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  • Institute of Arts & Humanities

    Institute Stylesheet

    This style guide serves as the basis for all undergraduate assignments submitted in IAH. The

    guide provides a brief outline of how to format written assignments, an explanation of what

    referencing is and why it is important, a brief definition of what plagiarism is and how to

    avoid it, and an introduction to the MHRA and Harvard (author-date) systems of in-text

    referencing and the MLA system used in the School of Art.

    Contents HOW DO I FORMAT MY WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS? ................................................................................ 4

    WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? ........................................................................................................................... 4

    QUOTING................................................................................................................................................. 5

    CITING ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

    WHAT IS REFERENCING? ......................................................................................................................... 7

    Harvard System ................................................................................................................................... 7

    Citations using the Harvard System ................................................................................................ 7

    MHRA/Footnote System ..................................................................................................................... 9

    THE BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................... 10

    Books ................................................................................................................................................. 10

    Books with a single author ............................................................................................................ 10

    Books with two or three authors .................................................................................................. 10

    Books with more than three authors ............................................................................................ 10

    Edited books with one editor ........................................................................................................ 10

    Edited books with two or three editors ........................................................................................ 10

    Chapters in edited books .............................................................................................................. 10

    Translated books ........................................................................................................................... 10

    Anthologies ................................................................................................................................... 10

    E-books .......................................................................................................................................... 10

    Journal Articles .................................................................................................................................. 11

    Printed Journal Articles ................................................................................................................. 11

    Journal Articles in Online Collections ............................................................................................ 11

    E-Journals ...................................................................................................................................... 11

    Newspapers ...................................................................................................................................... 11

    Newspaper Articles ....................................................................................................................... 11

    Online Newspaper Articles............................................................................................................ 11

  • 2

    The Internet ...................................................................................................................................... 11

    Webpages ..................................................................................................................................... 11

    Blogs .............................................................................................................................................. 11

    Social Networking Sites ................................................................................................................. 11

    Youtube (and other online video sites) ......................................................................................... 12

    Audiovisual ........................................................................................................................................ 12

    Television programmes ................................................................................................................. 12

    Television programmes viewed online ......................................................................................... 12

    Television Programmes/Series on DVD/Blu-ray ........................................................................... 12

    Films .............................................................................................................................................. 12

    Films on DVD/Blu-ray .................................................................................................................... 12

    Radio ............................................................................................................................................. 12

    Live Performances ............................................................................................................................. 12

    Plays .............................................................................................................................................. 12

    Performances ................................................................................................................................ 12

    Installations or Art Exhibitions ...................................................................................................... 12

    Lectures and Lecture Notes .............................................................................................................. 12

    Lectures ......................................................................................................................................... 12

    Lecture Notes on Blackboard ........................................................................................................ 13

    MLA BASICS: GUIDELINES AND EXAMPLES (SCHOOL OF ART) .............................................................. 14

    Works Cited ....................................................................................................................................... 14

    Sample Entries in a List of Works Cited in MLA Style ....................................................................... 15

    Books by a single author ............................................................................................................... 15

    Books by more than one author ................................................................................................... 15

    More than one source by the same author .................................................................................. 15

    Essays/book chapters in an edited anthology .............................................................................. 16

    Articles in magazines and journals ................................................................................................ 16

    Journal article retrieved online from a digital library (such as JSTOR) ......................................... 16

    Online article or webpage ............................................................................................................. 16

    Definition of a term in a reference book (encyclopedia or dictionary) ........................................ 17

    Unpublished thesis or dissertation ............................................................................................... 17

    Radio broadcast or television programme ................................................................................... 17

    Personal interview conducted by the researcher (you)................................................................ 17

    Letter or email message to the researcher (you) ......................................................................... 17

    Work of art in an exhibition or collection ..................................................................................... 17

    Work of art reproduced in a book or on a website ...................................................................... 18

  • 3

    Citations ........................................................................................................................................ 18

    Corresponding entry in the list of Works Cited: ........................................................................... 18

    Quotation basics ............................................................................................................................... 18

    Illustrations (Figures) .................................................................................................................... 19

    FURTHER INFORMATION ...................................................................................................................... 20

  • 4

    HOW DO I FORMAT MY WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS? During the course of your studies you will be asked to complete a variety of written

    assignments, including essays, portfolios, textual and critical analyses and notebooks. The

    instructions for these will vary and you should adhere to these closely.

    There are some basic formatting conventions that you should follow whenever you submit

    written work:

    All written assignments must be presented in word processed format, unless you are

    instructed otherwise by the Module Co-ordinator or the assessment requirements of

    the module require so.

    Assignments should be single-sided (if printed), presented in 11 or 12pt. font and be

    double-spaced.

    Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the

    bottom right hand corner.

    Assignments must be fully referenced (see below).

    All quotations should be enclosed in single quotation marks, and follow the

    conventions explained here.

    In titles capitalise the first letter of the first word and of all the principal words

    including nouns and proper adjectives (e.g., Jurassic Park, A Midsummer Night's

    Dream, News at Ten).

    Use italics for titles of published books, plays, poems, films, journals and classical

    works (e.g., Citizen Kane, Twelfth Night).

    The italicizing of words, phrases or sentences for emphasis should be done sparingly.

    The same applies for underlining or emboldening text, or using exclamation marks!!!

    WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?

    Plagiarism is defined by Aberystwyth University as ‘the act of using someone else's work

    with an intent to deceive.’ (You can read the Aberystwyth University Statement on

    unacceptable practice here: http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/academic-quality-records-

    office/unfair-practice/regulation/). Plagiarism constitutes a form of unfair practice or

    cheating. It includes copying other people's work directly without using quotation marks or

    providing a reference, paraphrasing other people’s work without acknowledgement, or

    mixing your own words with someone else's. The penalties for plagiarism and unfair practice

    are heavy, and poor referencing can leave you open to accusations of plagiarism. When

    conducting research for assignments, the following tips can help you avoid plagiarism:

    Give yourself plenty of time to research and write your assignments.

    Seek help early if you are struggling to understand the assignment topic.

    When researching an assignment note the full details of any source you use (With

    internet sources, include the URL and the date of access).

    http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/academic-quality-records-office/unfair-practice/regulation/http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/academic-quality-records-office/unfair-practice/regulation/

  • 5

    Always take notes in your own words.

    Always use quotation marks to clearly indicate quotations in your notes.

    QUOTING

    The main point to realise about quoting is that short quotations and long quotations are treated differently.

    A short quotation is anything up to about 50 words of prose or two lines of verse. Anything more is a long quotation.

    Short quotations are 'run on' (see Example 1). Long quotations are separated off from your own text (see Example 2).

    Example 1 – Short Quotation In his book on this topic, Alan Sinfield opts for a broad definition: a dramatic monologue is ‘simply

    a poem in the first person spoken by, or almost entirely by, someone who is indicated not to be the

    poet’ (Dramatic Monologue, p. 8). Most frequently, this kind of poetry is linked with Robert

    Browning, in whose skillful hands its potential for dramatic irony is fully exploited.

    Notice that this short quotation (running from ‘simply’ to ‘be the poet’) is:

    o Enclosed in single inverted commas. o NOT separated from the rest of your text in any way. o EITHER: followed by a footnote (if this is your first use of this source)

    OR: (as here) by a brief reference in brackets – see ‘3. Referencing’, below, for details

    Example 2 – Long Quotation Eavan Boland has complained that the trope of ‘woman-as-nation’ often led to stylised

    and idealised depictions of Irish womanhood:

    The women in Irish male poems tended to be emblematic and passive, granted a purely ornamental status. Once the feminine image in their poems became fused with a national concept then both were simplified and reduced. It was the absence of women in the poetic tradition which allowed women in the poems to be simplified. (Out of History, p. 47)

    Later in the same essay, Boland gives a number of examples of this process by which ‘woman’ has often been ‘simplified’ in Irish poetry.

    Note that the long quotation (running from ‘The women’ to ‘to be simplified’) is:

    NOT enclosed in inverted commas and NOT italicised

  • 6

    NOT set in a smaller typeface than the rest (the whole essay should be in 11 or 12pt type)

    NOT in reduced spacing (the whole essay should be double-spaced – click on ‘2.0’) Introduced by a colon in your own text. Separated from your own text by a blank line before and after. Indented throughout from the left-hand margin. EITHER: followed by a footnote (if this is your first use of this source and you are

    using the AHRB/footnote reference system) OR: (as here) by a brief reference in brackets (the Harvard system): note lower

    case ‘p.’ for ‘page’ and ‘pp.’ for ‘pages’ – see ‘3. Referencing’, below, for more details

    CITING ‘Citing’ means mentioning the titles of books and other items in your essay. The rules for citing are simple:

    When you mention the title of a complete book (or journal) you italicise the title

    When you mention the title of something which is only part of a book (such as a chapter, or a single poem, or an article) you enclose the title in single inverted commas.

    Example 3 C. J. Atkins, in a recent article called 'Busy Old Fools' in Essays in Criticism, discusses Donne's 'The Sun

    Rising', relating it to several aspects of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Her conclusions are slightly different from

    those she reached a few years ago in her book Renaissance Resonances, in which Chapter Seven, 'Donne

    Speaks to Shakespeare', deals more briefly with the same topic.

    Six items are cited in Example 3, as follows:

    'Busy Old Fools' is a single article in a journal: so this counts as part of a book, and the title is not italicised: it is simply enclosed in single inverted commas.

    Essays in Criticism is a journal, which counts as a complete published work, just like a book, so its title is italicised.

    'The Sun Rising' is the title of a single poem by John Donne. Again, this is not a complete book, so inverted commas only.

    Hamlet is a complete play separately published, so it counts as a book and its title is italicised.

    Renaissance Resonances is a complete book, so its title is italicised. 'Donne Speaks to Shakespeare' is a chapter in a book, so its title is enclosed in inverted

    commas.

  • 7

    WHAT IS REFERENCING? Referencing is a way of acknowledging how other peoples' ideas have influenced your

    thinking. It is also a way of presenting the evidence that underpins your understanding or

    interpretation. Referencing is important because it allows your reader to easily trace the

    sources you have used and to assess how you have used them. Referencing also increases

    the credibility and authority of your own work by demonstrating that you have spent time

    carefully researching your topic and consulting the work of others. Ultimately, good

    referencing also boosts your marks and helps you avoid the charge of plagiarism.

    There are a number of referencing conventions, all of which are perfectly acceptable, but

    difference disciplines will use different conventions, but your assignment should only use

    one convention at a time. Below you will find some examples, but if you are unsure of

    which convention applies to your assignment, you should speak with your module leader.

    Harvard System

    The Harvard (author-date) system is very easy to use and is based on supplying reference

    information in the body of the text and in a reference list at the end of your assignment. It is

    important that you always include both in-text citations and a reference list. The Harvard

    (author-date) system does not use footnotes or endnotes.

    Citations using the Harvard System

    When using the Harvard (author-date) system you always include an author's name, the

    year of publication and the page number whenever you paraphrase or quote from their

    text. This is included in the body of your text in round brackets and is called a citation.

    'The primacy of Aristotle’s Poetics in theatrical theory as well as in literary theory is unchallenged.'

    (Carlson, 1993, p.15)

    The exact form a citation takes can vary depending on its context, and the following

    example demonstrates a different, but still correct, citation:

    Marvin Carlson (1993) states that, 'The primacy of Aristotle’s Poetics in theatrical theory as

    well as in literary theory is unchallenged.' (p.15)

    Here the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence and so doesn’t need to be included in

    brackets again. The year of publication follows the author’s name, but the page number is

    included after the quotation. A similar citation would also need to be used if we were to

    paraphrase, rather than directly quote, Carlson’s statement:

  • 8

    Marvin Carlson (1993) argues for the central importance of Aristotle’s Poetics in theatre theory.

    (p.15)

    If there are two authors for the source you wish to cite then simply include both names, or if

    there are more than three authors, then cite the first followed by ‘et al.’ (this is a Latin

    abbreviation meaning ‘and others’):

    'A really good writer is always thinking, using ideas and facts from sources to shape and inform an

    argument.' (Williams and Carroll, 2009, p. 25)

    'Writing about an event in the past always involves constructing a version of it.' (Zarrilli, et. al.,

    1998, p. xxii).

    Occasionally you may find that an author quotes another author and that you want to quote

    the original. If it isn’t possible to find the original author’s work, then make it clear that you

    have not read the original, as in the following example:

    Peter Brook seeks 'to articulate a universal art'. (Lamont, 1987, p. 6 cited in Carlson, 1993, p. 517)

    In some cases you will not be able to locate all the information you need about a source. For

    example, there may be no author listed, or no year of publication, or there may be no page

    numbers. If there is no author, then use the organisation responsible for publishing the

    source instead:

    (British Broadcasting Corporation, 2003, p. 20)

    If there is no organisation, then use the title of the source:

    (Trends in Film Distribution, 1994, p. 77)

    If there is no date then simply state ‘n.d.’ where you would normally include the date of

    publication:

    (Jones, n.d., p. 56)

    Finally, you may also find that you wish to include two sources with the same author and

    same year of publication. To avoid confusing your reader you can use an alphabetical lower

    case letter:

    In her study of Lynch's early films, Jones (2003a, pp. 7-10) argues for this interpretation. However,

    she also admits (Jones, 2003b, p. 63) that other studies …

  • 9

    MHRA/Footnote System

    A footnote is typically a numbered bibliographic reference in a smaller font size at the end of a sentence that corresponds with bibliographic information at the bottom of the page. If you are using Microsoft Word, you can insert a footnote (at the end of a sentence, after the full stop) by pressing Ctrl, Alt and F at the same time, and this will automatically generate a numbered footnote for you.1

    The bibliographic information you should include is the same as that listed in the Bibliography; for a book it would look like this:

    1 Surname, Initial (YEAR). Title of Book. City: Publisher. Page numbers.

    2 Gat, A. (2001). A History of Military Thought: from the Enlightenment to the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Or for a journal article like this:

    3 McInnes, C. (2002). Fatal Attraction? Air Power and the West. Contemporary Security Policy, 22(3), 28-51.

    A copy of the full bibliographic reference (usually omitting page references) is also included in the Bibliography at the end of the work.

    1 You will then include the information about the author, Text, page numbers, etc. at the bottom of this page.

  • 10

    THE BIBLIOGRAPHY A bibliography includes all the sources you have consulted in the research process, even if

    you haven’t directly cited them in your final assignment. Whichever referencing system you

    use, each in-text citation or footnote should link with your bibliography at the end of an

    essay.

    Below are examples of many of the sources you may wish to cite; please note this list is not

    exhaustive.

    Books Author(s) (year) Title. Edition – if not the 1st. Place of publication: Publisher

    Books with a single author

    Neville, C. (2007) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead:

    Open University Press

    Books with two or three authors

    Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite Them Right: The essential referencing guide. 8th edn.

    Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

    Books with more than three authors

    Zarilli, P. et al. (2006) Theatre Histories: An introduction. Rev. edn. London and New York:

    Routledge

    Edited books with one editor

    Herman, D. (ed.) (2007) The Cambridge Companion to Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge

    University Press

    Edited books with two or three editors

    Crowley, D. & Heyer P. (eds) (1995) Communication in History: Technology, Culture, Society.

    2nd edn. White Plains, NY: Longman

    Chapters in edited books

    Slater, D. (1997) 'Consumer Culture and the Politics of Need', in Nava, M. et al. (eds.) Buy

    this Book: Studies in Advertising and Consumption. London: Routledge, pp. 51-63

    Translated books

    Barthes, R. (1957) Mythologies. Translated by Annette Lavers. London: Cape

    Anthologies

    Worthen, W. (2003) The Wadsworth Anthology of Drama. 4th edn. London: Wadsworth

    Cengage Learning

    E-books

    Benedetti, J. (2004) Stanislavski: An introduction. NetLibrary [Online]. Available at:

    http://www.netLibrary.com (Accessed: 14 August 2011). 13

  • 11

    Journal Articles Author(s) (Year) 'Article Title', Title of Journal, Vol. no (Part no./Issue/Month), Pages, use p.

    or pp.

    Printed Journal Articles

    Leitch, T. M. (1990) ‘Twice-Told Tales: the Rhetoric of the Remake’, Literature-Film

    Quarterly, 1(3), pp. 138-49

    Journal Articles in Online Collections

    Scarpetta, G. and Dolan, J. (1984) 'Richard Foreman's Scenography: Examples from his Work

    in France’, The Drama Review: TDR, 28(2), pp. 23-31, JSTOR [Online]. Available at:

    http://www.jstor.org/stable/1145575 (Accessed: 23 July 2011)

    E-Journals

    Soffer, O. (2008) ‘The eraser and the anti-eraser: the battle over colour television in Israel',

    Media, Culture & Society, 30(6), pp. 759-775 [Online]. Available at:

    http://mcs.sagepub.com/content/30/6.toc (Accessed: 17 August 2011)

    Newspapers Author(s) (Year) 'Article Title'. Newspaper Title, Day and Month (abbreviated), Pages, use p.

    or pp.

    Newspaper Articles

    Davies, L. (2011) 'European farmers expected to flout ban on battery hen cages’.

    Guardian, 1 September, p. 7

    Online Newspaper Articles

    Davies, L. (2011) 'European farmers expected to flout ban on battery hen

    cages’.Guardian, 31 August [Online]. Available at:

    http://www.14guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/aug/31/farmers-flout-battery-hen-

    ban (Accessed: 2 September 2011)

    The Internet Author(s) (Year that the site was published/last updated) ‘Title of page’, Title of site.

    Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

    Webpages

    ERIAL Project. (2011) Ethnographic Research in Illinois Academic Libraries [Online].

    Available at: http://www.erialproject.org/ (Accessed: 1 September 1999)

    Blogs

    Manaugh, G. (2011) ‘Urban Hurricane’, Bldg Blog, 27 August [Online]. Available at:

    http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/2011/08/urban-hurricane.html (Accessed: 28 August

    2011)

    Social Networking Sites

    Rebellato, D. (2011) ‘Dan Rebellato’, Twitter, 31 August [Online]. Available at:

    http://twitter.com//#!/DanRebellato (Accessed: 2 September 2011)

  • 12

    Youtube (and other online video sites)

    Robag88 (2011) Film psychology THE SHINING spatial awareness and set design 1of 2

    [Online]. Available at:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sUIxXCCFWw&feature=player_embedded

    (Accessed 25 July 2011). 15

    Audiovisual

    Television programmes

    Torchwood (2011) BBC One Television, 1 September

    Television programmes viewed online

    ‘Let’s Kill Hitler’ (2011) Doctor Who, Series 6, Episode 8, 27 August [Online]. Available

    at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/ (Accessed: 29 August)

    Television Programmes/Series on DVD/Blu-ray

    ‘Two Cathedrals’ (2006) The West Wing, Series 2, Episode 22. Directed by Thomas

    Schlamme. Written by Aaron Sorkin. First Broadcast 2001 [DVD]. California: Warner

    Home Video

    Films

    Citizen Kane (1942) Directed by Orson Welles [Film]. California: RKO

    Films on DVD/Blu-ray

    Citizen Kane (2004) Directed by Orson Welles [DVD]. California: Universal Pictures

    Radio

    A War Poet in Love, BBC Radio Wales, 3 July 2015, 05:30

    Live Performances

    Plays

    Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare (2011) Directed by Marcus Romer and Katie

    Posner [Aberystwyth Arts Centre, Aberystwyth. 19 November]

    Performances

    Corrieri, A. (2010) Musical Pieces/Quartet (for Anna Akhmatova) [Aberystwyth Arts

    Centre, Aberystwyth. 22 October]. 16

    Installations or Art Exhibitions

    Boursier-Mougenot, C. (2010) New commission for The Curve [Barbican Centre,

    London. 22 May]

    Lectures and Lecture Notes

    Lectures

    Rabey, D. (2010) Audience: Shakespeare’s Theatre [Lecture to TP10120]. 19 October

  • 13

    Lecture Notes on Blackboard

    Filmer, A. (2010) ‘Week 2: Cultural and Theatrical Competence’. Analyzing

    Performance [Online]. Available at: http://blackboard.aber.ac. uk (Accessed: 17

    February 2011). 17

  • 14

    MLA BASICS: GUIDELINES AND EXAMPLES (SCHOOL OF ART)

    Works Cited The word ‘bibliography’ denotes a list of books. Nowadays, sources are increasingly varied. In addition to books, they include:

    articles in journals and newspapers

    unpublished writings such as dissertations and theses

    museum websites

    video and audio recordings

    television programmes and radio broadcasts

    public lectures

    personal interviews and correspondences (letters, emails) Instead of ‘bibliography,’ the list of sources in MLA style is called Works Cited. The Works Cited page should list all materials you cite (quote or paraphrase) in your essay – but only those sources. Sources you looked at and considered but did not quote or paraphrase must be omitted from a list of Work Cited. They may be listed separately under the heading Works Consulted. The Works Cited list must be attached to your essay on a separate page or pages. The page(s), like your entire manuscript (including quotations), should be 1 ½ spaced. The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin. Each additional line must be indented (hanging indentation). All sources, whether you quoted or paraphrased them, must be properly identified.

    • Borrowing without acknowledgment is theft (plagiarism). • All names and titles must be accurate to enable your reader to retrieve the

    sources. The list of Works Cited is ordered strictly alphabetically, regardless of the nature of the source (print, recording, website or live performance). That means, compile a single list, not separate lists. This makes it easier for your reader to find the source on your Works Cited list, especially if the medium (print, film, website) is not identified in the essay. Stricly speaking, Works Cited lists must contain all primary and secondary sources.

    • Primary sources are your subject matter (works of art, for instance). • Secondary sources are materials you use to write about your subject.

    However, if you identify your primary sources clearly in your essay (by title, date, and name of creator), they may be omitted from your Works Cited list. Generally, begin each Works Cited entry with the author’s last name. If no author is credited (which is often the case for websites), begin the entry with the title of the article or webpage. For books, follow this general pattern: Author’s last name, First name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication (in this case, print). Example:

  • 15

    Tickner, Lisa. Modern Life and Modern Subjects: British Art in the Early Twentieth Century. London: Yale UP, 2000. Print. Titles of books, films, television series, journals and newspapers must be italicised in your list of Works Cited as well as in your essay. Titles of chapters in books, articles in journals and newspapers, as well as episodes in television series must be placed in double quotation marks. For websites, it does not suffice to cut and paste the web address into your document. Unless your essay is submitted electronically and contains hyperlinks, omit web addresses altogether. State the title of the website/page, which is preceded by the name of the writer (if known). The date on which you accessed the site should be stated. See sample entries below. For further details about MLA, consult the MLA Handbook (seventh edition) or the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University.

    Sample Entries in a List of Works Cited in MLA Style

    Books by a single author

    Cruise, Colin. Pre-Raphaelite Drawing. London: Thames, 2011. Print. Prettejohn, Elizabeth. The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites. Princeton NJ: Princeton UP, 2000. Print. Werner, Marcia. Pre-Raphaelite Painting and Nineteenth-Century Realism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2005. Print. Note: UP is short for University Press. Generally, refer to publisher by the last name of the publishing house, omitting ‘Company,’ ‘Press,’ ‘Inc.,’ etc.

    Books by more than one author

    Carey, Frances, and Antony Griffiths. Avant-Garde British Printmaking, 1914–1960. London: British Museum, 1990. Print. Martineau, Jane, et al. Shakespeare in Art. London: Merrell, 2003. Print. Meyrick, Robert, and Harry Heuser. The Prints of Stanley Anderson RA. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 2015. Print. Note: If more than three authors are credited for one source (as in the entry for Martineau, above), state only the name of the first writer mentioned. Add ‘et al’ to indicate ‘and others.’

    More than one source by the same author

    Myrone, Martin, ed. Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli Blake and the Romantic Imagination.

  • 16

    London: Tate, 2006. Print. ---. Henry Fuseli. London: Tate, 2001. British Artists. Print. ---. “Henry Fuseli and Gothic Spectacle.” Huntington Library Quarterly 70.2 (2007): 289–310. Print. Note: List all titles in alphabetical order. In your essay, specify which source you quote or paraphrase by adding the title to the author’s name (In Gothic Nightmares, Myrone argues ... ) or to the page number in parenthesis.

    Essays/book chapters in an edited anthology

    Bruhm, Steven. “The Contemporary Gothic: Why We Need It.” Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction. Ed. Jerrold E. Hogle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 259– 76. Print. Pierse, Simon. “A Surrogate Touch: Dick’s Book of Photos.” Keith Vaughan: Figure and Ground: Drawings, Prints and Photographs 1935 – 62. Ed. Colin Cruise. Bristol: Sansom, 2013. 16–33. Print. Note: Provide the entire page range for the essay/article. In your essay, state only the page(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase was derived.

    Articles in magazines and journals

    Heuser, Harry. “Bigotry and Virtue: George Powell and the Question of Legacy.” New Welsh Reader 110 (2015): 18–29. Print. Mirzoeff, Nicholas. “The Right to Look.” Critical Inquiry 37.3 (2011): 473–96. Print. Webster van Tonder, Christopher. “Colonising Visions: A Physiognomy of Face and Place in Erich Retzlaff’s Book Länder und Völker an der Donau: Rumänien, Bulgarien, Ungarn, Kroatien.” PhotoResearcher 23 (2015): 66–77. Print.

    Journal article retrieved online from a digital library (such as JSTOR)

    Ward, Maryanne C. “A Painting of the Unspeakable: Henry Fuseli’s The Nightmare and the Creation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 33.1 (2000): 20–31. JSTOR. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. Note: the date at the end refers to the day on which you retrieved the article.

    Online article or webpage

    “Antiques Roadshow Finds Programme’s ‘Most Valuable’ Item.” BBC News. 29 Oct. 2015. Web. 1 Nov. 2015. “Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Web. 20 Oct. 2015. Note: The date at the end refers to the day on which you last accessed the site.

  • 17

    Definition of a term in a reference book (encyclopedia or dictionary)

    “La Farge, John.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2014. Web. 10 Oct. 2015. “Uncanny.” Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Print.

    Unpublished thesis or dissertation

    Potter, Andrew William. “A Self Portrait of Desire: The Illustrations of Keith Vaughan.” MA Diss. Aberystwyth: U of Wales, 1995.

    Radio broadcast or television programme

    Grayson Perry: Who Are You? Channel 4. 6 Nov. 2014. Television. Perry, Grayson. “I Found Myself in the Art World.” Grayson Perry: Playing to the Gallery. Reith Lectures. BBC Radio 4. 9 Nov. 1013. Radio. Note: You may begin the entry with the name of any individual involved in the production (writer, actor, presenter, director, set designer) or with the title of the programme. It depends on who or what is most central to your discussion and how you identify the source in your essay. Unless you mention a director’s name in your essay, for instance, do not begin your entry in Works Cited with that name. Your reader will struggle to find the source on your list.

    Personal interview conducted by the researcher (you)

    Prichard, Gwilym. Personal interview. 29 Aug. 2012. Note: Begin the entry with the name of the person you interviewed.

    Letter or email message to the researcher (you)

    Williams, Claudia. Message to the author. 30 Jan. 2013. E-mail. Note: Begin the entry with the name of the person who corresponded with you.

    Work of art in an exhibition or collection

    Croft, Paul. Minokami Idol. 1993. Lithograph on hot pressed rag paper. School of Art Gallery and Museum, Aberystwyth University. Taeuber-Arp, Sophie. Tête Dada. 1920. Painted wood with glass beads on wire. Museum of Mod. Art, New York. Whall, Miranda. Untitled. (Birds on my Head #2). 2011. German etch on watercolour paper. Shifting Subjects: Contemporary Women Telling the Self through the Visual Arts. Grimsby, Abbey Walk Gallery. 2 Sept. – 31 Oct. 2015.

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    Work of art reproduced in a book or on a website

    Knorr, Karen. Pleasures of the Imagination: Connoisseurs. 1986. Photograph, c-print. Interim Art, London. Ed. Malcolm Andrews. Landscape and Western Art. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999. Plate 1. Print. Martin, John. The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. 1852. Oil on canvas. Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne. John Martin: Apocalypse. Ed. Martin Myrone. London: Tate, 2011. No. 116. Print.

    Citations

    Do not use footnotes to reference your sources. Instead, use parenthetical citations each time you quote or paraphrase a source. The parenthesis includes the page number, in case of print sources. As the number is implied to refer to a page in a text, do not indicate page numbers using ‘p.’ Example: Quotation in your essay As Sarah Burns argues, ‘[v]isions of the black man as a new model of Frankenstein’s monster incorporated the full measure of white horror and fear’ (114).

    Corresponding entry in the list of Works Cited:

    Burns, Sarah. Painting the Dark Side: Art and the Gothic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century America. London: U of California P, 2004. Print. You may use occasional footnotes to provide information about related sources or to reference texts you consulted but did not quote or paraphrase (e. g., ‘For a detailed study of this painting, see …’). However, avoid using footnotes to add material that is marginal to your discussion. Either insert the researched bit into your discussion or, if it is not relevant, omit it altogether and save it for another project.

    Quotation basics Quotations must be accurate. All changes to the original (omissions, rewording, added emphasis) must be signalled to your readers. Changes in wording (corrections/adjustments) must be indicated by brackets [ ]. Errors in the original are either pointed out by adding [sic] (e.g., ‘the mountain peek [sic] …’) or corrected within brackets (e.g., ‘the mountain pe[a]k …’); else, paraphrase. Using [sic] tends to suggest the unreliability of a source. To avoid the excessive use of brackets, articles (the, a) may be placed outside of an opening quotation mark, even if they were originally part of the quoted passage: The ‘Gothic … is a genre that glorifies transgression’ (Cohen 883). rather than ‘[T]he Gothic … is a genre that glorifies transgression’ (Cohen 883).

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    Omissions of parts of the original are signalled by ellipses: [. . .]. Ellipses are not needed at the beginning and end of quoted words or phrases (not, using the above example, ‘ . . . increasingly secularized . . .’). If a passage you quote already contains a quotation, use “double quotation” marks to set apart the quotation within the text you quoted. When quoting a passage you found quoted elsewhere, cite only the text you consulted. Use the phrase ‘qtd. in’ in parenthesis. Example: ‘Landscape,’ according to W. J. T. Mitchell, ‘is a medium of exchange between the human and the natural, the self and the other’ (qtd. in Andrews 15). Corresponding entry in Works Cited: Andrews, Malcolm. Landscape and Western Art. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999. Print. Longer quotations (passages taking up two or more entire lines of your manuscript) should be indented, in which case the quoted passage is not placed in quotation marks. Quotations must not be distorted once they are taken out of the original context. Readers unfamiliar with original should be able to understand them. The signal phrase introducing the quotation (such as According to X, … or X argues that …) and the quotation that follows must form a complete sentence. If you quote a complete sentence, a colon may be used to separate it from the signal phrase. Example: On the subject of identity, Andrews remarks: ‘Landscape in art tells us, or asks us to think about, where we belong’ (8).

    Illustrations (Figures)

    Images may be attached to your essay or inserted into your essay text. Use (fig.) to identify illustrations (figures) in numerical order when you mention them in your essay. Source illustrations responsibly. Use museum websites and quality scans from scholarly publications. Instructions written and samples compiled by Harry Heuser, School of Art.

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    FURTHER INFORMATION The following printed and online sources have been consulted in the preparation of this guide and are highly recommended. Remember that these sources might depart from the style adopted in this guide, in which case you are to adopt the style outlined in this guide. The books listed below can all be found in Hugh Owen Library.

    Smallwood, R. and Manley, A. (1981) MHRA Style Guide. A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses. 3rd edn. Modern Humanities Research Association. Available from: http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/StyleGuideV3_2.pdf [Accessed: 23 July 2015]

    Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

    Neville, C. (2007) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press

    Williams, K. and Carroll, J. (2009) Referencing and Understanding Plagiarism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

    De Montfort University (2009) The Harvard System of Referencing [Online]. Available from: www.library.dmu.ac.uk/Images/Selfstudy/Harvard.pdf [Accessed 31 August 2011]

    Swinburne University of Technology (2011) Harvard Style Guide [Online]. Available from: http://www.swinburne.edu.au/lib/researchhelp/harvard_style. [Accessed: 30 August 2011]

    http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/StyleGuideV3_2.pdfhttp://www.library.dmu.ac.uk/Images/Selfstudy/Harvard.pdfhttp://www.swinburne.edu.au/lib/researchhelp/harvard_style