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1 ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES: Protect Life and Property from Coastal Hazards Management of Evacuation Planning (roads, bridges), Protective Works etc. Improve Knowledge of the Coastal Complex, in Terms of its Dynamics and Interactions Between its Component Parts MAIN COMPONENTS OF MEASURES: Shoreline Protection & Stabilization Measures & Works Establish Flooding Scenarios, Plan & Secure Evacuation Routes Baseline Inventory & Monitoring Activities Integrated Coastal Zone Management ADDITIONAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ISSUES * Prevention of salt-water intrusion, prevent fresh water, including ground water. (SLR) * Permitting and remediation of public and private facilities and infrastructure. (Legal & Technical) * Preservation of public access and regulation of recreation and tourism. (Social) * Conservation of wetland, estuarine, and nearshore habitats. (Biodiversity) * Planning and exploitation of natural resources, such as ground water, sand, and corals. (Physical planning)

Integrated Coastal Zone Management - LTH · Integrated Coastal Zone Management ... Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and Management Spatial integration Terrestrial Marine Urban Plan

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1

ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES:

Protect Life and Property from Coastal Hazards

Management of Evacuation Planning (roads, bridges), Protective Works etc.

Improve Knowledge of the CoastalComplex, in Terms of its Dynamics and Interactions Between its Component Parts

MAIN COMPONENTS OF MEASURES:

Shoreline Protection & StabilizationMeasures & Works

Establish Flooding Scenarios, Plan & Secure Evacuation Routes

Baseline Inventory & Monitoring Activities

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

ADDITIONAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ISSUES

* Prevention of salt-water intrusion, prevent fresh water, including ground water. (SLR)

* Permitting and remediation of public and private facilities and infrastructure. (Legal & Technical)

* Preservation of public access and regulation of recreation and tourism. (Social)

* Conservation of wetland, estuarine, and nearshore habitats.(Biodiversity)

* Planning and exploitation of natural resources, such as ground water, sand, and corals. (Physical planning)

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Recreation

Environ-mentalissues

Agri-culture

Coastalprotection

Industry

Fisheries

Otherissues...

Inte

rdep

ende

nt S

ecto

ral N

eeds

of C

oast

al R

esou

rces

Sectoral Strategy

Integrated Planning and Management Approach!

Recreation

Environ-mentalissues

Agri-culture

Coastalprotection

Industry

Fisheries

Otherissues...

Inte

rdep

ende

nt S

ecto

ral N

eeds

of C

oast

al R

esou

rces

Integrated Strategy

Integrated Planning and Management Approach!

Recreation

Environ-mentalissues

Agri-culture

Coastalprotection

Industry

Fisheries

Otherissues...

Inte

rdep

ende

nt S

ecto

ral N

eeds

of C

oast

al R

esou

rces

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Integrated Strategy

Integrated Planning and Management Approach!

3

Collectionof data &info on pro-cesses &issues

Develop visions, goals & policies on all levels toguide decisionprocess

Allocate necessary means (financial,legal, technical,institutional, educational)

Balanceneeds ofdiverseinterests

Provideconflictresolutionmechanisms

Foster administrativecoordination

Critical Elements

Inte

grat

ed m

anag

e-m

ent p

roce

ss

Applypolicies indecisionmaking

Applylong-termplanning

Decisions!

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Integrated Strategy

Integrated Planning and Management Approach!

Important issuesIntegration: - spatial integration;

- institutional/administrative integration;- functional integration;- socio-economic integration;- environmental integration

Plan. & Management boundaries: - both terrestrial and marine areas;

Strategic planning: - to develop a vision with tangibleand realistic objectives;

- an action plan/time table to take us from here to the fulfilment of the vision a road map;

Implementation - the link planning - implementation- implementation organisation- zoning; management; action plans;- strategic monitoring - progress, corrections ; - revision - at certain intervals,

Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and Management

Main Stages of the Planning Process

Strategic Plan

Zoning Plan

Management Plan

Action Plan

Implementation

Detail Plan?

To close or minimize the gap: to ensure that the proposed

interventions are achievable; that required resources are

secured properly (human, financial ,management),

mobilisation of stake-holders, village communities, etc

Plans become outdated before implementation > disappointment; lack of trust in planning

and in authorities; waste of resources;

4

Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and Management

Spatial integrationTerrestrial Marine

Urban Plan

Marine Plan

No real integration!!

Marinearea

Terestr.area

Int. Urban/Marine Plan

What is:Spatial Integration

An integrated and holisticspatial approach includingboth marine and terrestrial areas based on:

social environmental. economic.

development objectives!!

Coastal zone

marine

terrestrial

Spatial Integration

Institutional and AdministrativeIntegration

Co-ordination and co-operationbetween different administra-tive units at each level ofgovernment: local district national;

Active linkages betweendifferent levels ofgovernment: local districtand national;

National

Province

Local

Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and Management

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National (MMAF,)

Province

Administrative Integration

Co-ordination & cooperation elaborated to explain roles & responsibilities of the actors.

What support should lower level get and what do they get from upper level(s)?

What kind of information need to be communicated up in the system?

How can Regencies cooperate in terms of measurements and analyses?

... to obtain optimal use of resources

Public participation

Regency

Our project is on R level. How are the results communicated up?

Villagers

Pekalongan Indramayu ?????

Institutional and AdministrativeIntegration

Integrated inclusion of thecivil society, NGOs, CBOs andprivate sector and otherstakeholders in the planningprocess;

Clear description and consensusof roles, responsibilities andmandates of all involved; Building trust and confidence Creating a sense of ownership

Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and Management

PARTICIPANTS IN COASTAL LAND DEVELOPMENT

* PRIVATE SECTOR:- Coastal Property Owners- Lenders (banks, financial institutes)- Developers & Builders- Homeowner Associations- Realtors- Neighbors & Others Affected by

the Use of the Site

* PUBLIC SECTOR- Incorporated Municipalities (Villages, Towns, Cities, etc.)- County Authorities- State/Federal Authorities

6

Poverty alleviation not a sector approach, but a cross cutting issue;

Local economic development (LED): commercial services land availability; fishing rights value added industry local market facilities access to external markets; financial facilities; training, education; informal economy;

Socio-Economic Integration

fishingerosion

harbour

marine environ.

local market transp.

housing

add-on valuesexternalmarkets

agriculture

social services

commercial services financial

services

tourism

terrestrial environ.

oil prod.

How different functions should impact on or beimpacted by each other, for improved efficiency of resources and synergy effects;

Which functional linkages are desirable, what would they entail;

How could desirable, viable linkages be promoted;

How could conflicts be reduced or eliminated?

waste

aqua-culture

informal economy

Functional Integration

Harbour facilities:Commercial, leisure & tourism;small/large scale users;

Commercial and socialservice facilities:Central & joint location for easyaccess for all;

Communication:Road systems - land uses;

Environmental Assets:Marine protection tourism;

Fishing: tourism potential;

Housing: environment, quality oflife, jobs, services, recreation;

Integrated Coastal Zone Planning and Management

Functional integration examples:

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The inter-action/inter-dependency between terrestrial and marine activities;

Environmental sensitivity what can the environment accept without adverse effects (SIA);

Activities impact on the environment (EIA);

Neighbouring environment quality of life

Good environment as an important economic development driver: attraction; job creation, etc; poor environment-poor economy

Environmental Integration

Strategic planning

Methodology :

Back-casting -The history of the future:

to create a clear and specific vision of a preferred future;

to device strategies to make the referred future happen

Back-casting (step A):

In joint sessions with relevant stakeholders and administrations agree onpresent status of the area, throughavailable information, trend analysisand SWOT analysis!

S: W:O: T:

Strategic planning

StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesThreats

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SWOT Analysis: Group exercises with different

types of stakeholder groupings at both central and local levels;

What is perceived as a strength by one could be perceived as a weakness by others!

SWOT analysis:S: Strengths;W: WeaknessesO: Opportunities;T: Threats

Although recognising problems and shortcomings, to focus on possibilities, embracing the potentials of the future!

Technical resources;

Nature resources;

Social resources;

Human resources;

Administrative resources;

Competence, capacity resources;

Financial resources;

Climatic resources;

Strategic planning

Back-casting (step B):

In joint sessions with relevant stakeholders and administrations agree ona shared VISION with SMART*objectives to be realised within 15-20 years

Strategic planning

*SMART = Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, & Timely.

Back-casting (step C):Strategic Action Plan

required interventions toimplement the specified objectives, taking us from here to the future: types of actions/interventions; time table & work plans; resources required; responsibilities who does what; monitoring- follow-up and corrections

at regular check points in time; private sector alignment; public/private partnership

Strategic planning

Formulate SMART check-points road map

9

On the contrary: A process that, while moving

forward, always is prepared to look back a step or two in the process, to re-consider previous statements in the light of new analysis, findings and achievements, in order to better fulfil the objectives.

The Planning Process is NOT a straight line!

Strategic planning

Collection, compilation and analysis of available andrelevant data and information

A.Collection:

B. Base Line Inventory & Systematic compilation:

Erosion Tourism Etc.

C. Analyses:

E. Conclusions wrt Vision, Goals & Objectives:

F. Identification of needed additional monitoring and analysis:

FROM NOTHING TO VISION : 1

FROM NOTHING TO VISION : 2

Monitoring/System Analysis: identify and understand change & time

scales guide the planning of management

operations evaluate the performance and impacts of

management human activities vs. natural effects act local think regional

Monitoring programme must be: appropriate to the site cost effective flexible provide the amount and quality of data

required by the shoreline manager

TO DO YOUR PLANNING, YOU NEED TO KNOW YOUR SYSTEM!

Base line inventory: maps charts aerial photographs surveys engineering records processes (waves, currents, ecology,...) consult stakeholders

Meta Data!

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Definition of Monitoring Needs!

Goals & Objectives Baseline inventory

Monitoring needs!

Relevant available data

Measured Change/Observation Comments/Possible Causes of Erosion

Less than 1m over a year at all points. Erosion likely to be insignificant.

Over 1m between surveys.Erosion may be significant or may be

episodic (cyclic).

Erosion of the dune face sustained at 1m per year. Erosion significant and possibly severe.

Erosion of the dune face at 1m to 10m per year.Serious erosion requiring immediate

attention.

Dunes badly trampled at individual access points. Localised pedestrian damage.

Dunes badly damaged over large dune area.Serious damage due to tourist pressure,

livestock or vermin.

Discrete areas of dune face erosion. Wind damage (blow outs).

Dune face erosion over wide area. Damage by wave action.

Dune toe and upper beach erosion.Damage caused by waves or tidal

currents.

Upper and lower beach accretion.Change of profiles in response to wave

conditions.

Upper and lower beach erosion.Severe wave erosion/meandering of tidal

channel/impact of coastal defence.

Dune scarp/exposure of marram roots. Sustained recession of dunes.

Dune scarp covered by fresh sand accretion. Intermittent dune recession.

KNOW YOUR SYSTEM - POSSIBLE CAUSES OF EROSION

Important aspects to be considered when characterising the various terrestrial and marine areas in the planning process

Measured Change/Observation Comments/Possible Causes of Erosion

Beach salients (wavy or irregular shoreline).

Unstable conditions in an alongshore direction may result in local and episodic

recession in adjacent areas.

Groynes/breakwaters located updrift.Beach may be affected by downdrift

erosion.

River/jetties updrift.Beach may be affected by a change in

sediment supply.

Eroded dune surface but beach stable/backshore sand covered.Wind induced erosion, pedestrian or

animal damage.

Seawall remnants. Evidence of long term erosion.

Groynes/seawall, etc. on lower foreshore. Strong evidence of long term erosion.

Groynes/seawalls/sills at toe of dune but recession continuing.Inadequate defences/unusually severe

wave/tidal conditions.

Groynes/seawalls/sills at toe of dunes but displaced or tilted over.

Unusually severe waves/tidal currents causing structural failure. Possibly poor

initial design or poor foundations.

Erosion in one area of beach or sediment cell matched by accretion in adjacent area. Change in dominant wind/wave direction.

Severe erosion at structure tailing off downdrift. Lee side erosion caused by coastal works.

KNOW YOUR SYSTEM - POSSIBLE CAUSES OF EROSION

Important aspects to be considered when characterising the various terrestrial and marine areas in the planning process

11

LONG TERM COASTAL EROSION POSSIBLE NATURAL CAUSES:

Sea level rise (mean & high/extreme)

Coastal subsidence due to tectonic events

Climatic changes (changing of the storm intensities, shift of the dominant storm directions affecting the approach angle of waves; variation of precipitation and the river regimes and discharges)

Increased vegetation cover over the river watersheds due to climatic changes (causing decreased soil erosion and sediment supplied to the coast);

Sediment sinks (presence of offshore canyons, movement to great depths at steep slopes, wind transport of sand to inland areas)

Changing of river courses and mouths in deltas

KNOW YOUR SYSTEM (IN RESPECTIVE ZONE)

LONG TERM COASTAL EROSION POSSIBLE ANTHROPOGENIC CAUSES:

Decreasing sediment supply by rivers to the coast (damming the rivers, sand and gravel mining along the river beds, decreasing sediment transport efficiency by lowering water discharges due to increased fresh water use or due to river works such as bank and bed erosion control)

Erosion control works and afforestation in coastal and riverine watersheds

Decreasing the volume of sand in the coastal area (sand mining from the beach and dunes, offshore sand mining)

Alteration of the usual pattern of coastal sediment transport along and across the shoreline, due to man-made coastal structures and urban development too close to the shoreline

Anthropogenic changes made to river courses and mouths in deltas

Maintenance dredging of approach channels and estuarine inlets

Land subsidence due to anthropogenic effects (oil, gas and water extraction).

KNOW YOUR SYSTEM (IN RESPECTIVE ZONE)

COASTAL ENGINEERING REALITIES IN BRIEF (1/3)

NAVIGATIONAL & FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS IMPACT SHORE STABILITY

- Jetties Cause Up-Drift Accretion & Down-Drift Erosion

- Up-River Deforestation Cause Bank Erosion & Entrance Deposition(flooding, estuarine processes)

- Dams Cause Decrease in Sediment Supply that May Promote Beach Erosion

12

COASTAL ENGINEERING REALITIES IN BRIEF (2/3)

COASTAL ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES MAY CAUSE EROSION- Mining Near Beaches - Downdrift of Groins,

Seawalls, Breakwaters,& Inlets

- Dredged Entrances

SUBSIDENCE & SLR MAY INCREASE RISK OF EROSION & INUNDATION- Natural or Man-Induced Causes

COASTAL ENGINEERING REALITIES IN BRIEF (3/3)

EROSION MAY BE CONTROLLED THROUGH COASTAL ENGINEERING MEASURES

- Presumes Proper Monitoring, Planning, Design, Construction & Maintenance

INSTITUTIONAL, POLICY & STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT COMPONENTS:

* Meteoro-/Hydro-logic Office * Communicate Process Knowledge

* Geographic Information System * Coastal Classification System

* Information Depositry * Early Warning System

* Coastal Stabilisation Masterplan * Land Use Plan

* Mangrove Management Policy * Sea Defence Commission of Inquiry

* Disaster Prepardness Plan * Environmental Education Strategy

* Shorezone Management Program Unit * Revised Institutional Setting

* Popular Participation & Public Awareness * Internal Training Elements

13

METEORO-/HYDRO-LOGIC OFFICE

Establish/Appoint Authority Resposible for

- Planning and execution of monitoring activities

- Data documentation (meta data)

- Data analysis

- Data publication

- Data deposition

COMMUNICATE BASIC PROCESS KNOWLEDGE

An ORGANIZED collection ofcomputer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently store, update, manipulate, analyze, and DISPLAY all forms of GEOGRAPHICALLY REFERENCED information.

A DEFINITION OF GIS

SYSTEM vs. SCIENCE

GIS = Geographic Information SystemsEmphasizes on technologyGIS as a tool to be applied to specific problem

GIS = Geographic Information ScienceEmphasizes the concepts and theory of analyzing relationshipsGIS as a means of advancing our understanding of the real world

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

GIS is concerned with spatial relations (Estimates are that 80% of all data has a spatial dimension)

Location (absolute & relative), position, distance, and direction are key attributes.

Where are objects of interest?What exists in this location?Why are things located here?Etc....

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Information & data are NOT the same

Data are raw facts that fuel a GIS

Information is the product derived from processing data

To be of use, information should be timely, accurate, reliable, consistent,appropriate, preserved and in the right format.

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts (Aristoteles)

GIS is a convergence of new technologies and traditional disciplines

GIS is often called the enabling technology.

GIS is NOT

the universal answer to all spatial problems

only a technology, but also a conceptual base

able to produce good results from bad data or conceptual framework

simply a program for producing maps

a substitute for thinking

TWO WAYS TO INPUT AND VISUALIZE DATA

Raster Grid pixels one location one value Satellite pictures & aerial photos are

alredy in this format

Vector Linear Points, lines & polygons Features house, lake, etc. Attributes (size, type, length, names, etc.

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0

10

20

30

Run

off (

m3 /s

)

0

10

20

30

Infil

trat

ion

GSI-1GSI-2

COMBINING DATA FROM MANY SOURCES

Likelihood/Hazard:- geological composition- ground elevation- vegetation cover- hydrographic impact (waves, currents, water level fluctuation, bottom bathymetry)

- anthropogenic impact (structures, trapping of sediments in canals, dredging)

Consequences/Vulnerabilty:- land use - infrastructural investments

COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

Be able to answer for any given portion of coast:1. What is the likelihood that erosion/inundation

will occur? HAZARD2. What are the consequences if erosion/inundation

does occur. VULNERABILITY

Risk = Likelihood * Consequences = Hazard * Vulnerability = PRIORITIES!QU

AN

TIFY

!!!

COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Risk identification and assessment

- What zones/areas are exposed to coastal hazards?- Which are the economic, environmental and social losses?- Where are the highest risks?

Risk mitigation regarding human lives, environment, infrastructure

- Monitoring and warning systems- Training/capacity building in vulnerability assessment, hazard mapping, data

collection and interpretation- Systems for public awarness and shared responsibility- Which measures can be taken to mitigate damage?- Which are the priorities regarding risks and need for emergency facilities?- How can these best be financed and sustained? (Institutions, stakeholders,...)

17

Classification Components

Coding System:L - consequences in terms of Land-use and investmentsI - likelihood for InundationE likelihood for Erosion S - State of protective measures, rate of measures, need of repair

Zones Conditions Data

L Land Use

Infrastructure

BuildingsActivities (Farming, Deposits,..)Roads, CablesIrrigation SystemsCanals

I Crest ElevationLocal ElevationSurrounding Elevation

Topography (maps, aerials, measurements)

E Geological CompositionVegetation CoverHydrographic Impact

Historical Erosion (maps, aerials, images, measurements)

S Type & Status of Defence Work ReportsInspections

SLR, GIS

Erosion: Sample Dynamic E-zone DelineationReference

FeatureE-10Line

E-30Line

E-60Line

E-10Zone

E-30Zone

E-60Zone

Zones

Likelihood

Setbacks

FloodInsurance

Notice of Erosion

Hazard

RecedingShoreline

ImminentHazard

IntermediateHazard

Longer-TermHazard

MoveableSingle Family

Structures

No NewHabitableStructures

ReadilyMovable

Structures

LargeStructures

Allowed

EligibleFor

RelocationBenefits.No New

NFIPPolicies

ExistingCoverage RequiredTo Be Maintained

Shoreline

ReferenceFeature

E-10Line

E-30Line

E-60Line

E-10Zone

E-30Zone

E-60Zone

Example ProfileWith Lines and Zones Illustrated

(Not to Scale)

E-X: expected Erosion distance over next X years

Future Sea Level Rise!

MSL & HWL!

Which areas will be flooded?

What will be affected?

Consequences?

Remedial measures?

Costs?

Benefits?

Sea-Level Rise - Flooded Areas?

QU

AN

TIFY

!!!

18

Flooding: Sample Dynamic F-zone DelineationF-1Line

F-10Line

F-30Line

F-1Zone

F-10Zone

F-30Zone

Zones

Likelihood

Setbacks

FloodInsurance

Notice of Flooding

Hazard

RecedingShoreline

ImminentHazard

IntermediateHazard

Longer-TermHazard

Single FamilyStructures

No NewHabitableStructures

LargeStructuresAllowed

LargeComplexes

Allowed

EligibleFor

RelocationBenefits.No New

NFIPPolicies

ExistingCoverage RequiredTo Be Maintained

ShorelineF-1Line

F-10Line

F-30Line

F-1Zone

F-10Zone

F-30Zone

Example ProfileWith Lines and Zones Illustrated

(Not to Scale)

F-X: expected Flood return period = X years for areaWL-X: water level reached every X year

WL-30WL-10

WL-1

MWL

COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Risk identification and assessment

- What zones/areas are exposed to coastal hazards?- Which are the economic, environmental and social losses?- Where are the highest risks?

Risk mitigation regarding human lives, environment, infrastructure

- Monitoring and warning systems- Training/capacity building in vulnerability assessment, hazard mapping, data

collection and interpretation- Which measures can be taken to mitigate damage?- Which are the priorities regarding risks and need for emergency facilities?- How can these best be financed and sustained? (Institutions, stakeholders,...)

Hazard: the probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon, Vulnerability: the degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of the phenomenon.

ErosionFlooding

...........

Land useInfrastructure

...........

* =(1)(2) (3)(4)

(5)(6)

(1)(2)

(3)(4)

(>20)(8-18

(

19

LeveeFlood wall

Pumping stationFlood gate

Risk Reduction - Uncertainty Residual Risk

Due to Uncertainties and Natural Variability:

Randomness of natural systems

Limited understanding of natural systems

Human behavior and choices

Risk Assessment

Analytically based

Risk Management

Policy and Preference based

Risk CommunicationInteractive exchange of information about

preferences concerning risk

Traditional engineering approach presumes that risk assessment and risk management are technical decisions that are the responsibility of the professional engineer (e.g. factors of safety)

PoliticiansBusinessMediaGovt agenciesIndividual citizensEngineers

Projects must be continually reviewed and updated to incorporate the latest science and accommodate the changing system and hazards.

Risk Communication A Community Effort

Glad Im safe behind this levee. After all, the storm is

only a Cat 3.

Hurricane Katrina Poor Risk CommunicationOfficially designated as the largest natural disaster

in the history of the United States.

Damage >$100 billion

>1,800 dead

80% of New Orleans flooded

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THE END

14-09