveals existence of many stakeholders with diverse interests, which makes
coordination difficult. Issues include environment vs. development; land use vs. maritime use; producers vs.
processors, traders and consumers; trading vs. self-consumption; governments vs. private entities; primary
industry vs. secondary and tertiary industries; free market economy vs. community development; open access
vs. limited entry; technological development vs. traditional practices; and Asian context vs. western context.
This paper reviews the global trends in aquaculture and coastal zone management and discusses the role of
sustainable aquaculture in integrated coastal zone management.
Key words: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), sustainable aquaculture, food safety,
The 21st century is said to be the Ocean Age. The
ocean is the last frontier of the earth since marine
objects have been difficult to sense due to barriers
of water, current, high salinity, low dissolved
oxygen, buoyancy, high pressures and aquatic
organisms. Fisheries and marine transportation
have been the only industries based on the sea
for a long time. All other maritime uses are rather
recent activities. Among maritime industries,
fisheries based on renewable resources are the
most dynamic and integrated industry binding
land with sea. Wise management of fisheries using
common property will contribute to the society’s
environment and resource enhancement. It will
open economic opportunities in rural areas. It will
enhance community development with cultural,
recreational, and educational opportunities.
Moreover, wise management of fisheries will help
safeguard national security. Thus, an integrated
coastal zone management of any country must
consider sustainable management of both fisheries
Although food security is a barometer of a
nation’s independence, the food self-sufficiency
rate widely varies from 0% to 237% (Table 1).
Due to the globalization and free trade trends,
this gap has widened. With current agricultural
technology, political will, life style, and population
growth in developing countries, the world food
shortage problem will be serious in the very near
future (Tables 2-4). With agriculture’s limited
growth, fisheries and aquaculture have been the
focus of development since the 1970s. However,
capture fisheries productions have reached a
Table 1. Food (calorie base) self-sufficiency rate by country in 2003 (%)
Australia Canada USA France Germany England Italy Japan
237 145 128 122 84 70 62 40
Source: FAO, Food Balance Sheets
Table 2. Estimation of world population and food production
Year 2000 2010 2030 2050
(1,000)* 60,900,000 68,400,000 82,000,000 90,800,000
Food Grain: 1,861
production Meat: 234 No increase? No increase? No increase?
(million tons)** Fish: 143
*Japan Atomic Energy Culture Promotion Foundation, 2006.
Table 3. Per capita grain consumption (kg/person/year)
Average Asian 135-180kg
Average Indian 200kg
Average developing country’s people 200kg
Average Japanese 500kg
Average developed country’s people Over 500kg
Average American 1,000kg
Average people 340kg
Source: Nagasaki, F., Meat Culture and Fish Culture, Nobunkyo, Tokyo 1999:52-56.
Table 4. Maximum population on earth fed by current level of food production
Current level 5,500,000,000
Assuming American style by all 3,400,000,000
Assuming Japanese style by all 8,700,000,000
Assuming Indian style by all 13,400,000,000
Source: Nagasaki, F., Meat Culture and Fish Culture, Nobunkyo, Tokyo, 1999:53-54.
plateau of 100 million tons (Fig. 1) (Garcia and
Newton, 1996; FAO, 2005; FAO, 2007), while
280-500 million tons of fishes were estimated to be
eaten by whales protected by IWC (International
Whaling Commission), an international fisheries
management organization (Tamura and Ohsumi,
1999). On the other hand, aquaculture production
increased from 30 million tons in 1994 to 67
million tons in 2006 (Figs. 2, 2-2. 3 and 3-2).
TRENDS IN AQUACULTURE
Fig. 2 shows the world aquaculture production
by species. In 2006, total production accounted
for 66.7 million tons including freshwater fishes
(28 million tons) followed by aquatic plants such
as kelp, wakame and Eucheuma sp. (15 million
tons), molluscs such as oyster and scallops (14
million), crustaceans such as shrimps (4.5 million
Fig. 1. World fisheries production: 1950-2005.
Source: FAO FishStat Plus
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Marine capture fisheries
Inland capture fisheries
Fig. 2. World aquaculture production by species: 1994-2006.
1994 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
tons), diadromous fishes such as salmon, tuna and
yellowtail (3.1 million tons), marine fishes (1.8
million tons) and others (0.5 million tons) (Fig.
On the other hand, world aquaculture
production by continent is shown in Fig. 3. In
2006, Asia produced 61 million tons (92% of total),
followed by America (3.3%), Europe (3.2%),
Fig. 2-2. World aquaculture production by species in 2006.
Source: FAO-Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service-31/07/2008
1994 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Fig. 3. World aquaculture production by continent: 1994-2006.
Total production: 66,747,000 tons
Africa (1.1%) and Oceania (0.2%) (Fig. 3-2).
Thus, Asia dominates aquaculture. Therefore, the
world aquaculture policy must consider the Asian
context of aquaculture. Aquaculture productions of
the top 12 countries are shown in Figs. 3-3. China
dominates aquaculture production in the world
followed by India, Indonesia, the Philippines,
Vietnam, Thailand, Rep. of Korea, Japan,
Bangladesh, Chile, Norway and USA.
Many governments promote aquaculture
for foreign exchange earnings, income, and
employment generation. Aquaculture development
in the world has been closely associated with trade.
Although seafood trade has been dominated by
three species: shrimp, salmon and tuna, shrimp
is a typical species produced in the south and
exported to the north. Shrimp culture is popular
in developing countries such as China, Thailand,
Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Mexico, Brazil,
Bangladesh, Myanmar, the `Philippines, Ecuador,
Columbia, Honduras, Guatemala. World shrimp
production in 2006 was 6,624,000 tons including
3,164,000 tons (47.8%) from aquaculture. Major
exporting countries include Thailand with US$1.2
trillion in 2001, followed by Indonesia, India,
Vietnam, Mexico, Argentine, Ecuador, China
and Bangladesh while major importing countries
include the USA with US$3 trillion in 2001,
followed by Japan, Spain, France, Canada, Italy, the
UK, the Netherlands, Belgium and Thailand (FAO
2007). Thailand imports shrimp for processing,
then re-exports the final products to developed
The world shrimp aquaculture production
by country is shown in Figs. 4 and 4-2. Artificial
propagation technology of Penaeus japonicas,
a temperate species of Kuruma shrimp, was
developed by Gensaku Fijinaga in Japan in 1964
and this technology was successfully applied by a